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Mapping Indigenous Knowledge in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium

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  • 1. Institute for International Studies in Education Mapping Indigenous Knowledge in the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium W. James Jacob, Ph.D. Director, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh, USA Che-Wei Lee, M.A. Program Coordinator, Institute for International Studies in Education University of Pittsburgh, USA 20 September 2012 Paper presented at the WINHEC International Indigenous Research Conference, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (ROC)
  • 2. Institute for International Studies in Education 1. Introduction 2. Our Standpoint 3. WINHEC’s Global Strategic Framework 4. The Purpose of WINHEC Accreditation 5. Accreditation Framework 6. A Comparison of Two Accreditations 7. Redefining Academic Colonialism 8. Decolonizing Indigenous Research 9. Challenges, Dilemmas, Limits, and Potentials for Indigenous Academia 10. Paradigms and Theories in Indigenous Studies 11. SWOC Analysis of the WINHEC Accreditation 12. Discussion 13. Conclusion 2/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 3. Institute for International Studies in Education Introduction • Why do we need WINHEC for indigenous and non-indigenous peoples? • Population: 2 percent of the world’s population living in more than 70 countries (350+ million people total) • Mission: Self-Determination, Indigenous Academic Autonomy, Indigenity Reconstruction • Aim: WINHEC aims to provide an international forum and support for indigenous peoples to pursue common goals through higher education. • Establishment: “When a dozen education leaders met in Alberta, Canada, in August 2002, they felt the familiar thrill of history being made” (Ambler, 2005). 3/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 4. Institute for International Studies in Education Our Standpoint 1. We argue that over-generalizing indigenous education issues cannot generate the best way to indigenous sustainable development. 2. Indigenous-generated priorities and subjectivities for education affairs are the key components to achieve the ideals of WINHEC. 3. In response to globalizing challenges and opportunities, we should promote universal approaches to knowledge and understanding. 4. Rather than forcing indigenous languages, cultures, and identities to conform to one education path or another, we argue for a path toward indigenous sovereignty—where indigenous peoples have the ability to choose for themselves the best education solutions for their unique and often complex circumstances. 4/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 5. Institute for International Studies in Education WINHEC’s Global Strategic Framework 5/16Source: WINHEC Accreditation Authority. 2010. WINHEC Accreditation Handbook: Higher Education. 3rd ed. Guovdageaidnu, Norway: Sami University College. (based on Articles of the 2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) Article # 12: The right to manage and develop their religious issues Article # 13: The right to transmit and develop their cultural heritages Article # 14: The right to form their education systems/institutions with their unique ways Article # 15: The right to reduce discrimination with their states Gathering all indigenous peoples around the world in the collective synergy of self-determination through control of higher education and reaffirming indigenous peoples’ educational rights Provide a forum and support for indigenous peoples to pursue common goals through higher education 1. Accelerating indigenous epistemologies 2. Protecting spiritual beliefs, culture & languages 3. Advancing socioeconomic & political status 4. Creating an accreditation body 5. Recognizing the importance of indigenous education 6. Creating a global network for exchanging knowledge 7. Recognizing the educational rights 8. Protecting indigenous intellectual property rights 9. Promoting traditional knowledge Funding Principles Goals Mission Vision
  • 6. Institute for International Studies in Education The Purpose of WINHEC Accreditation 1. Foster quality assurance in postsecondary education by developing locally-defined criteria that justify quality and effectiveness 2. Encourage institutional improvement of educational endeavors 3. Insure the educational community established conditions under which their achievement can reasonably be expected 4. Provide counsel and assistance to established and developing institutions 6/16Source: WINHEC Accreditation Authority. 2010. WINHEC Accreditation Handbook: Higher Education. 3rd ed. Guovdageaidnu, Norway: Sami University College.
  • 7. Institute for International Studies in Education Accreditation Framework Source: WINHEC Accreditation Authority. 2010. WINHEC Accreditation Handbook: Higher Education. 3rd ed. Guovdageaidnu, Norway: Sami University College. Figure 1. WINHEC Accreditation Authority Application/Review Cycle Application for Candidacy Board Action on Candidacy AA Review Team Visit AA Rev/Accept Prepare Self-Study AA Forms Review TeamRec to WINHEC Board 10 Year Renewal 6/16
  • 8. Institute for International Studies in Education A Comparison of Two Accreditations Non-Indigenous HEI WINHEC Examples Non-indigenous Colleges and Universities Indigenous Higher Education Institutions/programs, and Universities, and Colleges Focus Quality Assurance Indigenous Quality Assurance Operation Self-study Peer Review Site Visits Judgment by Accrediting Org. Periodic External Review continuous self-study and evaluation Review Team Visit WINHEC Board Action of Candidacy Renewal Ongoing Process, from Every Few Months (Quarterly Reports) to Up to as Many as 10 Years Every 10 Years 8/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 9. Institute for International Studies in Education Redefining Academic Colonialism Center States (dominant/independent) Peripheral States (subordinate/dependent) = Indirect Control (Imperialism, Colonialism) • Standardizing • Institutionalizing • Socializing academic disciplines Figure 2. Dynamic Structure of Unfair Academic Division-of-Labor 9/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee Sources: Lee, Che-Wei, and W. James Jacob. 2012. Academic Colonialism and Decolonizing Indigenous Research: Issues and Potential for Indigenous Academia and Knowledge Systems. Paper presented at the 56th Annual Conference of Comparative and International Education Society, San Juan, Peurto Rico.
  • 10. Institute for International Studies in Education Decolonizing Indigenous Research Figure 3. The Indigenous Research Agenda 10/16 Source: Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 1999. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. New York: Zed Books.
  • 11. Institute for International Studies in Education Challenges, Dilemmas, Limits, and Potentials for Indigenous Academia • Power Control: Who controls the access to tenure and promotion? • Circumstance: Hostile Non-Indigenous Academic Society (Dominant academic professors fail to possess any minimum cultural sensitivity and insist on employing one-size-fits-all indicators.) • Colonial Legacy: Academic dependency is gradually consolidated in this asymmetrical exchange of academic knowledge. • Politics of Knowledge: The Right of the Cultural Interpretation vs. Knowledge Sovereignty • Policies: One example is the limits of the Affirmative Action Policy. • Curricula: The Potential of Establishing Appropriate Disciplines • Employment: Mainstream knowledge/value leads the market of the academic employment. • Sustainability: Indigenous Higher Education Institutions & Organic Community 11/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 12. Institute for International Studies in Education Paradigms and Theories in Indigenous Studies C Bilateral Non- Indigenous-Oriented etic-to-emic B Unilateral Indigenous emic-as-etic D Bilateral Indigenous- Oriented emic-to-etic A Unilateral Non- Indigenous etic-as-emic E Integrated Interface (Equilibrium and Transformation) emic-and-etic Figure 3. A Macromapping of Paradigms and Theories in Indigenous Research. Source: Lee and Jacob (2012). 12/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 13. Institute for International Studies in Education SWOC Analysis of the WINHEC Accreditation Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee 13/16 Weaknesses Strengths ChallengesOpportunities• Possible Cooperation with Government and Indigenous Community • Extension of Concern on Academia to Social Practicability • Lack of Concern on the Eastern Part of World (e.g., Minority Groups in China) • Possible Inappropriate Use of Funding • The Building of Indigenous Knowledge System • The Balance of Western and Eastern Disparities • Indigenized Academic Accreditation of WINHEC • Importance of Elders in Protecting Indigenous Knowledge
  • 14. Institute for International Studies in Education Discussion • Positive Transcultural (dynamic-hybrid) Identity, avoid psychological trauma • Intercultural Sensitivity, Responsiveness, and Transcultural-Critical Praxis • Paradigms that encourage and enable interface teaching and research require balance between indigenous methodologies and conventional academic methods associated with higher education. • There is room to explore an interface model as an alternative to the imposition of a single approach. • In the long term an undifferentiated global model could undermine indigenous contributions to knowledge development. • A more strategic goal might be to increase capability: – A critical mass of indigenous scholars. – The development of academic centers where teaching and research at the interface can lead to the creation of new knowledge and the advancement of indigenous peoples and wider society. 14/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 15. Institute for International Studies in Education Conclusion • Self-determination of education development, academic autonomy, reconstruction of subjectivity, and indigenous sustainability becomes advantages. • Lack of financial resources and legitimately distribution; lack of multiple representative countries and donors • Transparency of governance and budget issues • Reconstruction of indigenous knowledge system, internationalization and visibility of indigenous higher education • Formation of board members is challenged because of complex/numerous languages. 15/16 Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee
  • 16. Institute for International Studies in Education W. James Jacob, PhD Director, IISE School of Education University of Pittsburgh 5714 Wesley W. Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 United States of America Email: wjacob@pitt.edu Website: www.iise.pitt.edu/jacob Che-Wei Lee, MA Program Coordinator, IISE School of Education University of Pittsburgh 5708 Wesley W. Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 United States of America Email: CHL138@pitt.edu Website: www.iise.pitt.edu/lee Contact Information 16/16Copyright © 2012 by W. James Jacob and Che-Wei Lee