Big Bang Theory Sample Student Paper (Names Removed)
IntroductionBig Bang Theory- a theory that deduces a cataclysmic birth of the universe (Big Bang) from the observed expansion of the universe, cosmic background radiation, abundance of the elements, and the laws of physicsThe Big Bang theory is a theory based on the beginning of the universe that is a branch of the field of science called cosmology.
Introduction (contd)The Big Bang is known as a singularity. A singularity is a zone of infinite density such as the cores of black holes. Singularities are also zones that seem to defy our current understanding of physics.Cosmology- the branch of astronomy that deals with the general structure and evolution of the universe
Origin of the TheoryIn the 1920s a Belgian priest named Georges Lamaitre suspected that the universe had started from a single atom. Edwin Hubble then supported Lamaitres theory with his observations of the galaxies are moving farther away in all directions. Other observations made by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had contributed to the idea.
When it HappenedCommon belief in todays scientific industry suggests that the beginning of our universe, the Big Bang, started around 13.7 billion years ago.
What HappenedIt is believed that the Big Bang, once started, got bigger and cooled, going from very tiny and very hot to our modern universe we live in today. To this date our universe has expanded and cooled and continues everyday in this ongoing process.
Evidence• The universe must have had a beginning• Galaxies appear to be moving away from us• A glow of cosmic microwave background radiation found throughout the universe is thought to be a remnant of the Big Bang.
Cosmic Microwave BackgroundRadiationCosmic microwave background radiation is thought to be a remnant of leftover light from the Big Bang that is found throughout the universe. The radiation is similar to that of for TV signals by antennas. It is believed to hold details of the Big Bang and the early universe being the oldest radiation known.
Common MisconceptionsPeople often tend to think of a giant explosion when really the Big Bang was and continues to be an expansion. Instead of thinking of it as a balloon popping; imagine it as a balloon expanding and filling with air continuing on and on to the size of our universe.
Common Misconceptions (contd)Another misconception is we tend to think of it as a fireball or a random happening somewhere out in space. The Big Bang was the beginning of the universe so therefore it was not somewhere out in space because there was nothing there before it happened.
Hydrogen The First AtomsSoon after the Big Bang, protons and neutrons had begun to react to form deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, which then collected another neutron to form tritium. Not long after that another proton was added and helium was formed. Only minutes after the beginning the first atoms, hydrogen and helium, were created. Helium
The COBE SatelliteThe Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is a satellite that was launched into Earths orbit by NASA on November 18th, 1989. NASAs COBE satellite observes the cosmic background radiationleft over by the Big Bangand can precisely measureand map it.
The COBE Satellite (contd)Some of COBEs observations of the radiation spectrum coincides perfectly to ideas on the Big Bang theory. Based on what COBE has observed it can map a simulation to what our early universe was like soon after the Big Bang.
Theories of ExpansionThere are three different theories of what will happen with our universe and how it expands.• The Big Crunch• Continuing Forever• The Big Chill
The Big CrunchThe Big Crunch is a situation that scientists predict will happen. The Big Crunch explains how the universe will end. The theory states that the universe will not continue to expand forever. Eventually the expansion of the universe will stop and the universe will collapse on itself forming a gigantic black hole.
Continuing ForeverIf the universe is less dense than the "critical density" then it will continue to expand forever. If the universe is more dense than the "critical density" then the universe will collapse on itself which is called the Big Crunch.The "critical density" is 10^-30 grams per cubic centimeter
The Big ChillThe Big Chill is a theory that states the universe will continue expanding and eventually run down to a state of zero energy. The temperatures will reach very close to absolute zero where the only remaining things would be burnt out stars, cold dead planets, and black holes.
Works CitedBig bang theory. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.big-bang-theory.comBig bang: How did the universe begin?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~yukimoon/BigBang/Origins of the universe. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/origins-universe-article/The big bang: It sure was big!! . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htmCOBE satellite marks 20th anniversary. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/cobe_20th.htmlNew theory says big bang was more like water freezing to ice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/48744774/ns/technology_and_science/t/new-theory-says-big- bang-was-more-water-freezing-ice/The big bang theory in cosmology: Science, metaphysics, the universe and your life.. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.metaphysics-for-life.com/big-bang-theory.htmlBig crunch. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.universetoday.com/37018/big-crunch/
The big bang theory—a scientific critique. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=9&article=54How the big bang theory works. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/big-bang-theory1.htmThe big bounce. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://stcescience.wordpress.com/tag/big-bang/Is the big bang theory legal?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://exploringcreationscience.blogspot.com/2011/06/is-big-bang-theory-legal.htmlWill the universe expand forever?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_shape.htmlDensity of the universe. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.universetoday.com/36573/density-of- the-universe/