11 English Studies
Film Techniques
What is required of me?
• Contribution (class discussions, blogs, written and
practical work, homework)
• Collaboration (w...
What is Media?
Reading the Moving Image –
Film Language
• Learning to read and speak the language of film – film
as a text
• Terminology
...
SOUND (music, dialogue, silence, sound effects, real sound) CINEMATOGRAPHY (the look of the film; types of shots;
colours,...
• Write the tagline for the film in 8 words or less
• GRAVITY:
• Write the tagline for the film in 8 words or less
• GRAVITY: Don’t play with guns, it’s not fun!
• GRAVITY: You don’t kn...
Reading the Moving Image
• Mise en scène (setting/location, costume,
actors, props)
• Sound (diegetic and non-diegetic, sf...
Reading the Moving Image
• Mise en scène(setting/location, costume, actors, props)
• Sound (diegetic and non-diegetic, sfx...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4E
ak_lmYEps
Mise en scène – the composition of a
shot and everything in frame
• Setting
• Wardrobe
• Props
• Acting
• Placement
Diegetic sound
= ‘actual sound’
Sound whose source is visible on the screen or
whose source is implied to be present by th...
Non-diegetic sound
Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has
been implied to be present in the action:
n...
Friday 21st September 2012
Film Language
LO: To explore mise-en-scène
within film.
Mise-en-scène
• The arrangement of everything that appears in
the framing – actors, lighting, décor, props,
costume
• a Fr...
Mise en scène – Things to consider…
• Setting – location and environment where action takes place,
colours used to light t...
Editing
• Post-production
• GFX (Graphic Effects)/After Effects
• CGI (Computer Generated Images)
• Colour grade/rotoscopi...
Cinematography
• Shot sizes
• Camera angles
• Cranes, jibs, dollies etc.
• Lighting
Think of a film you have
watched recently.
Write down the story as quickly
as you can.
Film Language
LO: Exploring directing within film.
Keywords:
Storytelling
Narrative
Plot
Aesthetic
Plot, Narrative or Story?
• A story will have a beginning, middle and end. On
film, these can unfold in a different order....
Non-linear Films
• Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnSgSe2GzDc
• Memento
http://www.y...
Directing
• Good directing, or good storytelling, is the
ability to plot a story in the most compelling
way for an audienc...
Directing
• The director then needs to make decisions about
how best to represent the story: camera angles,
costume, setti...
The Bourne Ultimatum
• Watch this extract from the film; it shows a story within
a story.
• Jason Bourne has learnt that j...
In pairs, answer these questions. Write
your comments in your books.
1. How does the editing drive along the
conflict?
2. ...
Tuesday 2nd October 2012
Film Language
LO: To understand what
cinematography is within film.
Keywords:
Cinematography
Cinematography
• From the Greek, kinema, meaning ‘movement’ and
graphein, meaning ‘to record’.
• Mainly to do with the cam...
DOP
• Deakin: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0-
dXh_IsiQ
• Cam Moves Tutorial:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSzjUQ-OsSU...
Lighting
Lighting
• Key light: brightest, main light on subject
• Filler Light: softens the harsh key light,
eliminates harsh shado...
Under Lighting
• Main source of light comes from below the
subject, mainly used in horrors.
Top lighting
• When the main source of light comes from
above the subject, highlighting features to
create a glamorous and...
Back Lighting
• When the light source is behind the subject,
creating silhouettes.
Low-key lighting
• Using only the key and backlights, a sharp
contrast of light and dark is created, forming
deep shadows.
High-key lighting
• More filler lights are used to create a bright,
daylight effect.
Colour
• Denotation: What you see
• Connotation: What you think of
• Schindler’s List
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1VL-...
Movie Stills to Life
• http://iwdrm.tumblr.com/
Montage
• Rocky
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=632hVDL_N6w
• Top 10 http://www.itsfilmtastic.co.uk/the-10-best-
movie-mont...
Friday 12th October 2012
Film Language
LO: Learning how to read a film
extract and analyse it.
Keywords:
Complement
Juxtap...
Homework
(write in your diaries!!)
• Due next Friday 19th October
• 250-500 words
• You must complete a reading of a film ...
Remember to comment on:
• Mise en scene
• Sound
• Colour
• Lighting
• Cinematography
• Editing
• Costume
• Acting
• Narrat...
Sound
• Diegetic (belonging to the film’s world) and non-
diegetic (fake sound added in post – v/o or music)
• Sound bridg...
• Hunger
• Slumdog Millionaire
• A Clockwork Orange
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v90KPJ6n
4Ew&feature=related
• Reservoi...
Costume, Hair and Make-up
• These all play a large part in mise en scene, as
they can instantly tell us things about a
cha...
Acting and Casting
• Casting: why have certain actors been cast in
certain roles?
• Acting: body language, facial expressi...
Storyboard
• Create a storyboard with directions for camera
movement and shot size for one of the following:
– An opening ...
Motion Control
• Phillips Carousel Joker Robbery Scene
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0MjC4m
h0aw
• Phillips explained
ht...
Next week – editing, cgi, graphics, 3d,
soviet montage
Friday 9th November 2012
Film Language
LO: To re-cap on all the elements of
film language.
Low-key lighting
• Using only the key and backlights, a sharp
contrast of light and dark is created, forming
deep shadows.
High-key lighting
• More filler lights are used to create a bright,
daylight effect.
Back Lighting
• When the light source is behind the subject,
creating silhouettes.
Deep Focus
• Is when the depth of field is large.
• The foreground, middle-ground and
background are all very clear and in...
Shallow Focus
• Is when the depth of field is small.
• Only the object in the foreground is clear, the
rest is out of focu...
Denotation and Connotation
Montage Theory
Lev Kuleshov was among the very first to theorize
about the relatively young medium of the cinema
in the 19...
Montage
• Rocky
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=632hVDL_N6w
• Top 10 http://www.itsfilmtastic.co.uk/the-10-best-
movie-mont...
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
11 cec film techniques
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  • Diegesis is a Greek word for "recounted story" The film's diegesis is the total world of the story action
  • 11 cec film techniques

    1. 1. 11 English Studies Film Techniques
    2. 2. What is required of me? • Contribution (class discussions, blogs, written and practical work, homework) • Collaboration (working independently and in groups, sharing ideas, fair distribution of responsibility) • Creativity (be courageous and imaginative with your ideas) • Courtesy (no phones, no gum, no talking over each other)
    3. 3. What is Media?
    4. 4. Reading the Moving Image – Film Language • Learning to read and speak the language of film – film as a text • Terminology • Purpose • Processes • Analysis • Commentary • Production • Conventions (not rules) • http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/gramt v.html
    5. 5. SOUND (music, dialogue, silence, sound effects, real sound) CINEMATOGRAPHY (the look of the film; types of shots; colours, lighting, locations where action takes place) PACE AND EDITING (speed of action, length of shots) MISE EN SCENE (what you see on screen; the casting of characters, their clothing; the details of the environment; props) Film Title: ____________________________. Excerpt _____min - ____mins. Student Name:_____________________________
    6. 6. • Write the tagline for the film in 8 words or less • GRAVITY:
    7. 7. • Write the tagline for the film in 8 words or less • GRAVITY: Don’t play with guns, it’s not fun! • GRAVITY: You don’t know where the bullet will fall. • GRAVITY: Don’t let others pull you down. • GRAVITY: What goes up must come down. • GRAVITY: Once it draws you in, there’s no way out. • GRAVITY: What goes around comes around. • GRAVITY: Don’t let the trigger drag you down.
    8. 8. Reading the Moving Image • Mise en scène (setting/location, costume, actors, props) • Sound (diegetic and non-diegetic, sfx) • Editing (post-production, CGI, gfx, colour grade) • Cinematography (shot size, angle, framing, focus, lighting) • Directing
    9. 9. Reading the Moving Image • Mise en scène(setting/location, costume, actors, props) • Sound (diegetic and non-diegetic, sfx) • Editing (post-production, CGI, gfx, colour grade) • Cinematography (shot size, angles, framing, focus, lighting) • Directing (structuring shots and action)
    10. 10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4E ak_lmYEps
    11. 11. Mise en scène – the composition of a shot and everything in frame • Setting • Wardrobe • Props • Acting • Placement
    12. 12. Diegetic sound = ‘actual sound’ Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film: • voices of characters • sounds made by objects in the story • music represented as coming from instruments in the story space ( = source music) Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originating from within the film's world
    13. 13. Non-diegetic sound Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action: narrator's commentary sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect mood music Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space. The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening. We know of that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are represented as coming from outside the space of the story events. A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience (comedy). Another term for non-diegetic sound is commentary sound.
    14. 14. Friday 21st September 2012 Film Language LO: To explore mise-en-scène within film.
    15. 15. Mise-en-scène • The arrangement of everything that appears in the framing – actors, lighting, décor, props, costume • a French term that means “placing on stage.” • Framing and camerawork also constitute the mise-en-scène of a movie. • The director is the one that oversees the entire mise-en-scène and all of its elements. • During the early stages of pre-production, the director works with set designers, prop masters, location managers, costume designers, and scenic artists to determine the look and feel intended.
    16. 16. Mise en scène – Things to consider… • Setting – location and environment where action takes place, colours used to light the action, exterior/interior, time of day • Wardrobe – importance of costume for certain characters, make- up, hair • Props – what is visible in the frame, where are they (in/out of focus) • Acting – positioning of actors, interaction with each other, casting • Placement – how all of these things are positioned within the composition of a shot • Effect – on the audience: mood; tension; atmosphere; emotion (pathos); implicit/explicit meaning
    17. 17. Editing • Post-production • GFX (Graphic Effects)/After Effects • CGI (Computer Generated Images) • Colour grade/rotoscoping
    18. 18. Cinematography • Shot sizes • Camera angles • Cranes, jibs, dollies etc. • Lighting
    19. 19. Think of a film you have watched recently. Write down the story as quickly as you can.
    20. 20. Film Language LO: Exploring directing within film. Keywords: Storytelling Narrative Plot Aesthetic
    21. 21. Plot, Narrative or Story? • A story will have a beginning, middle and end. On film, these can unfold in a different order. • A story is a series of events recorded in their chronological order (linear narrative). • A plot is a series of events deliberately arranged so as to reveal their dramatic, thematic, and emotional significance (linear/non-linear narrative).
    22. 22. Non-linear Films • Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnSgSe2GzDc • Memento http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vS0E9bBSL0 • Pulp Fiction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZBfmBvvot E • Iris • Slumdog Millionaire
    23. 23. Directing • Good directing, or good storytelling, is the ability to plot a story in the most compelling way for an audience. • Plotting a filmed story means deciding: – which events, characters and settings will be seen in the film, – what will not be seen, and – how these elements will be presented to gain maximum dramatic effect to engage the viewer.
    24. 24. Directing • The director then needs to make decisions about how best to represent the story: camera angles, costume, settings etc. • The need to create an interesting and believable cinematic world which draws the viewer in and makes them forget it is ‘just a movie’. • It is the director’s job to ensure that all the filmic elements (mise-en-scene, sound, sfx etc.) are drawn together to best suit the story being told.
    25. 25. The Bourne Ultimatum • Watch this extract from the film; it shows a story within a story. • Jason Bourne has learnt that journalist, Simon Ross, is investigating his past and contacts him to find out his source. • This sequence shows the CIA hunting down Ross. Unbeknownst to them, Bourne is also at Waterloo Station. • This clip shows the conflict between the CIA and Ross, the CIA and Bourne, Ross and Bourne, and the assassin with Ross and Bourne….. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DUd5RPVDjPY
    26. 26. In pairs, answer these questions. Write your comments in your books. 1. How does the editing drive along the conflict? 2. Describe the way the sequence is shot and the way this helps to build tension. 3. The viewer is omniscient (all-knowing) and omnipresent (all-seeing). Given that we see all of the action taking place, how does this add to the tension for the audience?
    27. 27. Tuesday 2nd October 2012 Film Language LO: To understand what cinematography is within film. Keywords: Cinematography
    28. 28. Cinematography • From the Greek, kinema, meaning ‘movement’ and graphein, meaning ‘to record’. • Mainly to do with the camera and lighting departments, the person operating the camera is the cinematographer. They will work closely with the Director, Gaffer and Grips. - Director of Photography (DOP) - Camera Operator - Focus Puller - Clapper Loader - Lighting dept. (Gaffer and Sparks) - Grip dept. (Riggers)
    29. 29. DOP • Deakin: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0- dXh_IsiQ • Cam Moves Tutorial: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSzjUQ-OsSU • Video Maker http://www.videomaker.com/video/watch/tips- and-tricks/473/3-point-lighting
    30. 30. Lighting
    31. 31. Lighting • Key light: brightest, main light on subject • Filler Light: softens the harsh key light, eliminates harsh shadows • Back light: counters the key light, helping to add depth of field and makes the subject look more ‘rounded’
    32. 32. Under Lighting • Main source of light comes from below the subject, mainly used in horrors.
    33. 33. Top lighting • When the main source of light comes from above the subject, highlighting features to create a glamorous and flattering look in a star.
    34. 34. Back Lighting • When the light source is behind the subject, creating silhouettes.
    35. 35. Low-key lighting • Using only the key and backlights, a sharp contrast of light and dark is created, forming deep shadows.
    36. 36. High-key lighting • More filler lights are used to create a bright, daylight effect.
    37. 37. Colour • Denotation: What you see • Connotation: What you think of • Schindler’s List http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1VL- y9JHuI
    38. 38. Movie Stills to Life • http://iwdrm.tumblr.com/
    39. 39. Montage • Rocky http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=632hVDL_N6w • Top 10 http://www.itsfilmtastic.co.uk/the-10-best- movie-montage-scenes/ • Requiem for a Dream http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJNzlQoh8zI • Team America http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFrMLRQIT_k
    40. 40. Friday 12th October 2012 Film Language LO: Learning how to read a film extract and analyse it. Keywords: Complement Juxtapose/Juxtaposition
    41. 41. Homework (write in your diaries!!) • Due next Friday 19th October • 250-500 words • You must complete a reading of a film extract. • Any film and any section of it. Try to choose an extract which will allow you to talk about as many features of film language as possible. • No more than 3-4 minutes, so that you can analyse in detail. • Always comment on why the film language has been used in the way it has (genre, mood, audience, building tension etc.)
    42. 42. Remember to comment on: • Mise en scene • Sound • Colour • Lighting • Cinematography • Editing • Costume • Acting • Narrative
    43. 43. Sound • Diegetic (belonging to the film’s world) and non- diegetic (fake sound added in post – v/o or music) • Sound bridge – sound from one scene continuing into another, to bridge the gap between scenes, creating a smooth transition and enhancing continuity • Parallel sound – sound which complements the image • Contrapuntal – conflicting/contrasting with the image (juxtaposition) • Dialogue – conversations between characters, monologues • Sound effects (sfx) – extraneous sound, can be diegetic or non-diegetic, voice, accent
    44. 44. • Hunger • Slumdog Millionaire • A Clockwork Orange http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v90KPJ6n 4Ew&feature=related • Reservoir Dogs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPFJupeaC uA&feature=related
    45. 45. Costume, Hair and Make-up • These all play a large part in mise en scene, as they can instantly tell us things about a character’s personality, social status, job etc. • Costume: can tell us a lot about when/where the film is set, how important the character will be, the genre of the film etc. • Hair and make-up: complements the costume and can tell the audience a lot about a character’s state of mind
    46. 46. Acting and Casting • Casting: why have certain actors been cast in certain roles? • Acting: body language, facial expression • Stereotypes
    47. 47. Storyboard • Create a storyboard with directions for camera movement and shot size for one of the following: – An opening sequence for a film called ‘Eagle’s Path’ about a family living in an isolated cottage, set in the highlands of Scotland. – An extract detailing a chase scene from a comedy film called ‘Whoops! There Goes Another One!’ – An extract from the climax of a film called ‘Trolls’ in which the final battle takes place between these creatures and the heroes.
    48. 48. Motion Control • Phillips Carousel Joker Robbery Scene http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0MjC4m h0aw • Phillips explained http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5wBZuxeA pe0&feature=related • Matrix
    49. 49. Next week – editing, cgi, graphics, 3d, soviet montage
    50. 50. Friday 9th November 2012 Film Language LO: To re-cap on all the elements of film language.
    51. 51. Low-key lighting • Using only the key and backlights, a sharp contrast of light and dark is created, forming deep shadows.
    52. 52. High-key lighting • More filler lights are used to create a bright, daylight effect.
    53. 53. Back Lighting • When the light source is behind the subject, creating silhouettes.
    54. 54. Deep Focus • Is when the depth of field is large. • The foreground, middle-ground and background are all very clear and in focus.
    55. 55. Shallow Focus • Is when the depth of field is small. • Only the object in the foreground is clear, the rest is out of focus.
    56. 56. Denotation and Connotation
    57. 57. Montage Theory Lev Kuleshov was among the very first to theorize about the relatively young medium of the cinema in the 1920s. He argued that editing a film is like constructing a building. Brick-by-brick (shot-by- shot) the building (film) is erected. • Sometime around 1918, Russian director Lev Kuleshov conducted an experiment that proves this point. • He took an old film clip of a head shot of a noted Russian actor and inter-cut the shot with different images.
    58. 58. Montage • Rocky http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=632hVDL_N6w • Top 10 http://www.itsfilmtastic.co.uk/the-10-best- movie-montage-scenes/ • Requiem for a Dream http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJNzlQoh8zI • Team America http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFrMLRQIT_k
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