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Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium
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Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium

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  • 1. 台灣原住民族研究季刊 第 6 卷 第 1 期 頁 1-61 2013 年/春季號 Taiwan Journal of Indigenous Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-61, Spring 2013 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium W. James Jacob Associate Professor, Administrative and Policy Studies Department Director, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Che-Wei Lee( 李 哲 偉 ) Program Coordinator, institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Nancy Wehrheim Adjunct Professor, La Roche College Veysel Gökbel Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Joel Dumba Chrispo Dumba Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Xiaolin Lu( 呂 嘯 林 ) Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh
  • 2. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)2 Shengjun Yin( 尹 聖 珺 ) Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Abstract In this article, we provide an in-depth organizational analysis of the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC) through its global strategies in achieving nation building and self-determination for indigenized higher education efforts. We identify four theories from the literature used by WINHEC in its operations, and propose two new theories to fit our evaluation of the Consortium—Indigenous Creativity Theory and Indigenous Cultural Creativity Theory. Social cartography, archival analysis, and discourse analysis are used to identify the indigenous, paradigms, and practices of the Consortium. Employing a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges (SWOC) approach, we examine WINHEC’s organizational contributions, effectiveness, unique aspects, and challenges of indigenous engagement and governance in the membership nations’ locations. The findings suggest that both indigenous and non-indigenous peoples play an important and symbiotic role essential for the furthering of indigenous higher education worldwide. Keywords: indigenous paradigm, indigenous higher education, WINHEC
  • 3. 3 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium INTRODUCTION Although indigenous academia has existed in certain forms and at various levels for millennia, only recently has it entered mainstream awareness, motivating diverse researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders to acknowledge its significance in societies and histories of people worldwide. This significance translates into the preservation of indigenous values, knowledge systems, philosophies, and wisdom production in mainstream and indigenous-oriented higher education (McGovern, 1999; Semali & Kincheloe, 1999; Smith, 1999; Teasdale & Rhea, 2000; Mutua & Swadener, 2004; Memmi, 2006; Denzin, et al., 2008; Kovach, 2009; Reagan, 2010; Dei, 2011; Chilisa, 2012; Smith, 2012; Jacob, Liu, & Lee, forthcoming). Some government statistics and reports on higher education access (enrollment and attendance rates), retention (including dropout rates), attainment, and job placement provide various reasons why indigenous students and communities continue to underperform compared to national averages in many countries (Bowen & Bok, 1998; Bolyard & Linders, 2003). Indigenous peoples in many locations continue to be underdeveloped and underrepresented in “the fabric of mainstream institutions of higher education” (Brayboy, et al., 2012: 2). In considering the development of indigenous higher education worldwide from 1900 to the present, old issues and new directions emerge from the dynamic relationship between indigenous organizations and diverse groups’ efforts to develop indigenous education. Several scholars argue that the central topic that is often debated by international organizations of all kinds on indigenous education efforts is the recognition of the general lack of educational
  • 4. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)4 success1 among indigenous peoples (Abu-Saad & Champagne, 2006; Huffman, 2008, 2010; Brayboy, et al., 2012). In addition, over the past few decades, indigenous peoples around the world have confronted various developments that often complicate the issue of indigenous educational achievement. Two developments are of particular importance: (1) the dynamic relationships between indigenous populations and the state; and (2) the definition and recognition of indigenous peoples’ ownership, use, and management of language, identity, culture, land, and other resources. The first development has led to a tide of political organizing (or at times, reorganizing) within indigenous communities. Inter-communal and local organizations, national and regional confederations, and international linkages have risen rapidly across five continents. Sometimes these organizing efforts encounter great resistance from nation states and in locations where indigenous populations comprise only a fraction of the current population. Second, in the aftermath of World War II, we have witnessed a dramatic proliferation and involvement of pivotal international organizations and actors. Regardless of the various names and organizational objectives—multilateral organizations (e.g., UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank, and OECD); bilateral donor agencies (e.g., SIDA and USAID); nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); and regional agencies (e.g., the regional development banks and the European Union) have 1 Many internationally-renowned (non)indigenous scholars, including those associated with WINHEC, recognize that indigenous peoples are often associated with the following terms in a negative way—scholarly success, academic success, educational achievement, attainment, accomplishment, and fulfillment (aside from the denotation of individual success in general). We support the notion for the need to transform or to redefine the essence of these terms to symbolize indigenous, collective, long-term success and to consider maximizing indigenous collective gain (Deyhle & Swisher, 1997; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Champagne & Stauss, 2002; Reyhner & Eder, 2004; Brayboy, 2005; Abu-Saad & Champagne, 2006; and Huffman, 2008, 2010).
  • 5. 5 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium brought some pioneering declarations,2 political leverage, financial support, and developmental agendas in support of indigenous peoples. Struggles regarding nation building; sovereignty; universal education; land recognition; and language, culture, and identity preservation are common to indigenous peoples globally. Although the current outcomes fail to meet certain standards and expectations of all stakeholders, many advances have occurred. Furthermore, the United Nations has built the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) as an advisory body to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs’ (DESA) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), with a mandate to discuss indigenous issues with respect to “economic and social development, culture, the environment, education, health and human rights” (UNPFII, n.d.). DESA’s multi-mission focus makes it difficult for it to have enough international influence to impact indigenous higher education significantly at the global level. Undoubtedly, these organizations have made great progress on national, regional, and global education policies and practices regarding the development of indigenous education, albeit mostly at primary- and secondary-education levels. However, what seems to be lacking is the establishment of worldwide-consolidating, indigenous-serving (or indigenous-oriented or indigenous-based) organizations for indigenous postsecondary education3 with an active, professional, ethical, culturally 2 Several key United Nations (1948, 1966, 2007) engagement initiatives with indigenous rights include the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 3 We interchangeably use postsecondary and higher (tertiary or third-level) education to signify the period of higher learning that happens at non-indigenous and indigenous higher education institutions (e.g., universities, colleges, academies, institutes of technology, research centers,
  • 6. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)6 responsive, and accountable mandate. New currents of thought have begun to circulate among indigenous intelligentsia; the idea is to create “a multi-nation effort to accredit, empower[,] and thus affirm native control of indigenous higher learning” (Meyer, 2005: 1). In 2002, the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC) emerged as a product of, and in response to, this history of inequity within higher education. The remarkable efficacy and effects of postsecondary achievement and success of indigenous peoples all over the world are gaining attention and support from indigenous and non-indigenous peoples alike. In this article, we examine the pivotal role WINHEC plays in the development of indigenous higher education worldwide. We are particularly interested in exploring WINHEC’s substantial contributions toward indigenous engagement initiatives and to distinguish the nature of the Consortium’s operations from other international organizations in the development of indigenous higher education. Research on the evaluation of indigenous organizations is relatively scant. Few attempts or studies have successfully mapped indigenous paradigms, research, and practices in an international indigenous organization. There are also relatively few studies that document and analyze indigenous methodologies, indigenous-based theories, and indigenous paradigmatic thought. Focused scholarship related to WINHEC is a relatively new development and seminaries). Several significant studies and official reports have used the term postsecondary education widely (e.g., Pavel, et al., 1998; Brayboy, et al., 2012). However, it is important to highlight tribally-owned-and-operated community colleges or indigenized higher education institutions (HEIs) to clarify the different nature of these institutions from mainstream HEIs. We strive to highlight an arena, or institutional location in the case of indigenous HEIs, that allows indigenous peoples to maintain or restore academic autonomy in indigenous-dominant HEIs through indigenous ways of learning, structures, and systems (Stein, 1992; Boyer, 1997; Champagne, 2002; Jennings, 2004; Mihesuah & Wilson, 2004; Reyhner & Eder, 2004).
  • 7. 7 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium in higher education studies. As such, what we do not know—and more specifically, what we ought to know—about WINHEC far outweighs what we do know. This study calls our attention to potential and fruitful lines of inquiry already underway as well as some questions that are critical for interested researchers of WINHEC. What are the individual and societal benefits of WINHEC? What policies and practices can contribute to attracting and retaining students and faculty member involvement at WINHEC? What policies and practices can enhance their teaching and learning experiences? What can non-indigenous organizations learn from WINHEC and what are the possibilities and limitations inherent in applying that knowledge? Who can and should study WINHEC? And what other, if any, extraordinary considerations must be given to such studies? In this study, we address these issues and other relevant questions. We use a social cartography approach (Paulston, 1977, 1993, 1996; Weidman & Jacob, 2011) to help bridge this gap in the literature. Through an in-depth organizational examination of WINHEC, we reify a culture of academic success in an indigenous higher education organization. In so doing, this study seeks to contribute to our growing understanding of how and to what extent WINHEC shapes its paradigms, research, and practices by, for, and with (non)indigenous populations. We start with an overview of key terms and indigenous higher education, followed by an examination of WINHEC’s foundation and role in international higher education. Then, we describe the research methods used in this study. In the findings and discussion section, we map: (1) the indigenous paradigms and research in WINHEC; and (2) WINHEC’s practices in the multisectoral approach outlined by the indigenous accreditation mechanism using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges (SWOC) analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of WINHEC’s
  • 8. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)8 services and programs. Finally, we conclude with a few suggestions for how WINHEC can continue to play a prominent role in the furthering of indigenous higher education worldwide. AN OVERVIEW OF KEY TERMS AND INDIGENOUS HIGHER EDUCATION To cogently deal with the indigenous issues in WINHEC, it is imperative to specify some key indigenous terms and an overall picture of indigenous education development. Reconceptualizing Indigenous Peoples and Indigeneity The act of accurately reconceptualizing, rationalizing, and providing justification for the indigenous nations and their accompanying themes by using a singular-language terminology is like exercising politics of indigenous- generated terminology—a campaign known as a critical intercultural dialogue (James, 1999: 587-607; UNESCO, 2009; United Nations General Assembly, 2012). It provides a basis for mutual understanding of group values and helps validate intercultural criticism. Such critical intercultural dialogue is based on three criteria: the priority of understanding the other’s values to better understand their perspectives, the achievement of fair conditions of discussion, and the fostering of mutual openness and trust (James, 1999: 587). To refine James’ (1999) argument, we further contend that in defining indigenous one must recognize a continual balance between transformation and equilibrium to challenge both the definer (including indigenous peoples) and the defined, which were originally fixed ideologies. Providing a definition is
  • 9. 9 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium essential, however, to foster the epistemological transformation, cross-cultural sensitivity (Harkness, et al., 2003; United Nations General Assembly, 2012), and transcultural praxis for the authentic engagement of indigenous cosmologies and experiences. The literature is full of discussions surrounding the definitions of indigenous peoples, indigeneity, and marginalized peoples. Scholars have debated about proper terminology and definitions, especially following World War II. Our intentionally broad definition of the term indigenous includes all persons from aboriginal or first nation descent as well as official titles of indigenous peoples from around the world. In refining our definition, we were cautious to respect indigenous perspectives, definitions, and titles, recognizing that not all indigenous peoples are necessarily or appropriately classified into this big ethnic umbrella, especially since they have their own forms of address or tribally-specific titles. Though no single term for indigenous peoples is accepted globally, several terms such as Native, Aboriginal, First Nation, and local have been used because of the cultural, historical, and political differences in these divergent contexts (UNESCO, 2006; Jacob, Liu, & Lee, forthcoming It is clear that indigenous communities consider themselves as charged with the preservation of their historical heritage and with the responsibility to transmit their unique cultural identity to future generations by protecting them from the negative pressures of mainstream culture (International Labour Organisation, 1989; Cheng & Jacob, 2008). Drawing upon WINHEC’s triangulation of meaning— language, culture, and spiritual beliefs— Manulani Aluli Meyer (2005: 5) defines indigeneity as “a way to describe the qualities of ancient culture [that] by its very structure work[s] toward strengthening the people it embodies.” Besides language and culture that are commonly associated with educational
  • 10. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)10 development, many indigenous members of WINHEC value their religious faiths as well. Examining Indigenous Education Development The world is comprised of thousands of diverse populations and groups of people. Today, there are an estimated 300-350 million (UNESCO, 2006: 4, 11) or 370 million indigenous peoples in the world (Collings, 2009: 84; Carino, 2009: 21; Secretariat of the UNPFII, 2009: 1, 8). UNESCO identifies over 5,000 languages and cultures in more than 70 countries (UNESCO, 2006: 11); the Secretariat of the UNPFII (2009: 1) notes that, of the 7,000 languages worldwide, “more than 4,000 are spoken by indigenous peoples.” UNESCO declared the First International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People (1994-2004) and the Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People (2005-2014) due to the increasing importance and recognition of indigenous peoples. Furthermore, the United Nations announced a Declaration on the Right of Indigenous Peoples in 2007 to help promote indigenous institutions, cultures, and traditions, along with the development of their own needs and aspirations. Among other reasons, the UN drafted the Declaration to prohibit further discrimination that indigenous peoples have commonly encountered. Furthermore, the Declaration provided suggested avenues for effective participation so that these rights could eventually become mainstream and bring economic and social improvement to all indigenous peoples (UN General Assembly, 2007). As a component of such global recognition, Ronald Niezen (2000: 119) notes: The term indigenism has gained momentum over the last decades largely out of the notice of observers, pundits, and theorists of
  • 11. 11 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium international events. Even though this recognition process is smaller in scale, more fragile, less turbulent than the nationalist upheavals of the past two centuries, it nevertheless has the potential to influence the way states manage their affairs, and even to reconfigure the usual alignments of nationalism and state sovereignty. We recognize that most indigenous peoples still suffer from many inequalities, government assimilation policies, and discriminations. Many indigenous peoples do not have proper access to basic social services such as education and health care because many live in urban and suburban areas where poverty levels are often above national averages (UNESCO, 2006; United Nations, 2008). In terms of indigenous educational development, obtaining recognition for indigenous cultures and languages is often a slow process for many educators, policy makers, and practitioners, who usually come from mainstream society, and they may not appreciate these distinctive cultures. When stakeholders fail to find ways to enable indigenous peoples to engage in decision-making regarding indigenous education policies, the equalization agenda of indigenous peoples is halted. Unfavorable, and sometimes hostile, circumstances gradually lead to an inevitable “indigenous genocide” in a way that causes the assimilation of indigenous peoples into the mainstream culture. Here too are visible the many inadvertent effects of “globalization, economic policies and practices, and the policies related to human rights issues, the media and media culture, and urbanicity” (Jacob, Liu, & Lee, forthcoming). In this historical continuity, many indigenous peoples rely on language, culture, and identity preservation through word of mouth or oral histories to spread their languages, histories, and traditions. Therefore, both formal and
  • 12. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)12 non-formal education mediums are among the most effective ways to protect indigenous cultures, identities, and knowledge. Higher education institutions (HEIs) can also play a crucial role in revitalizing the language, epistemology, wisdom, and knowledge of indigenous peoples. Thus, we examine indigenous higher education in terms of organizational structures, which claim to promote indigenous peoples’ right to preserve their uniqueness and to transfer their cultures to future generations. Accelerating the articulation of knowledge, creating a global network between people, and advancing the social, economic, and political status of society are some of the expectations society has of HEIs. The connection between the local and the global, and the modern and pre-modern, can generate manifold ways that HEIs and society can interact (Jacob, Sutin, Weidman, & Yeager, forthcoming). Having indigenous students and researchers of indigenous epistemology at HEIs not only recognizes the significance of indigenous peoples, but also prevents the swift disappearing of valuable indigenous inheritances. Undoubtedly, higher education simultaneously possesses potential advantages and disadvantages when advocating indigenous cultures. Some research suggests that Western higher education culture is more widely represented within course syllabi, research activities, and schedules than non-Western cultures. Douglas L. Morgan (2003), for instance, contends that Western-dominated science often negatively affects indigenous knowledge and wisdom, which includes specific ways of understanding the world. In addition to Western dominance, we also recognize the hegemonic dominance over indigenous peoples of many governments and national policies from all parts of the world. Within higher education, many decision makers (e.g., policy makers and higher education administrators) and knowledge transmitters
  • 13. 13 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (e.g., faculty members, instructors, and students) do not consider the wisdom of indigenous societies as scientific or of equal value with other ways of learning. Therefore, the intrinsic and often time-tested value of indigenous knowledge— which comes from indigenous peoples’ ancestors and their experiences—is often neglected within contemporary higher education systems. If indigenous peoples are not given chances to present or prove the value of their knowledge systems and ways of learning, many of these indigenous characteristics will eventually be lost. Being largely dominated by mainstream scientific knowledge paradigms, those in higher education are often of the notion that promoting indigenous epistemologies may be a potential risk to the reputation of a given institution or to the scientific community. This pervasive notion threatens diversity in general, and support for indigenous perspectives in particular. And yet, universities are often still touted as centers of diversity in terms of knowledge generation and education proliferation. Obviously, as indigenous higher education students are encouraged to embrace mainstream cultures, the risk of the domination and assimilation of their indigenous cultures becomes greater. Generally, indigenous peoples live in a combination context of mainstream and their own cultures. The latter often suffers from a negative stigma and loss of esteem within indigenous youth populations, as Morgan (2003: 46) notes: “this bicultural experience forces them to live between two worlds where they do not belong in the [mainstream] context and where their education often means that they cannot belong in their own culture either—it having become the ‘other.’” Mainstream standards have traditionally dominated the means by which knowledge is evaluated. Instead, however, it is preferable to adopt a new flexible, sensitive, and cultural paradigm that acknowledges and celebrates the
  • 14. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)14 value of indigenous wisdom and knowledge, rather than solely relying on mainstream perspectives. In other words, mainstream or non-indigenous epistemologies cannot dominate; other perspectives are vital. Academia needs philosophical transformation to overcome the hidden domination and assimilation that threatens indigenous knowledge (Morgan, 2003). Aboriginal students in higher education in Australia are examples of indigenous persons living in a dominant Western paradigm. Many Aboriginal higher education students are involved in Western-driven learning environments at universities with no legitimate connection to Aboriginal knowledge. Moreover, Aboriginal cultures are often neglected or entirely omitted from research and teaching activities as there is little practice of incorporating such indigenous perspectives into higher education contexts (Slade & Morgan, 2000). Local knowledge and wisdom are one of the problematic exclusions in modern universities. Changing the lens requires a Kuhnian paradigmatic shift; it requires a clear understanding of knowledge and wisdom (Kuhn, 1962). Many questions emerge from academics about how to evaluate higher education’s tasks, encompassing: (1) what relationship exists between ideas generated at HEIs and locally-recognized concepts of knowledge or wisdom? (2) How often are globally-sensitive issues discussed and understood? (3) How can universities play a fundamental role in preserving and promoting local knowledge internationally? and (4) Does the incorporation of local knowledge and wisdom into HEIs give a local entity more power to act globally, locally, regionally, or ethnically? In response to global changes, indigenous communities have made some attempts to become more involved in local HEIs. As G. Robert Teasdale and Zane Ma Rhea (2000) note, these communities remind the academy that the cultivation of wisdom from that which is local, and the promotion of their local
  • 15. 15 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium knowledge in academic fora will increase the diversity of such institutions’ acumen, giving those institutions more caché. Higher education is also an important arena in which to build a partnership between indigenous communities and governments, not only in terms of student involvement, but also in research about indigenous societies to promote their unique cultures and epistemologies. However, some challenges still exist in building collaborations and relationships with indigenous communities, including: (1) insufficient participation of researchers; (2) insufficient interpretations of research findings by scholars; (3) distrust of researchers by tribal members; (4) lack of tribal policies regarding research endeavors; (5) too few contributions of studies to indigenous societies; and (6) the existence of only non-native theoretical frameworks with which to discuss study results (Baldwin, et al., 2009). WINHEC’S FOUNDATION AND ROLE IN HIGHER EDUCATION Established in August 2002 in Canada, WINHEC was the first global organization providing a forum for exchange and cooperation in improving indigenous higher education. It works with indigenous peoples to share the vision and protect rights of indigenous peoples in terms of preserving languages, cultures, and traditions through higher education. WINHEC was founded in a move to the resist the negative impact of academic neo- and post-colonialism. Indigenizing the academy, establishing a recognized accreditation mechanism for indigenous higher education, and forming indigenous knowledge systems are
  • 16. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)16 increasingly imperative transformations to reconstruct indigenous subjectivity4 in education and contribute multiple platforms for indigenous sustainable development—all of which are the foci of this worldwide organization. The Consortium aims to facilitate cultural exchange and academic dialogue through international cooperation to consider it to be both an international organization and movement. To achieve global targets, WINHEC uses its Global Strategy Framework, which provides a common strategic approach, including the founding principles, objectives, and rationale for establishing working groups. WINHEC operates under the belief that indigenous peoples have the right to determine their way of life and their relationship with governments. WINHEC’s founding principles are primarily based on Articles 12, 13, 14, and 15 of the 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. For centuries indigenous languages, cultures, social systems, and values have been neglected and oppressed by waves of colonization. With the gradual rise of human rights awareness, indigenous peoples’ desire for educational equity increases. Some indigenous education leaders and scholars launched WINHEC to create an organization strong enough to influence the future course of history (Ambler, 2005: 18). Marjane Ambler (2005: 18) observes that “when a dozen education leaders met in Alberta, Canada, in August 2002, [to establish WINHEC] they felt the familiar thrill of history being made.” The founding nation members present at the launch, the World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education (WIPCE), were Australia, the states of Hawai’i and Alaska and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium of the United States, Canada, the Wänanga of Aotearoa (New Zealand), and 4 We define indigenous subjectivity as the degree and praxis of substantially- and effectively- exercising critical consciousness and an ability to express indigeneity or nature, such as through indigenous peoples’ ethnic languages and traditional knowledge.
  • 17. 17 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Saamiland (North Norway). “Creating an accreditation body for indigenous education initiatives and systems that identify common criteria, practices and principles by which indigenous peoples live” became one of the Consortium’s essential goals (WINHEC, 2010: 3). Due to the uniqueness of the WINHEC accreditation process, it is a developing study with fertile potential for change, even though there is scant scholarly literature available about quality assurance for indigenous higher education institutions. Hence, we use the WINHEC accreditation issues in our case study to highlight its strengths, weaknesses/limitations, opportunities, and challenges for, by, and with (non)indigenous peoples and those who are interested in this topic. After decades of institutional-, local-, state-, national-, and global-level initiatives to facilitate tribal nation building, self-determination, sovereignty, indigenous knowledge systems, and culturally-responsive education through indigenous control of higher education, WINHEC emerged as an indigenous- generated5 academic player. The rise of WINHEC both fueled and resulted from the indigenized 6 academic identity. This organization represents a population that has suffered a history of exclusion in mainstream academia and that is generally economically poorer than those from mainstream societies. This international Consortium strives to gain academic recognition for indigenous epistemology. 5 We define the term indigenous-generated as a set of ideas, knowledge, and innovations unique to indigenous peoples, either from times past, present, or in the process of development. 6 We define indigenized as a critically indigenous-generated praxis that involves necessary non-indigenous integration besides native maintenance, by combining the meaning of “to cause to have indigenous characteristics or personnel” in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. (2003: 634) with Devon Abbot Mihesuah and Angela Cavender Wilson’s (2004) term “indigenizing.”
  • 18. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)18 With the emergence of the international indigenous rights movement in the latter half of the twentieth century, indigenous scholars have been obliged to balance individual rights with collective rights through international initiatives. Indigenous nations had found themselves divided by newly-imposed international borders, or lumped together with other groups entirely. This made it particularly challenging to find a forum that would deal with their demands instead of eschewing responsibility. Consequently, indigenous leaders began to unite with other Aboriginal groups to increase their effectiveness in the fight for their rights. Since the 1970s, increasing numbers of indigenous peoples have organized across geographic and political borders, bringing international attention to their common struggles, despite their vastly different cultures and locations. These organizations vary, from global organizations such as the World Council of Indigenous Peoples to smaller organizations, such as the Coast Salish Gathering, that reunite cultural groups divided by political borders. Various international indigenous organizations began to emerge in the 1960s, when indigenous scholars and non-indigenous professionals became more aware of the urgent need to unify the strengths of all indigenous peoples around the world and establish a sustainable development institution. METHODS Research Design Key indigenous scholars all over the world, including some from the Latino and African American communities in the United States, stress that understanding history is a vital component for the conduct of ethnic research in their communities (Chilia, 2005; Dezin, et al., 2008; Cram, 2009; LaFrance &
  • 19. 19 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Crazy Bull, 2009; Mertens, 2009; Mertens, et al., 2009). John H. Stanfield II (1994) asserts that historical viewpoints are imperative to design loci of exploration based on the indigenous experiences of people of color. We thus use a historical-narrative research approach as a legitimate basis that complied with the following three principles of an indigenous-ethnic model for research (Stanfield, 1994): 1. It should be based on oral communication because so many non-Western cultures within and outside industrial nation states are oral-communication based. 2. It should be grounded in holistic (not fragmented or dichotomized) notions of human beings because many non- Westerners view the social, the emotional, and the spiritual as integral parts of a whole person linked to a physical environment. 3. The methodology should incorporate the use of historical documents, participant observation, and oral history to allow people of color to articulate holistic explanations about how they construct the reality. Theoretical Framework By employing the Tai-Ji Model for theoretical selection, we identified multiple theories that help us in our organizational analysis (Jacob & Cheng, 2005). The theories we drew from include Complexity Theory, Kaupapa Maori Theory, Networks of Practice, and Self-Determination Theory. Because these existing theories did not fully explain what we needed in this study, we developed two other theories—the Indigenous Creativity Theory and the
  • 20. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)20 Indigenous Cultural Creativity Theory. Data Sources and Collection Our primary data collection approaches included archival documents from the existing literature, as well as from discourse not yet in the academic literature but available primarily through the Internet. We used the following four-step process in conducting this indigenous organizational archival and discourse analysis. First, we identified a topic through which to evaluate WINHEC and compiled sources that were helpful in the identification of our research questions. Second, we conducted a thorough literature review, with particular focus on the preliminary and secondary sources most instrumental in support of our examination of WINHEC’s issues. Third, we identified the available historical data through the official WINHEC website (www.win-hec.org), primarily targeting their published journal articles, regular minutes, annual conferences and agendas, and written organizational constitution. Fourth, we used standards and criteria to evaluate the quality of our assembled data. This study was conducted over a one-year period from January to December 2012. It included four distinct phases: (1) defining the research questions, (2) conducting a literature review, (3) reviewing the assembled data and analyzing WINHEC using a SWOC analysis approach, and (4) writing and refining this article. DATA ANALYSIS Indigenous Paradigms and Research: Social Cartography Approach We followed a social cartography approach (Paulston, 1977, 1993, 1996;
  • 21. 21 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Weidman & Jacob, 2011) to map indigenous paradigms and research in WINHEC. Social cartography provides researchers with an ability to present original ideas that are highly related to indigenous social lives, mythic symbols, (un)written or cultural totems and maps/texts (Paulston, 1996) as expressions of indigenous worldviews. This mapping strategy helped us to position theoretical stances and perspectives of WINHEC. To explore how WINHEC members know and interpret this world to generate their paradigms and research agendas, we scrutinized WINHEC’s documents through the existing indigenous-relevant theories mainly coming from the field of comparative, international, and development education (CIDE) (Jacob, et al., 2011: 69-71) because of its balance of marco-and-mirco theories. Further, we collect other adequately relevant academic disciplines to shape WINHEC’s inherent theoretic standpoints, such as psychology. Indigenous Practice: A SWOC Analysis Approach We evaluate indigenous practice in WINHEC using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges (SWOC) approach to best reflect the pros and cons of the Consortium’s activities’ implementation and overall performance; meanwhile, we draw from WINHEC’s stated and assumed goals and objectives. This analytical framework identified internal and external factors that favored or hindered the achievement of these goals and objectives. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Indigenous Paradigms and Research in WINHEC In this study, we examine theories linked to WINHEC initiatives and the
  • 22. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)22 Consortium’s effectiveness in helping indigenous peoples using certain theoretical lenses that have been determined by the Tai-Ji Theoretical Selection Model (Jacob & Cheng, 2005; Cheng, et al., 2011). Complexity Theory We draw from Complexity Theory to discuss the various dynamics that exist within complex organizations and recognize the multiple perspectives from all organizational stakeholders. New dynamics often emerge within the Complex Theoretical Framework and need to be taken into account when “different aspects and actions of individual stakeholders shape the educational organization in new ways” (Jacob, et al., 2011: 76). They combine to help an organization reach beyond what appears to be a sum of its parts through collective synergy efforts. W. James Jacob and his colleagues (2011) continue to explain Complexity Theory, as it is applied to comparative, international, and development education (CIDE) settings, by positing that: educational organizations are most often seen as the subject of study. The theory is concerned with the way in which the community interacts within the education setting; a setting that would be defined in Complexity Theory as including not just the administration, teachers and students, but also the stakeholders in the process such as parents, community, government, and those who provide funding. (76) Clearly, indigenous peoples represented by WINHEC are diverse and involve a multitude of stakeholders as well as strong ties to local and national communities. Kaupapa Maori Theory
  • 23. 23 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Another theory we draw from is Kaupapa Maori Theory, which is based on Maori traditional philosophies and principles. Kaupapa Maori Theory is a worldview or way of knowing the world that advocates self-determination. This involves the coming together of whakapapa (genealogy) and whanau (kinship) in reformulating the Maori identity, an identity that is Maori-owned and controlled (Jacob, et al., 2011: 84). This idea of kinship comports with the caring communities that we propose as an addendum to communities of practice. This theory, at least in the Maori community, “acknowledges the socio- economic difficulties and other disadvantages Maori have faced, yet stresses the ability to overcome them through an extended family network” (Jacob, et al., 2011: 85); further, it “can contribute to CIDE discourse by opening up what has been primarily Eurocentric, to include alternative traditions and ways of knowing” (87). We argue that such a network is successful because of the caring feeling that families can impart. We also contend that the effect of the community as an aid in education and life would be highly diminished if that caring feeling were to be thwarted or distorted. A sense of caring is necessary to enable success to develop within the psyche of the learners of the community. Paul Farmer (2009: 23) addresses a similar idea, writing with his customary fervor as he works with the world’s disenfranchised people. He argues that a lack of caring and any kind of suffering is wrong. We maintain, on the basis of Farmer’s experiences and our own in teaching, that greater achievement will be observed in a family-like structure with caring at the center. Kaupapa Maori Theory is applicable beyond the Maori culture and “can inform other indigenous contexts” (Jacob, et al., 2011: 88). Network of Practice Theory
  • 24. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)24 We also use the Network of Practice Theory (Jacob, et al., 2011) as WINHEC is a network of indigenous peoples, advocates, and organizations, working for the benefit of indigenous peoples worldwide. Network of Practice Theory builds on the idea of communities of practice and creates a superset of associations where the sharing of knowledge is aided by technology, especially e-mail communication. In this instance, technology becomes a key feature in that it has the latent ability to facilitate the creation of an expanded group that can interact across multiple sites in a collective manner. Indigenous Creativity Theory To understand indigenous peoples’ learning in WINHEC, we coin a new theory called Indigenous Creativity Theory, which is based on the notion that humans have unlimited learning potential and that optimal learning occurs when all people enjoy the foundational principle of academic freedom. Academic freedom creates an environment whereby indigenous peoples can learn without fear of oppression or discrimination. Learning is a social and dynamic experience, “a process by which young people grow into the intellectual life of those around them” (Vygotsky, 1978: 88). An ideal social situation should enable positive affect and increased achievement in a learning situation where indigenous peoples can access higher education, especially within a local WINHEC-affiliated HEI. To facilitate a safe learning environment, we propose the organization of Indigenous Caring Communities (ICCs) as an important element of the Indigenous Creativity Theory and an offshoot of the Networks of Practice Theory. ICCs can range from large groups to indigenous dyads and small groups that can be used as a venue to enable a dialogical process of learning, which fits with Paulo Freire’s (1970) notion of dialogical learning (Taylor, 1993). This
  • 25. 25 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium dialogical process is grounded in the idea that care, compassion, and love are required for sustained learning. ICCs are essential for indigenous peoples to thrive at the higher education level. Drawing from an enabling environment that is so prevalent in successful ICCs, WINHEC continues to expand its own stance on how to interact with other indigenous nations and institutions. As Sheng Yao Cheng and his colleagues (2011: 295) argue that “theory creation . . . is an ongoing process that builds upon the rich foundation of previous educators who advocated various global standpoint theoretical perspectives.” Abraham Harold Maslow (1970, 2000) asserts that humans have a hierarchy of needs and that two of the most essential are safety and the need to belong (including a sense of human caring). Indigenous people need to possess a sense of belonging in their learning process. If Maslow’s hierarchy has any merit, ICCs are required to provide a caring environment where all participants enter without fear and with belonging; this ICC environment enables indigenous cultures to be a centerpiece of the learning experience. In a complementary mode, Daniel Amen (2008: 31, 219) maintains that “positive, happy, hopeful thoughts release chemicals that help you feel good” and “relationships are critical to how we deal with stress and trauma . . . [thus] connection enhances brain function.” Since Amen posits this biological response to positive thinking, he also suggests that relationships affect such a response: Success in almost any adventure in life—at home, work, in our hobbies and churches—is enhanced when we build a brain trust of personal relationships and social networks…... Acquiring and implementing the behaviors that encourage your social communities to thrive is essential for a magnificent mind. (220)
  • 26. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)26 Thus, learning is enhanced by the positive relationships that one has with others, including with the communities in which they interact. Consequently, positive relationships and places of belonging will enable indigenous peoples to achieve more in all areas of life, including in their higher education pursuits. Amen (2008) further concludes that children can be taught by our communities; we recognize the central role parents and other positive role models play in this communal learning process. When indigenous students and faculty members face challenges in higher education, ICCs can help buoy them up through continual positive reinforcement and social scaffolding. Positive role models—including parents, teachers, and leaders—are integral to implementing successfully Indigenous Creativity Theory through the careful establishment of sustainable ICCs. This positive thinking for indigenous peoples as learners would also spawn positive self-identities (Amen, 2008: 256). Indigenous self-identities are positively enhanced when indigenous peoples realize that their culture is valued and respected. Indigenous languages and cultures can only be preserved if they are valued by those who can best preserve them. Such positive thinking can be enabled when learners, especially indigenous learners, recognize intrinsic motivational reasons to preserve their heritage as a natural and important part of the learning process. ICCs provide participants with caring personal relationships during their academic pursuits. Thus, with their basic needs met, indigenous students can be motivated to achieve at whatever academic level they desire, including higher education. ICCs help by providing a caring community of learners and mentors within the higher education experience. Having a place for indigenous cultures within academia sits at the heart of the ICC model within Indigenous Creativity Theory. Our evaluation of WINHEC causes us to believe that ICC associations exist and can be expanded
  • 27. 27 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium further within the Consortium and globally. David A. Kolb and colleagues (2000) note that learners translate reflective observation and active experimentation into abstract concepts and then subsume them into action plans. Subsequently, reflective observation and active experimentation create a type of anticipatory motivation to implement new concepts. Such reflection and experimentation are part of metacognition and would be better enabled if indigenous higher education students felt safe enough to expose their own thinking. If indigenous students understood themselves through metacognition and understanding their emotions, they would also be better equipped to face any discrimination. Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (2008) also suggest that intrinsic motivation would increase from caring relationships such as between indigenous students and their mentors, whether indigenous or not, as part of the ICC dyads or small groups. These dyads/groups would have a sense of autonomy as they authentically help each other in a mutual learning goal, which is also supported by Freire’s (1970) ideas of dialogic education in authentic tasks. Stephen Krashen’s (1982) theory that language acquisition emphasizes message and attitude over form, as discussed by Elaine Horwitz (2008), can also be used in complementary ways with Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development to argue for the peer and small group approach (Miller, 2009). These theories support the idea of indigenous peoples acquiring languages with which to enhance their success at the higher education level. Furthermore, where peer and social groups often enable learning, higher education organizational bureaucracies and rigid scientific communities often prevent the generation of new knowledge with an embedded type of inaccessibility (Zinsser, 1988) and paradigmatic stalemate (Kuhn, 1962). ICCs help indigenous students increase their ability to engage in learning within local and national higher
  • 28. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)28 education systems. Thus, the success that Maslow implies awaits these students, and it would motivate them further into his ideas of autonomous success, self-actualization, and self-transcendence (Huitt, 2007). Maslow’s ideas suggest that the learner will be able to find transcendent worth in helping others of their own and other indigenous communities, even those that are geographically distant, especially using technology. This connection with distant ICCs aligns with the Network of Practice Theory and fits well with WINHEC’s technologically connected paradigm. Indigenous Creativity Theory suggests that indigenous people traditionally have employed ways of knowing that are unique to their cultures, and generally involve the creative indigenous students’ lenses. Howard Gardner and Thomas Hatch (1989) acknowledge that human beings have basic gifts of different types, and Judy Lombardi (2008) discusses how indigenous students’ different backgrounds and understanding can be accessed by the various ways of knowing. Tying these ideas together, an additional need that Maslow recognizes is creative expression (Maslow, et al., 1993). Maslow positions creativity over the scientific lens, arguing that the artistic paradigm is an ideal way to teach others content. This is antithetical in many ways to the history of what is termed the Western mind-set, which has emerged from a more positivist framework. Herman A. Witkin and colleagues (1977) introduce the idea of field- dependent and field-independent learners, where field-dependent learners generally follow a Gestalt approach of understanding ideas as a whole first. These individuals are usually considered more creative-oriented by nature, and we argue that they learn best through a creativity approach in accomplishing tasks effectively. As explored in WINHEC journals, indigenous learners often
  • 29. 29 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium prefer this creativity approach, as most published articles include indigenous ways of knowing that are inherently creative (Carey, 2011). The indigenous members involved with ICCs include learners, parents, and mentors (often expressed as elders), as well as other contributors including non-indigenous peers and mentors, or instructors of various genres within small communities, such as the local affiliates of WINHEC. Indigenous Creativity Theory posits that indigenous peoples have expressed an affinity for creative ways of knowing. However, since the advent of more advanced communication technologies (especially the Internet and the widespread use of cellular and smart phones), we recognize that ICCs now exist across large geographic distances among indigenous peoples in almost every nation. Technology helps ICCs provide a sense of identity and belonging. Some social theories have been used to scrutinize WINHEC (Horwtiz, 2008: 53). The languages that indigenous students may have as a first language or wish to acquire can be an advantage within the social context of WINHEC associations. WINHEC should be able to facilitate language learning among its partner member affiliates. This is because indigenous mentors within the tertiary system are often more attuned to students who share their own indigenous language, as well as be in a position to promote the learning of other indigenous languages. Those who want to acquire greater linguistic knowledge include people who already have some facility in it but wish for more fluency, which opens a channel to oral histories and traditions, especially as conveyed by elders, which are very important to most indigenous communities. Language and cultural immersion are necessary to understand fully indigenous traditions, cultures, and languages. Experiencing, or speaking, the language through active and frequent dialogue is a necessary part of the language acquisition process. Indigenous languages are best acquired when
  • 30. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)30 learners are able to speak with peers and mentors in an ecological setting (Van Lier, 2000; Khatib, et al., 2010); such languages can be learned better in an environment infused with WINHEC personnel who have similar indigeneity. As Horwitz (2008) notes, during these conversations indigenous students would negotiate meanings with indigenous and non-indigenous official language speakers. This approach enables language learning and understanding by others and helps indigenous peoples be equally adept at their own indigenous languages as well as the majority language of their country, as WINHEC suggests. WINHEC could provide a mechanism or framework that helps higher education students maintain and develop their indigenous ideas and cultural heritages. This framework could be strengthened by allowing indigenous students to develop feelings of kinship in group associations. This follows what Duane Champagne (2010) calls the indigenous way of living in the world. Champagne considers these kinship groups as less secular, more intimate, and more like small bands of extended family. We argue that kinship is an important element of the feeling of caring inherent in ICCs. This can enable both indigenous and non-indigenous students to have a framework to share and access knowledge in a more friendly, familiar, and clear way. ICCs are indigenous communities, including those organized or facilitated through technology, that allow for the sharing of information within a caring and extended family-type setting, provided by indigenous and/or non- indigenous community members, one to another. However, ICCs do not preclude participants from also joining in with beneficial experiences in indigenous communities. We define beneficial experiences as any activity or way of knowing that affirms indigenous peoples in their rights to exist, develop their cultures, granted freedom of beliefs and religion, and which promotes life
  • 31. 31 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium and love. The love we refer to is a sisterly or brotherly love as in the Greek philía (φιλία) and familial love as in storgē (στοργή) (Liddell & Scott, 1940). ICCs should foster an environment of cooperation and synergistic learning. An example may include two or more ICC members actively engaged in a peer-writing group. In this scenario, ICC members would be working in collaboration with one another and learning from each other. As they co-author a paper or essay together, they would not only learn from and reinforce each other’s work, but they would also build self-esteem and meaningful relationships (Dennison, 2000). Hughes Bradley and his colleagues (2010) found that learning based on peer interaction is so deep that it often continues for years afterwards, affirming the idea of a caring community of learners. This makes ICCs ideal reciprocal learning centers. Such an environment should include the presence of someone who embodies the approach of teachers of indigenous peoples everywhere, since they present a cultural affinity for the sense of belonging that is salient to identification with their ethnic group (Champagne, 2010). Vygotsky (1978) posits that a teacher who cares would be aware of and address learners using the various intelligences that would enable them to learn in the best way they can. WINHEC supports the idea of creativity informing knowledge and being part of knowledge at the higher education level. One of the inaugural WINHEC founders, Gunvor Guttorm from Sami University College in Norway, has devoted herself to introducing Sami handicraft and art (sáiduodji) to higher education since 1986, when she was hired to plan and implement the first teacher training program in handicrafts, known as duodji (Guttorm, 2012). Since then, she has been the authentic advocator in developing duodji at Sami University College, introducing the best practices of the traditional handicraft into academic programs while maintaining traditional values.
  • 32. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)32 Guttorm’s program is an example of how an indigenous scholar integrates indigenous knowledge into academic programs to invent a creative and sustainable higher educational program that is accredited at the master’s level. One can imagine how a caring and creative educator, especially one with indigenous ties, can use such a creative venue as duodji to enable students to learn. In literacy, for instance, students can create handicrafts with meaningful words. Edwards (2010: 30) notes: Literacies include the ability to communicate and understand the environment including nature, weather patterns, star paths, tides and seasons (Edwards, 2009) as well as the ability to communicate and relate to human entities, most commonly done through whaikorero, karanga, pao, waiata, whakatauki and general korero. Other literacy forms included ‘art’ such as whakairo, raranga, taniko, kowhaiwhai just to name a few. These literacies primarily were about communication, living and balance that supported mutual causality (Meyer, 2009). Donna M. Mertens (2010: 16) explains, for instance, that in Botswana, lessons about HIV/AIDS prevention include students’ own conceptions, using creative venues such as singing, dancing, poetry, myths, et cetera. Before designing such interventions, Mertens interviewed some teens about their desires and opinions regarding sexuality and education. Paul Whitinui (2010: 4) indicates that Maori students succeed better with the inclusion of communicative and creative singing and dancing: The growing interest in kapa haka by schools today is perhaps reflective of the changing needs of students to engage in alternative
  • 33. 33 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium learning environments that are more likely to coincide with their preferred cultural learning activities, styles and abilities. For many Māori communities and in particular, the whānau (immediate family), having kapa haka signals that schools are willing to provide environments that are culturally safe, caring and supportive (Macfarlane, Glynn, Cavanagh, & Bateman, 2007). In 2002, the New Zealand Qualification Authority recognised kapa haka as an academic subject that schools could readily offer to all students (NZQA, 2002). This decision enable[s] Māori students who participate in kapa haka to have the opportunity to gain academic credits that can be accredited to the National Certificate in Educational Achievement at various levels, Te Reo Māori (Māori Language), Māori Performing Arts, Ngā Toi Māori i roto i te Mātauranga (The Arts-dance, drama, music and visual arts), as well as Health and Physical Education Curriculum (Hindle, 2002). Thus, many Māori, and by extension other indigenous peoples, have a creative learning style and will be more successful if allowed to learn in that manner. Self-Determination Theory This is not to say that there is some biological component in this learning style. Rather, inclusion in the curriculum of the creative arts supports the creativity inherent in some indigenous cultures, enabling better results in learning. This will be relevant if Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2008) proves applicable to indigenous students:
  • 34. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)34 The most central distinction in SDT is between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Autonomous motivation comprises both intrinsic motivation and the types of extrinsic motivation in which people have identified with an activity’s value and ideally will have integrated it into their sense of self. When people are autonomously motivated, they experience volition, or a self- endorsement of their actions. (182) Hence, we see that indigenous people will be more motivated when their “sense of self” is associated with an activity, such as learning of any sort. This is the kind of activity that WINHEC has been endorsing and working on in a complementary fashion with indigenous people’s preferences and self-identity, which is an essential need (Maslow, 2000). Such efforts, therefore, should produce more motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and can help indigenous people overcome some of the dismal education performance statistics that prevail in many of these communities. Brian Hoffman and Brian Frost (2006: 51) conclude that the understanding and use of multiple intelligences is a necessary aspect of any organization’s ability to teach students. The use of interpersonal intelligence is most helpful and more easily accessed in small communities or dyads of indigenous students (like ICCs), found in organizations like WINHEC. Moreover, when organizations involving indigenous students need to accomplish tasks, Brian Belland and colleagues (2000) show that peer informants work quite well with task-based learning in language acquisition. Theresa Pica (2005) also indicates that peer interactions are effective when “information gaps” are seen as a hurdle to overcome. Nevertheless, college-age ESL students were found by Paul Kei Matsuda and Jeffrey
  • 35. 35 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Jablonski (2000) to be denied ownership of the English language by their instructors and other students, often inhibiting their development. In class interactions, disenfranchised students were learning as if they were students learning a second language, which could be addressed by the inclusion of knowledgeable peers in a community provided by such a group as WINHEC. Indigenous Cultural Creativity Theory We define Indigenous Cultural Creativity Theory as the use of various forms of creativity within an indigenous cultural context that expresses ways of knowing (including spiritual ways of knowing) that tap into the creative practices of indigenous cultures, both from the past and present. Such practices include performances of poetry, dancing, singing, and musical expressions, especially using languages and cultural instruments that have been hand-crafted. Common indigenous art forms are done primarily by hand, and include various media, such as painting, craft-production, pottery, clothing-production, and other fine art. They also include any other auditory, tactile, pictorial, or graphic representation, including computer-assisted representations, that express ideas of indigenous peoples, converging the senses with cognition. Metacognition is regarded as a creative way to address one’s own needs in acquiring knowledge; Scott Ridley and colleagues (1992) observes how indigenous peoples use their creative techniques to access knowledge, especially indigenous epistemology. They assert that the use of metacognition is a successful and ubiquitous endeavor that can be used by many populations to enhance knowledge acquisition in creative ways. To enhance their students’ language acquisition, several Chinese educators used John Flavell’s (1979) premise that metacognition can help students overcome their blind spots in learning. This paradigm translates to the ideas of
  • 36. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)36 indigenous peoples’ need for creative self-reflection and the use of the intra-personal intelligence. Therefore, metacognition can enhance motivation and understanding of targeted knowledge. Schools are beginning to recognize creative indigenous epistemologies in such art as kapa haka, which is a Maori cultural expression of dancing in rows. In Aotearoa (New Zealand), it is mandatory for the curriculum in high schools to show support for Maori people (Whitinui, 2008, 2010). Thus, it is clear that the educational establishment is beginning to include the indigenous creative lens for all students, not just those who claim indigeneity. Even Elsa Stamatopoulou, Chief of the Secretariat of UNPFII, notes that although indigenous peoples of the world contribute much diversity, indigenous peoples continue to suffer discrimination, marginalization, extreme poverty and conflict. Some are being dispossessed of their traditional lands as their livelihoods are being undermined. Meanwhile, their belief systems, cultures, languages and ways of life continue to be threatened, sometimes even by extinction. (United Nations DESA, 2009: iii) There is a lack of opportunity afforded by the dominant social structure, which rarely provides diverse minority groups with an equal, culturally relevant, and critical platform to undergird their subjective epistemology. This lack means that the unique ways of knowing that are embedded in indigenous cultures are disrespected, unacknowledged, and unknown to the majority of dominant cultures, and even to those youth of the indigenous cultures. There is a real danger that these precious cultures will become extinct unless efforts are made to preserve them. That is, of course, where WINHEC comes in, as one of
  • 37. 37 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium several answers to this problem. WINHEC has the potential to serve as an ideal forum where indigenous peoples’ epistemologies are respected and preserved. Many scholars argue that there is a crucial role for an organization like WINHEC to help preserve the beauty that is found in indigenous cultures and support peoples who have much to contribute, enabling their stars to rise within higher education circles in their own unique ways. Indigenous Practices in WINHEC: A SWOC Analysis In this section, we examine WINHEC based on a SWOC analysis, which enables us to evaluate the effectiveness of WINHEC’s services and programs (see Figure 1). Figure 1. SWOC Analysis Summary of WINHEC Source: Created by the Authors.
  • 38. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)38 Strengths Recognition. When indigenous higher education is officially recognized and accredited, it creates a positive symbol to reconstruct indigenous subjectivity and value human rights in the formal higher education system. Moreover, recognized accreditation is a practical step to transform indigenous peoples’ endangered status and marginalized condition. The advantage of official recognition is obtaining an identity from diverse (non)indigenous peoples publically, legitimately, and internationally. Indigenous Values, Cultures and Languages. A unique element of the WINHEC accreditation compared to other mainstream accreditation bodies is the focus on indigenous values, cultures, and languages. Therefore, (non) indigenous peoples are encouraged to pay more attention to their worldviews, cultures, and dialects. In this way, indigenous people can have a positive identity through the accreditation process and become more willing to use their previously disregarded cultural capital. WINHEC recognizes three elements that are essential to protect and enhance: language, culture, and spiritual beliefs. Meyer (2005: 4) claims that, “the WINHEC priority of language is itself a reminder that what has birthed our world view is held in ancient symbols, codes and energies that we are returning to for meaning and joy.” WINHEC encourages the use of indigenous languages in all facets of programming. Additionally, a focus on culture preservation is considered to be a best practice by WINHEC, and one that it aims to support at the higher education level. Indigenous cultures have survived the on-going societal bombardment of the belief that the dominant or global way of thinking is better than traditional, indigenous ways. To consolidate the integrity of indigenous cultures with ethnic/cultural identity through education, WINHEC perceives quality assurance as being achieved when culture is preserved and celebrated within higher
  • 39. 39 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium education systems. WINHEC also supports spiritual beliefs and practices found in indigenous centers of higher learning. This is accomplished by the very nature of WINHEC’s vision: “Indigenous Peoples of the world united in the collective synergy of self determination through control of higher education” (WINHEC, 2005). According to Meyer (2005: 6), “WINHEC encourages both process and product of accreditation efforts that are accomplished and supported within a framework that honors all spiritual beliefs, practices and expressions.” For instance, Meyer (2005: 8) continues by noting that, “We must shape our own qualities of excellence found in our language, our cultures and in all expressions of spirit.” An additional organizational strength of WINHEC is that it supports both Indigenous Creativity Theory and Indigenous Cultural Creativity Theory. Since indigenous cultures often emphasize creative expression as an intrinsic part of self-identity, WINHEC as an organization is able to provide a venue for such expression in higher education. When indigenous peoples enroll in higher education, they often secure a creative affinity and credibility that their cultures express. Since its establishment, WINHEC has recognized the important role elders play in indigenous education. Elders are considered culture bearers who shoulder great responsibility in the preservation of indigenous knowledge, languages, and traditions. The specialty of the transition of indigenous knowledge mostly relies on the important roles elders play and have played in the past. In the process of building connections between HEIs and indigenous communities, elders play a significant part in terms of transition and interpretation of indigenous knowledge (lokepa-Guerrero, et al., 2011; Triumpf, 2011).
  • 40. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)40 Academic Autonomy. Through the WINHEC accreditation process, indigenous peoples have more power to decide on their curriculum content, design, and instruction language. In doing so, they have some quiet control over academic programs and employ the faculty members they need. The WINHEC accreditation process represents academic autonomy and is a recognized strength of the Consortium that should be further developed and expanded. Diverse Partnerships. The accreditation review team is comprised of both community members and indigenous higher education members (WINHEC, 2010). In other words, the community is considered a key stakeholder group in the accreditation process. Consequently, during the accreditation process, indigenous HEIs can be significantly supported by community members and in turn, members of local communities gain a sense of ownership and contribution because they were able to participate in the accreditation process. HEIs are also starting to pay attention to indigenous programs, departments, and colleges and are recognizing the value of applying for WINHEC accreditation to obtain the bicultural identification certification. As Walter Fleming said, “By being accredited by WINHEC, potential students and indigenous communities can be assured that [Minnesota State University’s] Native American Studies department has met both academic and cultural standards of excellence” (“Montana State University Native American Studies setting standard,” 2009). He further noted that this is also a good way to reexamine institutional values because “institutions rarely assess, or even identify, their institutional values” (Ibid.). The WINHEC accreditation process has given the Native American Studies Department an opportunity to identify a “value system upon which it has always operated but never articulated” (Ibid.). Alternative Accreditation Framework and Process. To the best of our understanding from our document analysis, the WINHEC review team members
  • 41. 41 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium and other consultants involved in the accreditation process have no set criteria based on the principles of general higher education accreditation. Meyer (2005: 4) argues that, “we did not offer templates of comparison or review aggregated data, rather questions probed into understanding how language, culture and belief systems were strengthened with coursework, community and collaborations with global cousins.” The accreditation process places a central role on the natural formation of indigenous performance. Meyer further notes that, “indigenous accreditation then is no longer about overseeing well-intentioned ideals, but rather it became a way to bear witness” (4). WINHEC provides the opportunity for different kinds of indigenous knowledge to exist, which are also valued and used in many academic pursuits. When HEIs undergo the WINHEC accreditation process, they and/or indigenous higher education programs have the opportunity to enhance the preservation of indigenous cultures, traditions, and values. In 2003, the Accreditation Authority was established on behalf of WINHEC to implement the idea of academic accreditation for indigenous higher education institutions and programs. The WINHEC Accreditation Handbook (2010) states that the accreditation process includes participation of indigenous peoples and stakeholders and focuses on “the educational institutions for performance, integrity, and quality that entitles them to the confidence of the cultural and educational community being served” (4). The Accreditation Handbook also recognizes the importance of including “participation by indigenous peoples to be served through the respective institution/program, including responsibility for establishing review criteria and participating in the self-study and review process” (4). If the accreditation review process is positive, the WINHEC Accreditation Authority Board approves a HEI for a 10-year period (see Figure 2).
  • 42. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)42 Figure 2. WINHEC Institutional/Program Accreditation Framework and Process Source: Created by the authors. Two points in the accreditation process are worthy of attention. First, candidate HEIs or programs can provide a self-study through which they critically examine themselves in terms of educational structure and funding, academic achievement, and their service to indigenous communities. Considering effort and time constraints, members of the review team are greatly assisted if they receive a completed self-study in advance of their visit. In addition, the requirement that at least “an Elder who has been associated with a member program or institution” (WINHEC, 2010: 11) must be included, enhances the quality and effectiveness of each review team visit and also reflects the importance of elders taking an active role in improving indigenous higher education.
  • 43. 43 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Weaknesses Budgetary Issues. One of the budgetary issues occurred at the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) meeting in 2004, where WINHEC founders gathered and mentioned that they were facing a financial crisis. Turoa Royal and Trevor Moeke (both Maori) from New Zealand, two WINHEC founders, noted that for the Consortium to achieve the goal of building human capacity for helping individuals and the community to participate in the global world and to engage in well-being living had cost the Maori approximately US$182,000 a year to operate WINHEC (Ambler, 2005: 20). They recognized that this amount was clearly insufficient for WINHEC’s activities to fulfill its mission, meaning WINHEC faces a continual need to raise funds. One way that it could consider overcoming this weakness is by seeking more stable funding sources, including potential endowment donors. The other potential critique is in reference to financial transparency. Current and prospective members could benefit from understanding the flow, management, and status of WINHEC funding, especially regarding substantial, effective, and accountable business practices. Lack of Widespread Participation. Although WINHEC (2010: 3) proclaims that part of its purpose “is to provide an international forum and support for indigenous peoples to pursue common goals through higher education,” most of the HEIs that have received WINHEC accreditation are located in predominantly English-speaking countries (e.g., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States), with the exception of those in Norway. In other words, the Consortium has positioned itself as an international leader that attends to global concerns surrounding indigenous higher education; it should build upon the progress it has made over the past decade to incorporate more non-indigenous higher education perspectives and institutions. However,
  • 44. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)44 available documents from WINHEC’s website show that the Consortium’s network has a relative lack of participation from several parts of the world, such as Africa, Latin America, South Asia, and other Pacific Islands besides Hawai’i and New Zealand. Lack of Quality Assurance Follow-up. There is no clear process to assure that, once accredited, institutions or programs maintain their quality. This may prevent indigenous peoples from always receiving the best possible learning opportunities. More could be done to help strengthen the institutional quality assurance capacity building, especially after receiving WINHEC accreditation. From 2005 to the present, the majority of articles in WINHEC-sponsored journals are written by authors from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States, which creates an imbalance of focus on worldwide indigenous higher education portrayed in the academic literature. WINHEC’s goal to be a leading organization with representation of indigenous peoples and societies from around the world is hampered when the Consortium’s major publication outlets have such a dearth of contributors from some parts of the world. Additionally, the executive board members and founding members include people from a relatively small number of countries. Although WINHEC provides various means for creative expression in indigenous arts, it has not used the same means to encourage more quantitative content areas in higher education. Consequently, various indigenous learners, especially those creative learners, are prevented from accessing such content areas. WINHEC is, however, an excellent venue for encouraging the shifting of a one-sided paradigm for indigenous learners, which could be realized through, for instance, an expression of physics problem learning using kapa haka.
  • 45. 45 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Opportunities Through conferences, publications, and advocacy, WINHEC is an ideal hub for (non)indigenous peoples to meet, collaborate, and work toward a common goal. It provides opportunities for indigenous students with common perspectives “to draw strength from each other” (Ambler, 2005: 20). Potential Accreditation for All HEIs. The WINHEC accreditation process is not limited to indigenous-oriented HEIs; it also welcomes mainstream institutional applications. This enables WINHEC to have a potentially wide outreach with HEIs throughout the world. It also provides a venue for institutions and programs that would like to become more involved with indigenous issues to do so. Internationalization of Local Indigenous HEIs. Accreditation promotes cooperation between local indigenous HEIs and other HEIs worldwide. This international synergy approach is an effective opportunity for WINHEC to help HEIs preserve and promote indigenous academia. The WINHEC Annual General Meeting, which most recently was held in Hualien, Taiwan in 2012, is an example of WINHEC branching out to additional locations (Table 1). Similarly, the Consortium could hold its annual meetings in a variety of countries to help spread its influence and outreach potential.
  • 46. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)46 Table 1. Locations of WINHEC Annual General Meetings, 2003-2012 Year Institution City/Country 2012 National Dong Hwa University Hualien, Taiwan 2011 Sonesta Cusco Hotel Cuzco, Peru 2010 Sámi University College Kautokeino, Norway 2009 First Nations Technical Institute Brighton, ON, Canada 2008 La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia 2007 Chaminade University Honolulu, HI, USA 2006 Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College St. Cloquet, MN, USA 2005 Glenview International Hotel and Conference Centre Hamilton, New Zealand 2004 Griffiths University Brisbane, Australia 2003 University of Hawai’i – Manoa Honolulu, HI, USA Source: Adapted by the authors from the WINHEC (2012) Archive of Annual General Meetings. Potential to Build a Global Indigenous Higher Education Archive. WINHEC has a unique and potentially influential opportunity to advocate on behalf of many indigenous peoples worldwide. The Consortium is able to reach out to local and national governments on behalf of indigenous higher education issues. Its focus is based largely on Articles 12, 13, 14, and 15 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which emphasizes that states should acknowledge and protect the rights of indigenous peoples in preserving and fostering their languages, cultures, and worldviews (United Nations, 2007). Since the legitimacy and formal recognition of indigeneity often emanates from governmental policy, WINHEC should take into consideration the role that governments and policy makers play. Furthermore, indigenous peoples should
  • 47. 47 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium be actively engaged in policy-making processes, especially policies established to serve the indigenous communities (Jacob, Sutin, Weidman, & Yeager, forthcoming). Another viable area of expansion is the development of a higher education network between employers and indigenous students. WINHEC could also consider developing an internship program for its accredited HEIs with partner industries and government agencies. It could also establish an international exchange program and the premier archive or digital library of indigenous writings and scholarship among its global higher education institutional network. Challenges Diversity of Languages and Cultures. Regarding the question of language accessibility for the rising indigenous generation, Meyer (2005: 5) notes that WINHEC’s accreditation reviewers “want to hear what has inspired students, in whatever language they choose” because they understand how important it is to preserve indigenous languages and cultures. The WINHEC accreditation process is an indigenous ideal, whereby indigenous cultures, languages, and traditions can be recognized and promoted, but the challenge remains how best to preserve and promote this ideal. While, in theory, WINHEC supports advocating and preserving all indigenous languages, it is very costly for it to include an indigenous language in the accreditation process. It takes a lot of time, money, and energy to select qualified review team members who have the contextual language fluency and who are also familiar with the local cultures. As a result, only a relatively few indigenous languages have been examined by WINHEC during the accreditation processes to date. Varying Legitimacy Perspectives on the WINHEC Accreditation Process.
  • 48. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)48 Because higher education accreditation is well developed in many countries, some scholars and peoples may view the WINHEC process as being too non-traditional. Such criticisms come from both internal and external sources, where some critics question the legitimacy of WINHEC’s process. This will be a continuing challenge. Articulation Agreements. One of the challenges that WINHEC accredited HEIs face is articulation agreements with other, predominantly mainstream, HEIs. Students transferring from an indigenous HEI to a mainstream HEI benefit from the transferal of completed credits from one institution to the other. WINHEC does not currently deal with this issue in its accreditation process. As a result, there is the possibility that some courses taken by students at an indigenous HEI may not transfer to other HEIs within the same country or in international settings. No single institution serves as a global higher education reservoir of indigenous peoples and WINHEC has the unique challenge (as well as potential opportunity) to assume this important leadership role. Information is essential for conducting quality research and in disseminating accurate information about indigenous peoples’ languages, cultures, and traditions. How and where to house this information reservoir is a challenge that needs to be addressed. Perhaps WINHEC could further expand its publications section of its website to include an archive of indigenous education research based on thematic topics of interest to higher education stakeholders. Such an indigenous archive would prove valuable to students, faculty members, policy makers, and indigenous education advocates worldwide. This recommendation is closely aligned with several of WINHEC’s goals, especially Goal 6 to “Create a global network for sharing knowledge through exchange forums and state of the art technology (WINHEC, 2012).
  • 49. 49 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium CONCLUSION Based on our SWOC analysis, we argue that the primary advantages of WINHEC include its ability to promote self-determination of indigenous higher education, the reconstruction of indigenous subjectivity, and indigenous higher education sustainability. WINHEC accreditation is a successful, legitimate, and imperative process in developing indigenous higher education at local, national, and international levels. The accreditation process is threatened, however, by a lack of sufficient financial resources, transparency, and ongoing quality assurance, especially after accreditation is granted. In addition, WINHEC is also faced with a lack of members from many countries. Linguistic barriers also challenge the organization when it comes to organizing its leadership meetings, because many board members speak less common languages. However, the many possibilities that exist seem to outweigh the Consortium’s weaknesses and challenges. WINHEC members are faced with both the challenge and opportunity of building a worldwide indigenous network capable of boosting indigenous peoples’ causes through higher education channels to many diverse nations. In this article, we examined the relationship between WINHEC’s espoused theories and practices, focusing on the Consortium’s unique model of promoting indigenous higher education and the dynamic interplay it has with HEIs globally. We used a social cartography framework to scrutinize the interactions between WINHEC and its current partners and in examining its internal and external institutional dynamics. Finally, we ascertained that WINHEC helps fill a tremendous organizational gap in promoting indigenous higher education throughout the world. It is especially relevant in advocating the cause of indigenous peoples within higher education systems, where they have
  • 50. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)50 traditionally been excluded. In its attempts to preserve and promote indigenous paradigms, WINHEC can energize and enliven almost any field of endeavor in which an indigenous or interested non-indigenous person may be interested. Despite its already impressive successes, WINHEC is a relatively new organization. It will take time for it to realize its full potential. By integrating the best of East and West, global and local, tradition and innovation, we proposed several recommendations for WINHEC leaders to consider as they expand its higher education outreach and influence potential among (non)indigenous peoples worldwide. In addition, we also suggested strategies for overcoming possible limitations or challenges. If it can build upon its strengths and make good use of its opportunities, WINHEC has a bright future in advocating the cause of indigenous peoples worldwide at the higher education level. Additionally, we have provided multiple examples whereby WINHEC can minimize or overcome its weaknesses and challenges that it faces now and will undoubtedly face in the future. The SWOC analysis has outlined multiple areas for improvement and change. Continuing with its vision to reach out to indigenous peoples across the earth, WINHEC has an important leadership role to play in the advancement of indigenous higher education issues worldwide.
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  • 60. 《台灣原住民族研究季刊》第 6 卷、第 1 期 (2013/春季號)60 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium W. James Jacob Associate Professor, Administrative and Policy Studies Department Director, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Che-Wei Lee( 李 哲 偉 ) Program Coordinator, institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Nancy Wehrheim Adjunct Professor, La Roche College Veysel Gökbel Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Joel Dumba Chrispo Dumba Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh Xiaolin Lu( 呂 嘯 林 ) Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh
  • 61. 61 Mapping Indigenous Paradigms, Research, and Practice in Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Shengjun Yin( 尹 聖 珺 ) Project Associate, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh 摘 要 在本篇文章中,我們提供一個深入的組織分析,探究世界原住民 族 高 等 教 育 聯 盟 (World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium,以下簡稱 WINHEC) 為了原住民化高等教育所做的努力, 如何透過其全球策略達成民族重建及民族自決。我們從文獻中辨識出 WINHEC 應用在經營自身組織的四種理論,並提出兩個適切評鑑聯盟 的新理論—原住民族創造力理論(Indigenous Creativity Theory)及原住 民族文化創造力理論(Indigenous Culture Creativity Theory)。社會地圖 學 (Social Cartography) 、 檔 案 分 析 (Archival Analysis) 、 論 述 分 析 (Discourse Analysis)被應用來檢視聯盟的原住民典範、研究與實踐。透 過優勢、劣勢、機會與挑戰的 SWOC 分析方式,檢視 WINHEC 對各 地區之會員民族的組織貢獻、有效性、特殊觀點、原住民族參與的挑 戰及管理。研究結果主張,在推動全球原住民族高等教育的活動中, 無論是原住民族或非原住民族,雙方皆扮演著重要且相互依存的角 色。 關鍵詞:原住民族創造力理論、原住民族文化創造力理論、原住民族 典範、原住民族高等教育、世界原住民族高等教育聯盟 (WINHEC)

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