Lesson 3 Peter


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Lesson 3 Peter

  1. 1. LeLesson 3 Peter the GreatAbsolutism and Westernization of RussiaDavid Clayton, Instructor<br />1672- 1725<br />r. 1682-1725<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Appointed co-Tsar with brother Ivan when he is 10 years old.
  3. 3. Half-Sister Sophia made regent until boys grow up.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Peter, witnessing the slaughter of many royal family members and friends by the Strelsky (Old Guard), had a lifetime distrust of traditional Russian ways and the Boyars.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Peter chose to spend most his youth outside of the Kremlin and in the countryside near the Lake. A Dutchman introduces him to ship building and navigation</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>He formed his own army at age 10 with the soldier’s children and house servant’s children. He had Western military advisors train his kid’s army as if it was real one.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>By the time he was a teenager his army numbered the 1000s and was the largest standing army in Russia.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Peter’s military skills convinced him Russia must change its military skills to be more western.</li></li></ul><li>Peter’s Rise to Absolute Ruler of Russia<br /><ul><li>Develops a life long interest in shipbuilding and will eventually build Russia’s first navy to capture Turk port of Azov.</li></li></ul><li>Peter’s Rise to Absolute Ruler of Russia<br /><ul><li>Arranged marriage to Eudoxia at the age of 17. They have a son, Alexius. Peter ignores both. </li></li></ul><li>Peter’s Rise to Absolute Ruler of Russia<br /><ul><li>He has many western mistresses until he meets a maidservant of one of his Generals, Catherine. He will send Eudoxia to spend the rest of her life in a convent, ignore Alexius, and have 12 children with Catherine (only 2 will survive to adulthood).</li></li></ul><li>Peter’s Rise to Absolute Ruler of Russia<br /><ul><li>Peter, at age 17, knowing Sophia does not want to relinquish powers, overthrows her, and sends her to a convent for life.</li></li></ul><li>Peter’s Rise to Absolute Ruler of Russia<br /><ul><li>His brother, Ivan, is weak and sick, and is never a threat. He dies 7 years later, leaving Peter the sole ruler of Russia.</li></li></ul><li>Uniqueness of Peter<br /><ul><li>Tall: 6’7”Wore western clothesMustache like “cat”Facial twitchMany skills: - ship building - furniture - glass & metal - dentist (not good) - surgery (good luck!)</li></li></ul><li>Uniqueness of Peter<br /><ul><li> Love to get drunk “Drunken Synod”mocked Russian Orthodox Church.
  4. 4. Spent most of his time in the western suburbs of Russia among the western advisors to Russia.</li></li></ul><li>Military Accomplishments<br /><ul><li> Captures port of Azov from Turks. Signs 30 year peace treaty with Ottoman Turks.
  5. 5. Troops put down a Strelsky revolt while he is in Europe. Personally tortures and executes many of the rebel leaders.</li></li></ul><li>Military Accomplishments<br /><ul><li> Defeats his long time rival Charles XII of Sweden in 20 year war and gains the area now known as St. Petersburg.</li></li></ul><li>Military Accomplishments<br /><ul><li> Expanded Russian borders</li></li></ul><li>Military Accomplishments<br /><ul><li> Made the military officer position one that must be earned and not an inherited title. This plan was eventually used in the government as well (Table of Ranks)</li></li></ul><li>Efforts of Reform<br /><ul><li> Better education
  6. 6. Stopped tradition of arranged marriages (exception: his son Alexius had to marry Charlotte).
  7. 7. Boyars required to wear western clothes.
  8. 8. Boyar men had to shave long beards or pay tax.</li></li></ul><li>Efforts of Reform<br /><ul><li> Russian Orthodox church had to answer to the state.
  9. 9. Built St. Petersburg at great expense: - disease - high taxes (boyars) - forced labor (lower class) more died building city than all the combined wars under Peter.</li></li></ul><li>Efforts of Reform<br /><ul><li> Eliminated hereditary rights to the throne. Ruler can choose his successor.
  10. 10. Failed to make Dutch the official language of Russia.</li></li></ul><li>Conspiracy and Succession<br /><ul><li> Alexius, like his father, ignored his wife Charlotte, and had many mistresses. He had no interest in the military. Charlotte dies in childbirth.</li></li></ul><li>Conspiracy and Succession<br /><ul><li> Peter demands that Alexius become committed to learning military skills or renounce his claim to the throne and enter a monastery.</li></li></ul><li>Conspiracy and Succession<br /><ul><li> Alexius, conspiring with the Swedes and Austrians, flees from Russia. Peter promises Alexius and his friends that nothing will happen if they will return. He lied.</li></li></ul><li>Conspiracy and Succession<br /><ul><li> When Alexius returns, Peter personally tortures him and then sentences him to death. Alexius dies prior to execution.</li></li></ul><li>Conspiracy and Succession<br /><ul><li> Peter announces his wife, Catherine, as the Empress. She will eventually rule Russia after Peter’s death as the first woman ruler of Russia. </li></li></ul><li>Conspiracy and Succession<br /><ul><li> Her namesake, Catherine the Great, will rule Russia 30 years later- not as an Absolute Ruler but and Enlightened One.</li>