Can Conditional Preferential
Policy Motivate Taiwan’s
Aboriginal Students to
Recognize Their Endangered
Ethnic Languages?
...
Research Question
This study investigates whether Certification of
Aboriginal Cultural and Language Proficiency
(CACLP) es...
Brief Overview of Taiwanese
Aborigines
• 14 officially recognized tribes
• 52 thousand out of 23 million (= 2.25%)
• Urban...
What Is Conditional Preferential
Policy?
An extra form where the score of the candidate
with the Aboriginal identity is au...
Policy Debates:
Blood Aboriginality vs. Cultural Aboriginality
• Backlash: Dominant ethnic Han students and parents vs. Ta...
Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 6
Motivation and Language
Learning
“Motivation refers to the choices people make as
...
Language Shift
Brenzinger and Dimmendaal (1992) argue
that “language shift does not necessarily
result in language obsoles...
Survey Methodology
• An Aboriginal-based high school
• All 267 Aboriginal Students aged years
• Grade 10 = 97; Grade 11 = ...
Major Findings
Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 9
Item Variable Results
Willing to take CACLP test GPA ranking Top 10...
Motivation to Obtain CACLP
Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 10
Item %
To enter a higher school by additional scores 3...
Conclusions
Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 11
• Integrative Motivation >
Instrumental Motivation
• CACLP hardly gua...
Reflections on CACLP
• Policy maker’s perspective: conditional
patronizing or ideological control, e.g.,
coercive value, c...
Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 13
Carole Goldberg, Duane Champagne, and Che-
Wei Lee in the Paiwan Tribe, Pingtung,...
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Can Conditional Preferential Policy Motivate Taiwan’s Aboriginal Students to Recognize Their Endangered Ethnic Languages?

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58th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
Wednesday, 12 March 2014, 8:00-9:30am, Building/Room: Sheraton Downtown
Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, 123 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2M9, Canada

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Can Conditional Preferential Policy Motivate Taiwan’s Aboriginal Students to Recognize Their Endangered Ethnic Languages?

  1. 1. Can Conditional Preferential Policy Motivate Taiwan’s Aboriginal Students to Recognize Their Endangered Ethnic Languages? Che-Wei Lee University of Pittsburgh Duane Champagne University of California, Los Angeles 58th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Wednesday, 12 March 2014, 8:00-9:30am, Building/Room: Sheraton Downtown Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, 123 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2M9, Canada
  2. 2. Research Question This study investigates whether Certification of Aboriginal Cultural and Language Proficiency (CACLP) established as one of the qualifications for the preferential treatment admissions policy in college entrance exam can motivate Taiwan Aboriginal students to recognize and learn their endangered ethnic languages. Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 2
  3. 3. Brief Overview of Taiwanese Aborigines • 14 officially recognized tribes • 52 thousand out of 23 million (= 2.25%) • Urban residence = 44% (western and northern Taiwan) • Preferential policy in senior high school and college/university admissions Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 3
  4. 4. What Is Conditional Preferential Policy? An extra form where the score of the candidate with the Aboriginal identity is augmented by a fixed number of points [Granted based on blood] Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 4 + ( / ) − ( / ) Certification of Aboriginal Culture and Language Proficiency (CACLP) [Conditional award or cultural incentive?] Qualifier = 33.3% Disqualifier = decline 5% per year till 10 %
  5. 5. Policy Debates: Blood Aboriginality vs. Cultural Aboriginality • Backlash: Dominant ethnic Han students and parents vs. Taiwanese Aboriginal Counterparts • Flash Point: Prior to 2002, indigenous students are qualified based on their blood lineage, who particularly shared the same educational circumstance. • Conditional Preferential Policy: After 2002, the government introduced a new policy requiring Aboriginal students pass a Certification of Aboriginal Culture and Language Proficiency (CACLP) in order to qualify for the preferential score, which is extra 35% for the qualified students and 25% for those who fail or do not take it. Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 5
  6. 6. Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 6 Motivation and Language Learning “Motivation refers to the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid and the degree of effort they will exert in this respect” (John Keller 1983, p. 389). The motivations in second language acquisition can be divided into integrative and instrumental orientations (Robert C. Gardner 2010).
  7. 7. Language Shift Brenzinger and Dimmendaal (1992) argue that “language shift does not necessarily result in language obsolescence” (3), but it mostly occurs in “a language’s ceasing to be spoken” (Harrison 2010, 279), or even reversed, thereby demanding revitalizing action. Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 7
  8. 8. Survey Methodology • An Aboriginal-based high school • All 267 Aboriginal Students aged years • Grade 10 = 97; Grade 11 = 106; Grade 12 = 64 • Questionnaire (response rate = 100%) • Follow-up interviews by random sampling • Gender (male = 143; female = 124) • Ethnicity (Paiwan = 257; Rukai = 5; Amis = 1; Atayal = 1; Taruku = 1) Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 8
  9. 9. Major Findings Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 9 Item Variable Results Willing to take CACLP test GPA ranking Top 10 > 21-30 Self-evaluation of CACLP test Grade 12th > 10th graders Impact of CACLP on the right to enter higher school Parental ethnicity Only mother is Aboriginal > only father is Aboriginal Impact of CACLP on other disciplines learning Gender Male > Female Agreement on the use of CACLP as the qualification for extra scores Grade 12th > 11th graders 12th > 10th graders
  10. 10. Motivation to Obtain CACLP Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 10 Item % To enter a higher school by additional scores 39.7 To prove your own ethnic language proficiency 33.2 The influence of tribal clansman 8.0 Driven by ethnic consciousness 0.8 Out of curiosity 6.1 Cooperate with governmental policy 2.3 Increase the opportunity of practicing ethnic languages 2.7 Other motives of attending CACLP 7.3 Integrative motivation (60%) > Instrumental Motivation (40%)
  11. 11. Conclusions Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 11 • Integrative Motivation > Instrumental Motivation • CACLP hardly guarantees continued learning of ethnic languages. • Longitudinal and national studies will be needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CACLP.
  12. 12. Reflections on CACLP • Policy maker’s perspective: conditional patronizing or ideological control, e.g., coercive value, cultural evidence, incentive, identity • Rethink the role of indigenous language: problem, right, and resource • Clarify the purpose of preferential policy Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 12
  13. 13. Copyright © 2014 by Lee and Champagne 13 Carole Goldberg, Duane Champagne, and Che- Wei Lee in the Paiwan Tribe, Pingtung, Taiwan 30 May 2008 leejeiwei@gmail.com

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