The (In)adequacy of
            Man
 as an English Equivalent
of the Biblical Hebrew Noun
            vyIa
       David E....
Frequency



                         vyIa



11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   2
Frequency



                         vyIa
            2,183 times


11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’i...
Frequency



                                vyIa
                   2,183 times

           Source: TLOT ( Jenni-Westerma...
Semantics and Pragmatics



                          vyIa
           How does this noun
                  function
      ...
Recent Articles



                          vyIa
“The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,”
   Journal of Hebrew Scripture...
Recent Articles



                          vyIa
“The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,”
   Journal of Hebrew Scripture...
Today’s Question




           What are the implications for
                  TRANSLATION
                . . . into Eng...
Today’s Question




           What are the implications for
                 TRANSLATION
                    into Englis...
Summary of Findings about the Noun                        vyIa




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish...
Summary of Findings about the Noun                        vyIa

1.

2.

3.




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equiva...
Summary of Findings about the Noun                             vyIa

1. It is primarily a term of affiliation.

2.

3.




...
As a Term of Affiliation




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   13
As a Term of Affiliation




                          vyIa


11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   ...
As a Term of Affiliation

               Dual Reference



                          vyIa


11/20/08      (In)adequacy of ...
As a Term of Affiliation

                 Dual Reference



                          vyIa
   PARTICIPANT

              ...
As a Term of Affiliation

                Dual Reference



           Someone who is an vyIa




11/20/08       (In)adequ...
As a Term of Affiliation

                Dual Reference



           Someone who is an vyIa
                 is an vyIa
...
As a Term of Affiliation

                Dual Reference



           Someone who is an vyIa
                 is an vyIa
...
As a Term of Affiliation

                   Dual Reference



             Someone who is an vyIa
                   is a...
As a Term of Affiliation

                   Dual Reference



             Someone who is an vyIa
                   is a...
Summary of Findings about the Noun                              vyIa

1. It is primarily a term of affiliation.

2. Its pri...
Meaning

           Semantic Components

                           vyIa




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivale...
Meaning = Affiliation

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE




11...
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       ...
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       ...
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       ...
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       ...
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

            Semantic Components

                        vyIa vyIa
  AN AFFILIAT...
Summary of Findings about the Noun                              vyIa

1. It is primarily a term of affiliation.

2. Its pri...
Determination and Referential Function



                            vyIa




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equiv...
Determination and Referential Function

                        Definite

                            vyIa




11/20/08   ...
Determination and Referential Function

                           Definite

                               vyIa




     ...
Determination and Referential Function

                           Definite

                               vyIa




     ...
Meaning = Affiliation



                                 vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE




             Class, Particular, or ...
Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness



                                 vyIa
                                          ...
Determination and Referential Function



                            vyIa




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equiv...
Determination and Referential Function

                     Indefinite

                            vyIa




11/20/08    ...
Determination and Referential Function

                     Indefinite

                            vyIa




            ...
Determination and Referential Function

                     Indefinite

                            vyIa




            ...
Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness

                         Indefinite

                                vyIa
        ...
Context May Constrain the Social Gender




       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE




11/20/0...
Focus of Analysis




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   43
Focus of Analysis




                              ≠




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   44
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                     Exodus 5:9




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t

    ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t


   ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t


   ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t


   ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                            Exodus 5:9



            MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t
   ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                             Exodus 5:9



            MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t
  ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t

    ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




1...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t

    ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                         Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”


        ...
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                     Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men....
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                     Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men....
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”


...
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”

 ...
Is this rendering accurate?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”

             ...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
Is this rendering accurate?


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
   ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                      Exodus 11:3




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’i...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                             Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3
      MˆyDrVxIm yEnyEoV;b MDoDh NEj_tRa hDwhy NE;tˆ¥y...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                            Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                          Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g
...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                            Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                             Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
         ...
What is this rendering’s gender sense?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
...
Should this rendering convey gender?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
  ...
Asymmetry in Gender Markers




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   97
Asymmetry in Gender Markers




                             ≠




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish...
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                        Exodus 2:11; 18:7


             yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVr...
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                        Exodus 2:11; 18:7


             yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVr...
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                        Exodus 2:11; 18:7


             yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVr...
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                 Exodus 2:11; 18:7




                           man                        ...
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                 Exodus 2:11; 18:7




    he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV)




each...
Should this rendering convey gender?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
  ...
Should this rend                                           gender?
                                     :3
               ...
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was...
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
Is this rendering accurate?


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
   ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                   Exodus 21:35




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                         Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

     ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw


      ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

       ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

       ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw
        ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw
        ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35


                      a wa
                  hCa vyIa_r...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35


                      a wa
                  hCa vyIa_r...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                         Job 24:3



   …whE rwøv_tRa hDnDmVlAa rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/0...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/2...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

       ...
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                         Exodus 21:35




                “If the ox of one man
           i...
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                         Exodus 21:35




                “If the ox of one ...
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of on...
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of on...
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of on...
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man...
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man...
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                           Exodus 21:35




                  “If the ox of one m...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
Is this rendering accurate?


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
   ...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pass...
The Inaccuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Pa...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   153
Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering




           As gender neutral

           As opposed to woman, or to deity




11/...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1

                          Exodus 11:7



hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjR...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1

                         Exodus 11:7



hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1

                         Exodus 11:7



hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                  Exodus 21:28




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent o...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw


...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw


...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw

w...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw


...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw


...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw


...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                     Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw

...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                      Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw
...
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw

w...
Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering
                           Frequency



           As gender neutral

           As o...
Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering
                           Frequency



           As gender neutral

           As o...
Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter?




11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   170
Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter?




           vyIa              someone • anyone • each •
                 ...
Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter?




           vyIa              someone • anyone • each
                   ...
The Difference That Affiliation Makes




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   173
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations




11/20/08           (In...
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations


           Instances of ...
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations


           Instances of ...
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations


           Instances of ...
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   178
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”
...
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”
...
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”
...
Conclusion




Judging solely on the grounds of semantic accuracy,
rendering   vyIa as “man” is usually inadequate. In tho...
Online Access

“The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew”
               http://tinyurl.com/ish-affiliation

“The Grammar of...
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis   ...
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis   ...
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis   ...
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis   ...
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis   ...
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis   ...
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The (In)adequacy of “Man” as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun ’ish

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Instead of viewing this slide show, please see the QuickTime movie version:
http://tinyurl.com/ish-man2008
Narrated slide show with professionally designed graphics, as presented to the Bible Translation Section of the Society of Biblical Literature (25 Nov. 2008).
[Sorry, I have not yet managed to create a good-quality version on this SlideShare site.]

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The (In)adequacy of “Man” as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun ’ish

  1. 1. The (In)adequacy of Man as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun vyIa David E. S. Stein
  2. 2. Frequency vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 2
  3. 3. Frequency vyIa 2,183 times 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 3
  4. 4. Frequency vyIa 2,183 times Source: TLOT ( Jenni-Westermann) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 4
  5. 5. Semantics and Pragmatics vyIa How does this noun function in the Hebrew Bible? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 5
  6. 6. Recent Articles vyIa “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008). 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 6
  7. 7. Recent Articles vyIa “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008). “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew,” Hebrew Studies XLIX (2008): 7–26. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 7
  8. 8. Today’s Question What are the implications for TRANSLATION . . . into English . . . 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 8
  9. 9. Today’s Question What are the implications for TRANSLATION into English with regard to semantic content? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 9
  10. 10. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 10
  11. 11. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. 2. 3. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 11
  12. 12. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. 3. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 12
  13. 13. As a Term of Affiliation 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 13
  14. 14. As a Term of Affiliation vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 14
  15. 15. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 15
  16. 16. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference vyIa PARTICIPANT The Situation in Question 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 16
  17. 17. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 17
  18. 18. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 18
  19. 19. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 19
  20. 20. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of somebody or something else. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 20
  21. 21. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of of somebody or something else. somebody or something else. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 21
  22. 22. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. Its primary meaning functions independently of its gender content. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 22
  23. 23. Meaning Semantic Components vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 23
  24. 24. Meaning = Affiliation Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 24
  25. 25. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 25
  26. 26. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 26
  27. 27. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE AN AFFILIATE FEMALE hDÚvIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 27
  28. 28. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 28
  29. 29. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 29
  30. 30. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. Its primary meaning functions independently of its gender content. 3. When it refers to a class (or genus), its gender meaning is muted; it means only that the class (or genus) is not solely female. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 30
  31. 31. Determination and Referential Function vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 31
  32. 32. Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 32
  33. 33. Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 33
  34. 34. Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 34
  35. 35. Meaning = Affiliation vyIa AN AFFILIATE Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 35
  36. 36. Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness vyIa solely AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 36
  37. 37. Determination and Referential Function vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 37
  38. 38. Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 38
  39. 39. Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 39
  40. 40. Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 40
  41. 41. Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness Indefinite vyIa solely AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 41
  42. 42. Context May Constrain the Social Gender AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 42
  43. 43. Focus of Analysis 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 43
  44. 44. Focus of Analysis ≠ 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 44
  45. 45. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 45
  46. 46. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 46
  47. 47. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 47
  48. 48. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t “Let heavier work be laid upon the MyIvÎnSa.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 48
  49. 49. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 49
  50. 50. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 50
  51. 51. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 51
  52. 52. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t laborers, 1 not female 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 52
  53. 53. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 53
  54. 54. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t Definite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 54
  55. 55. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 55
  56. 56. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 56
  57. 57. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t solely NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 57
  58. 58. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t solely NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 58
  59. 59. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 59
  60. 60. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t laborers, 1 not female 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 60
  61. 61. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” —NJPS (1962) Similarly RSV, NASB, NIV, NKJV, NET, HCSB, ESV, ISV (alternate) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 61
  62. 62. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 62
  63. 63. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 63
  64. 64. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 64
  65. 65. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” mostly male work force 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 65
  66. 66. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” mostly male work force 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 66
  67. 67. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 67
  68. 68. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 68
  69. 69. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 69
  70. 70. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 70
  71. 71. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 71
  72. 72. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 72
  73. 73. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 73
  74. 74. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 74
  75. 75. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 75
  76. 76. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Moreover, the vyIa Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 76
  77. 77. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 77
  78. 78. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 78
  79. 79. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyDrVxIm yEnyEoV;b MDoDh NEj_tRa hDwhy NE;tˆ¥yÅw MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 79
  80. 80. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 80
  81. 81. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 81
  82. 82. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 82
  83. 83. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 83
  84. 84. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 84
  85. 85. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 85
  86. 86. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 86
  87. 87. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Definite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 87
  88. 88. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 88
  89. 89. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 89
  90. 90. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g n-female no special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 90
  91. 91. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g or MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hD IvIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 91
  92. 92. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g or MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hDvIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 92
  93. 93. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g n-female no special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 93
  94. 94. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. —NET Bible (1996) Similarly RSV, NASB, NKJV, HCSB, ISV 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 94
  95. 95. What is this rendering’s gender sense? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 95
  96. 96. Should this rendering convey gender? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 96
  97. 97. Asymmetry in Gender Markers 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 97
  98. 98. Asymmetry in Gender Markers ≠ 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 98
  99. 99. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 99
  100. 100. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 100
  101. 101. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw man man he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw man each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 101
  102. 102. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 man man he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) man each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 102
  103. 103. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 103
  104. 104. Should this rendering convey gender? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 104
  105. 105. Should this rend gender? :3 Exodus 11 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 105
  106. 106. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 106
  107. 107. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. male human being 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 107
  108. 108. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 108
  109. 109. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 109
  110. 110. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 110
  111. 111. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 111
  112. 112. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 112
  113. 113. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw “If the ox of vyIa injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 113
  114. 114. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 114
  115. 115. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 115
  116. 116. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 116
  117. 117. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 117
  118. 118. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 118
  119. 119. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 119
  120. 120. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw party to a legal proceeding, regardless of gender 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 120
  121. 121. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 121
  122. 122. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw Indefinite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 122
  123. 123. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 123
  124. 124. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw NOT FEMALE Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 124
  125. 125. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw solely NOT FEMALE Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 125
  126. 126. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 126
  127. 127. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 127
  128. 128. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 a wa hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw …whEoér rwøv_tR 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 128
  129. 129. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 a wa hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw …whEoér rwøv_tR 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 129
  130. 130. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 130
  131. 131. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 131
  132. 132. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 132
  133. 133. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Job 24:3 …whE rwøv_tRa hDnDmVlAa rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 133
  134. 134. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 134
  135. 135. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw party to a legal proceeding, regardless of gender 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 135
  136. 136. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” —NET Bible (1996) Similarly RSV, NKJV, ESV 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 136
  137. 137. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 137
  138. 138. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 138
  139. 139. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 139
  140. 140. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 140
  141. 141. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 141
  142. 142. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male human being 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 142
  143. 143. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male party 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 143
  144. 144. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 144
  145. 145. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 145
  146. 146. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 146
  147. 147. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 147
  148. 148. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 148
  149. 149. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 149
  150. 150. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 150
  151. 151. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 151
  152. 152. The Inaccuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 152
  153. 153. Accurate Rendering as “Man” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 153
  154. 154. Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 154
  155. 155. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl . . . not a dog shall snarl . . . at vyIa or beast. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 155
  156. 156. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 156
  157. 157. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl not a dog shall snarl . . . at man or beast. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 157
  158. 158. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 158
  159. 159. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 159
  160. 160. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 160
  161. 161. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores an vyIa or woman to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 161
  162. 162. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 162
  163. 163. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 163
  164. 164. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 164
  165. 165. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw . . . rwøÚvAh lAoAb…w . . . 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 165
  166. 166. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores a party, male or female, to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 166
  167. 167. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores a man or woman to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 167
  168. 168. Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering Frequency As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 168
  169. 169. Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering Frequency As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 169
  170. 170. Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 170
  171. 171. Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? vyIa someone • anyone • each • one • party • participant • member • fellow • expert • husband • householder • agent • envoy • delegate • candidate • commissioner • deputy • leader • laborer • heir • troop • representative 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 171
  172. 172. Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? vyIa someone • anyone • each one • man • man • man • • man • man • husband • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 172
  173. 173. The Difference That Affiliation Makes 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 173
  174. 174. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 174
  175. 175. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 175
  176. 176. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 Number of English Translation Equivalents Used NRSV (1989) 10 TNIV (2005) 7 CJPS (2006) 25 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 176
  177. 177. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 Number of English Translation Equivalents Used NRSV (1989) 10 TNIV (2005) 7 CJPS (2006) 25 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 177
  178. 178. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 178
  179. 179. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 179
  180. 180. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 180
  181. 181. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 181
  182. 182. Conclusion Judging solely on the grounds of semantic accuracy, rendering vyIa as “man” is usually inadequate. In those instances when the usage of “man” can be justified, the burden of proof is on the translator to show semantic equivalence in terms of both affiliation and gender. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 182
  183. 183. Online Access “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew” http://tinyurl.com/ish-affiliation “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew” http://tinyurl.com/GrammarGender “Preface,” The Contemporary Torah ( JPS, 2006) http://tinyurl.com/CJPS-Preface E-mail: davidesstein@aol.com Freelance editorial services 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 183
  184. 184. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 184
  185. 185. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 185
  186. 186. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 186
  187. 187. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 187
  188. 188. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 188
  189. 189. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 189

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