Institute for International Studies in Education
Policy Debates and Indigenous
Education: The Trialectic of
Language, Cult...
Institute for International Studies in Education
• A Brief Introduction to this Chapter
• Our Standpoint
• Critical Consci...
Institute for International Studies in Education
A Brief Introduction to this Chapter
This is one of the chapters by W. Ja...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Our Standpoint
• “Each language constitutes a certain model of the
univer...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Critical Consciousness Raising
• Attitude: When engaging indigenous issue...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Overview of Indigenous Peoples Worldwide
• Population: more than 350 mill...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Who Are Indigenous Peoples?
• For practical purposes, the commonly accept...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Characteristics
• Self- identification as indigenous peoples a...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Definition of Indigeneity
We define the term indigeneity as the first inh...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education
• Dialectical Nature and Challenges: the maintenance...
Five Country Case Study
All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education Policies in China
• Indigenous peoples is a somewhat...
Institute for International Studies in Education
National People’s Congress 1982
All the nationalities of China are equal ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
National People’s Congress 1995
Every citizen of China, regardless of sex...
Institute for International Studies in Education
National People’s Congress 1995
The standardized spoken and written Chine...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Language Policy Controversies (1/3)
• Bilingual Education: a transitional...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Language Policy Controversies (2/3)
• Higher Education: Instruction is in...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Language Policy Controversies (3/3)
• Bilingual Education Policy: affect ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education Policies in Mexico
(1/2)
• Census: declining
• Indig...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education Policies in Mexico
(2/2)
• Nancy Modiano’s (1972) re...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Ethnic Original Identity and Indigenous
Education
• Inequality of Educati...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education Policies in
Taiwan
• Census: 14 official indigenous ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
College Entrance Exam and CLPT
Ratio of Preferential Scores No certified ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
A Recognition Dispute for the
Preferential Policy
• Preferential Policies...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Reflections on CACLP
• Cultural Evidence Argument: qualify for the prefer...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Language Education
• Ethnic Language Environments: Aboriginal ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Education Dilemma
• Is education an opportunity or threat for the surviva...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Higher Education in
Taiwan
• Vocational and technical areas of...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education Policies in
Uganda
• Census: 31 million, comprising ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Education, Development, and
Challenges
• Educational Challenges: overwhel...
Institute for International Studies in Education
AIDS/HIV Epidemic and Education
• The worldwide AIDS epidemic, for many y...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Dialect vs. National Language
• Although Uganda is a multilingual society...
Institute for International Studies in Education
White Paper’s Difference between Rural
and Urban Areas
• Majority of Ugan...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Language Education Policy Dilemma
• Attitude toward the policy: positive ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Insiders’ Contradiction on Language Status
• General expectations of pare...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Indigenous Education Policies in the
United States
• Census: American Ind...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Education Policy for American Indians
• 1975: Indian Self-Determination a...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Critiques for American Indian Education
Polices
Self-Determination Act:
–...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Critiques for American Indian Language Polices
• Native American Language...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Overview of American Indian Language Polices
• The amendment of the Nativ...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Title VII of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Content: government’s c...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Endangered and Extinct Languages
• Colonization, Modernization, and Globa...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Discussion and Conclusion (1/2)
• Denied Education and Linguistic Rights:...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Discussion and Conclusion (2/2)
Indigenous Education Curriculum Recommend...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Some Issues in
Indigenous Policies and Education
• Lack of sufficient fun...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Pathways to Succeed in
Indigenous Policies and Education
• Government and...
Institute for International Studies in Education
Reference
Jacob, W. James, Jing Liu, and Che-Wei Lee. 2013-
Forthcoming. ...
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Policy Debates and Indigenous Education: The Trialectic of Language, Culture, and Identity

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As one of co-authors, I presented several policy debate topics and the increasingly important role education institutions play in preserving indigenous languages, culture, and identity. Five country case examples include China, Mexico, Taiwan, Uganda, and the United States. The historical-narrative methodology, including document, policy, and discourse analyses, is used to examine the indigenous policies followed by the debates. The findings show that most indigenous people suffer, in one degree or another, from poverty, discrimination, and marginalization issues. Most indigenous peoples make up about one third of the 900 million extremely poor rural people living on the earth. Indigenous languages, cultures, and identities are increasingly disappearing due to government policies that often prevent their preservation or systematically aim at assimilating indigenous peoples into mainstream societies. This study is of significance in explaining the dynamic relationship among these states’ ideologies, strategies, and indigenous populations’ reactions. Implications provide various stakeholders at all levels with a better understanding of how national beliefs about indigenous policies relate to their strategy use.

Keywords: indigenous language, indigenous culture, indigenous identity, indigenous education, indigenous police

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Policy Debates and Indigenous Education: The Trialectic of Language, Culture, and Identity

  1. 1. Institute for International Studies in Education Policy Debates and Indigenous Education: The Trialectic of Language, Culture, and Identity By W. James Jacob, Jing Liu, and Che-Wei Lee (2013- Forthcoming) Instructor: Che-Wei Lee ADMPS 3343 Comparative Education, Spring 2012 Thursday, 23 February 2012, 7:15-9:55 pm 4301 Wesley W. Posvar Hall University of Pittsburgh All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  2. 2. Institute for International Studies in Education • A Brief Introduction to this Chapter • Our Standpoint • Critical Consciousness Raising • Overview of Indigenous Peoples Worldwide • Five Country Case Study • China • Mexico • Taiwan • Uganda • United States • Discussion and Conclusion Agenda All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  3. 3. Institute for International Studies in Education A Brief Introduction to this Chapter This is one of the chapters by W. James Jacob, Jing Liu, and Che-Wei Lee from the forthcoming book entitled “Indigenous Education: Language, Culture, and Identity.” The volume is edited by W. James Jacob, Sheng Yao Cheng, and Maureen K. Porter. The volume is scheduled for publication by Springer in 2013. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  4. 4. Institute for International Studies in Education Our Standpoint • “Each language constitutes a certain model of the universe, a semiotic system of understanding the world, and if we have 4,000 different ways to describe the world, this makes us rich. We should be concerned about preserving language just as we are about ecology” (Ivanov, 1992, p. 11). • We therefore firmly believe and confirm that indigenous epistemology has been one of multicultural contributions for academia, society, state (nation) and world. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  5. 5. Institute for International Studies in Education Critical Consciousness Raising • Attitude: When engaging indigenous issues, please imagine yourself as diverse subject positions and divergent social designs. • Question: If you are one of indigenous community members, how would you react to the overwhelmingly dominant cultures with the corresponding impacts of globalization, assimilation, modernization, marginalization, and post-colonization? • Practice and Reflexivity: What (why/how) do (can/should/must/will) we do with, by, and for indigenous population from the various stances of governments, non-indigenous peoples, states, and international organizations (e.g., UN, NGOs) and so on? • Anticipated Results: Secular engagement or self-determination or balanced interface (culturally, politically, economically, and socially)? • Who Really Benefits From Affirmative Action, and Does It Help Society as a Whole? Attitudes, ideologies, end-and-means, and contributions All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  6. 6. Institute for International Studies in Education Overview of Indigenous Peoples Worldwide • Population: more than 350 million indigenous people spread across 70 countries worldwide (5 percent of the world’s population) • Languages: 4,000 to 5,000 • Common concerns: poverty, discrimination, and marginalization • General terms: native, aboriginal, first nation, and local • UN involvement with indigenous rights: – Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948) – International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (UN 1966) – UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN 2007) All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  7. 7. Institute for International Studies in Education Who Are Indigenous Peoples? • For practical purposes, the commonly accepted understanding of the term is that provided in the Jose R. Martinez Cobo’s Study on the Problem of Discrimination against Indigenous Populations. The working definition reads as follows: • Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are considered those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop, and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions, and legal systems. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  8. 8. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Characteristics • Self- identification as indigenous peoples at the individual level and accepted by the community as their member • Historical continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre-settler societies • Strong link to territories and surrounding natural resources • Distinct social, economic or political systems • Distinct language, culture and beliefs • Form non-dominant groups of society • Resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  9. 9. Institute for International Studies in Education Definition of Indigeneity We define the term indigeneity as the first inhabitants of a land or nation, and includes the language, culture, identity, knowledge, science, and technologies developed or possessed by these indigenous peoples. Mason Durie’s (2005) Two Characteristics of Indigeneity : Primary characteristic: An enduring relationship between populations, their territories, and the natural environment (An ecological context for human endeavours) Secondary characteristics (derived from the relationship with the environment): – The relationship endures over centuries. Time – The relationship is celebrated in custom and group interaction. Identity – The relationship gives rise to a system of knowledge, distinctive methodologies, and an environmental ethic. Knowledge – The relationship facilitates balanced economic growth. Sustainability – The relationship contributes to the evolution and use of a unique language. Language All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  10. 10. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education • Dialectical Nature and Challenges: the maintenance, use, survival, and (inter)national engagement of indigenous people’s cultures, languages, knowledge, traditions, and identity; how to provide and develop the knowledge and skills that enable indigenous peoples to engage fully and equally in the national and international community • Alien Schooling: the loss of indigenous identity, control and self- determination; a site of rejection of Indigenous knowledge and language; a means of assimilating and integrating indigenous peoples into a “national” society and identity at the cost of their indigenous identity and social practices • (Non-)Intentional Educational Policy and Indigenous Genocide: globalization threats, economic policies and practices, human rights issues, the media and media culture, and urbanicity All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  11. 11. Five Country Case Study All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  12. 12. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education Policies in China • Indigenous peoples is a somewhat controversial but acceptable term because of political implications for the dominant Han Chinese as well as many of China’s ethnic minority groups. • Census: 56 officially recognized ethnic groups; ethnic minorities comprise 9.44% of the total population (1.3 billion people); 61 distinct languages identified by 2008 • Laws and Regulations for Protection of Ethnic Minority Peoples’ Education and Languages – National People’s Congress 1982 – State Council of the People’s Republic of China 1988 – National People’s Congress 1995 All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  13. 13. Institute for International Studies in Education National People’s Congress 1982 All the nationalities of China are equal [and] every ethnic minority is free to use and develop their language. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee State Council of the People’s Republic of China 1988 Mandarin Chinese ought to be used for literacy. In ethnic autonomous areas, the local ethnic languages could be used as the language of instruction . . .
  14. 14. Institute for International Studies in Education National People’s Congress 1995 Every citizen of China, regardless of sex, ethnic group, economic status or religious belief, has the right and obligation to education, and enjoys equal educational opportunities to meet his or her essential needs. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  15. 15. Institute for International Studies in Education National People’s Congress 1995 The standardized spoken and written Chinese language (Mandarin) based on the northern dialect and the Beijing pronouncing system, and the standardized simplified characters approved by the State Council and in common use in the whole country, shall be popularized and used as the basic language media of curriculum and instruction in schools and other educational institutions of the country. But in schools in which students of minority ethnic groups constitute the majority, the spoken and written language of the majority ethnic group or of common use by the local ethnic groups may be used as language media of curriculum and instruction. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  16. 16. Institute for International Studies in Education Language Policy Controversies (1/3) • Bilingual Education: a transitional measure = transitional schooling in the native languages while students master the dominant language • Instruction in Ethnic Minority Languages: mainly occur at primary education level, e.g. first year/first two or three years of their primary education in most remote rural regions of the country • Instruction in Chinese Language: often after the completion of their primary education • Challenge: a lack of qualified primary and secondary education teachers in predominantly ethnic minority and rural regions of the country All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  17. 17. Institute for International Studies in Education Language Policy Controversies (2/3) • Higher Education: Instruction is in Mandarin except for courses in Mongolian or Tibetan language and/or literature. At Xinjiang University, courses were commonly taught in both Chinese and Uyghur until a government decree in 2002 declared that the majority of courses would be taught only in Chinese. • Centralized and Standardized Curriculum: irrelevant to ethnic minority students • Results: low examination scores and high ethnic minority students drop-out rate • Implication: Bilingual education fails to enhance the preservation of that aspect of most ethnic minority cultures. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  18. 18. Institute for International Studies in Education Language Policy Controversies (3/3) • Bilingual Education Policy: affect ethnic consciousness, national unity, and ethnic identities • Textbooks: disconnection to local histories, cultures, and religions of China’s ethnic minority peoples; religion rejection • Formal Curriculum & Government-controlled Media producing: – minimal space for religious contents – histories of ethnic minority peoples are rarely included except when they support social evolution and national unity topic – stereotype formation • English Potentials: help international communication, find employment and continue on with one’s advanced studies • Other Challenges: the problem of lack qualified teachers, geographic and socioeconomic disparities and disparities of gender enrollment All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  19. 19. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education Policies in Mexico (1/2) • Census: declining • Indigenous Language Speaking Population: 14% in 1930  7% in 2000 • Bilingual Education in 1930: Mexicanization (unify the country) • Politically Predominance of the Spanish Language & A Formalized Uniform Education Program: inequality of education, achievement gap • Years of Schooling: on average 3 years of schooling in the Indigenous communities vs. on average 8 years of schooling in the nonindigenous communities • Academic Achievements: score lower on reading (in Spanish) and mathematics examinations • Higher Education Selection: Qualified indigenous students often choose to colleges instead of universities. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  20. 20. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education Policies in Mexico (2/2) • Nancy Modiano’s (1972) research on the effectiveness of bilingual education • Disconnect between the original concept of bilingual education in Mexico and subsequent education policies and implementation of those policies (designed for or in favor of urban non-indians) • A gap between bilingual education and biliteracy: The monopolization of written discourse by Spanish is the main obstacle for biliteracy and indigenous language development. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  21. 21. Institute for International Studies in Education Ethnic Original Identity and Indigenous Education • Inequality of Education vs. Ethnic Original identity • Low Quality of Education vs. Ethnic Original Identity • Social Structures & Societal Norms: often position indigenous peoples in Mexico as inferior or subordinate • Negative Results: indigenous identities rejection; refusal to speak or study indigenous languages; and the loss of one’s culture and language All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  22. 22. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education Policies in Taiwan • Census: 14 official indigenous groups commonly called Taiwan Aborigines, consisting of approximately 2% (approximately 500,000) of the total population of 23.1 million in June 2009 • Geographic Distribution: Most Aborigines live in the central and eastern mountainous regions or in urban centers of the country. • Administrative Machinery Establishment: Council of Indigenous Affairs, Executive Yuan in 1996 • Educational Law: Aboriginal Education Act in 1998 All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  23. 23. Institute for International Studies in Education College Entrance Exam and CLPT Ratio of Preferential Scores No certified in CLPT Certified in CLPT High schools or 3/5-year polytechnic schools (apply for or enroll in accord with schools) 25% 35% 4-year/2-year technical colleges and universities (apply for or enroll in accord with schools) 25% 35% 4-year universities/colleges (distributed to schools according to exam scores) 25% 35% All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee TABLE 1 The gap of preferential scores between aboriginal students who are and aren’t certified in CLPT Source: website of council of aboriginal affairs, Executive Yuan (2006).
  24. 24. Institute for International Studies in Education A Recognition Dispute for the Preferential Policy • Preferential Policies in Taiwan vs. Affirmative Action Admissions Policies in US higher education institutions • Backlash: dominant ethnic Han students and their parents • Flash Point: Prior to 2002, indigenous students qualified based on their blood lineage, who particularly share the same educational circumstance. • Conditional Preferential Policy: After 2002, the government introduced a new policy requiring aboriginal students pass the Certification of Aboriginal Culture and Language Proficiency (CACLP) in order to qualify for the preferential score and comfort the mainstream Han students’ questions. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  25. 25. Institute for International Studies in Education Reflections on CACLP • Cultural Evidence Argument: qualify for the preferential score (insiders’ contradiction vs. outsiders’ requirement) • Ambiguous Incentive: By using a test to force indigenous students to learn their own languages and culture, but it’s hard to evaluate their internally real motives and externally behaviors. • Value: promote indigenous peoples to treasure/value indigenous native languages and culture • Weaknesses: external test-oriented teaching/learning (passive) vs. internal spontaneous learning (active); easy to become a formalism implementation • Critiques: Whose language policy? Language justice or identity politics or equitable admission? Who really benefits from this policy, and does it help society as a whole? Indigenous self-esteem? Issues on attitudes, end-and-means, ideologies and contributions All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  26. 26. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Language Education • Ethnic Language Environments: Aboriginal schools are superior to the non-aboriginal schools (from Grades 1-12). • The Key of Succeeding in Native Language Education: School Leader’s Determination, Financial Budget Support (teachers, materials, and evaluations) All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  27. 27. Institute for International Studies in Education Education Dilemma • Is education an opportunity or threat for the survival of Taiwan aboriginal languages, cultures, and identities? • Social Structure and Societal Pressures: contribute to prevent indigenous peoples from ancestral homelands for more opportunities in urban centers • For those succeed in the formal education system: – Gain: attend higher education institutions, get advanced economy, gain mastery of Chinese – Loss: disregard native language, culture, and identity • Indigenous identity, Han identity, mixed (hybrid) Identity? • Several reasons for parents not speaking tribal language in homes: (1) not fluent; (2) emphasizing Chinese for better academic development . . . All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  28. 28. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Higher Education in Taiwan • Vocational and technical areas of employment, including nursing, teaching, military service, and the arts • A few graduate programs in indigenous studies at Taiwan higher education institutions • Those who graduate from academic programs rarely continue in jobs related to their degrees • Persistence, retention, drop-out issues in higher education All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  29. 29. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education Policies in Uganda • Census: 31 million, comprising of 61 different ethnic groups. The total population of the ethnic minority groups is 160,799 or 0.7% of the total population. • Languages: over 50 languages recognized in the national constitution • Northern and Eastern Regions: Sudanic and Nilotic languages • Western and Central Regions: Bantu languages All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  30. 30. Institute for International Studies in Education Education, Development, and Challenges • Educational Challenges: overwhelming many disparate groups – Baganda: 18% – Banyankole: 10% – Bahima: 10% • Public and Private Schools: owned and operated by religious sponsoring organizations; for-profit, non- profit, and government-sponsored schools • Curriculum: centralized but accountability to the government and quality of instruction varies at all levels • Factors Limiting Success in Education: poverty All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  31. 31. Institute for International Studies in Education AIDS/HIV Epidemic and Education • The worldwide AIDS epidemic, for many years had its initial epicenter in East and Central Africa, has devastated families and communities throughout the country.. • The AIDS epidemic threatened many social sectors including the government’s single largest body of employees—teachers, administrators, and other education staff members in the education sector. • The HIV adult prevalence rate has declined since the early 1990s with an adult prevalence rate of 5.4 percent in October 2008 (Morisky et al. 2006; UNAIDS/WHO 2008). • HIV education has played an instrumental role in overcoming helping to curb the epidemic nationwide (Jacob et al. 2006). All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  32. 32. Institute for International Studies in Education Dialect vs. National Language • Although Uganda is a multilingual society, none of its indigenous languages are recognized as a national language. • English remains the only official language, a clear reminder of its colonial past. • Official language policy’s direct implications: recognizes and provides multilingual literacy is contained in the Government of Uganda’s (1992) White Paper on Education. • UNESCO’s (2008) report: child’s mother tongue as the primary language of instruction in most schools for initial literacy and instruction during the first three years of primary education. The fourth year is generally characterized by a transition to English. This language-in-education policy allows both dominant and minority languages to be used for instruction in the early schooling years. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  33. 33. Institute for International Studies in Education White Paper’s Difference between Rural and Urban Areas • Majority of Ugandans (over 80 percent) live in rural settings: people who speak the same language live in close proximity • Increasing rural-to-urban migration results in a multilingual society • Rural Areas: the “relevant local languages” would be the medium of instruction in Primary 1-4 (Grades 1-4) and that English would be taught as a subject until Primary 5 • Urban Areas: English would be the medium of instruction from Primary 1 onward, with the “local language” taught as a subject. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  34. 34. Institute for International Studies in Education Language Education Policy Dilemma • Attitude toward the policy: positive on promoting local language use in education to main indigenous culture and identity • Policy Plights – difficult for many schools to select a relevant local language for their students – The costs of producing textbooks in each indigenous language is impractical for an already over-stretched Ministry of Education and Sports. • Government’s Weak Role: lack of funding for developing relevant local language teaching/learning materials and training qualified teachers All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  35. 35. Institute for International Studies in Education Insiders’ Contradiction on Language Status • General expectations of parents and the local community for their children is to learn the nonindigenous English language. • Reasons: interact at an international level and obtain a high- salary job • A primary goal for the government and many Ugandans is to maintain the culture, language, and identity of people from Uganda’s many different ethnic groups. • More could be done to convince parents that indigenous language instruction in schools will not compromise their desire for their children’s access to the global village All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  36. 36. Institute for International Studies in Education Indigenous Education Policies in the United States • Census: American Indians and Alaska Natives comprise less than 2% of the total US population, approximately 4.1 million American Indians and Alaska Natives in 2000 (Ogunwole 2002) • The Nature of Education: the intentional “Americanization” of American Indians • Report 1 - National Study of American Indian Education: The Education of Indian Children and Youth and Indian Education: The primary importance for American Indian education was to re-evaluate goals in terms defined by indigenous peoples themselves • Report 2 - A National Tragedy—A National Challenge: both public schools and the federal American Indian education system had continued the impossible policy of turning American Indian children into Whites All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  37. 37. Institute for International Studies in Education Education Policy for American Indians • 1975: Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act greatly facilitated participation, self governance, and the operation of education programs by American Indians. • 1978: Educational Amendments Act resulted in decision-making powers be granted to indigenous school boards, enabling the local hiring of teachers and staff, and direct funding to Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian-controlled contract schools. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  38. 38. Institute for International Studies in Education Critiques for American Indian Education Polices Self-Determination Act: – It did not change the situation of education for indigenous students. – The average American Indian student’s achievement was far below that of most non-indigenous students. – Native American students did not receive a high-quality education. – The Indian language teaching in schools were limited to less than an hour a day, and usually did not go beyond the level of teaching basic vocabulary, how to count, greetings, and so forth. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  39. 39. Institute for International Studies in Education Critiques for American Indian Language Polices • Native American Language Act in 1990: demonstrated the federal government’s willingness to help preserve, protect, and promote the rights and freedoms of American Indians to use, practice, and develop indigenous languages, it did not provide funding to teach indigenous languages • The Indian Nations at Risk Task Force: identified one of the reasons for Indian Nations’ risk was that schools had discouraged the used of indigenous languages All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  40. 40. Institute for International Studies in Education Overview of American Indian Language Polices • The amendment of the Native American Language Act in 1984: It developed into three methods, including maintenance, transitional, and immersion bilingual education programs • Maintenance Bilingual Programs: It developed children’s native as well as English-language speaking abilities. • Transitional Bilingual Programs: It is designed to teach English to minority language students and to improve their English speaking. The first two programs referred to the long-term role of the first language in education • Immersion Bilingual Programs: It is referred to the way in which the second language was taught. Then instruction in English is quickly phased in to so as to transition to a stage where all instruction is in English by Grade 4. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  41. 41. Institute for International Studies in Education Title VII of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Content: government’s commitment to provide quality education to students, professional development for existing teachers and administrators, and “also the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of these children.” The NCLB Act emphasizes the need to focus on reading while at the same time preserving local cultures Criticisms: Much of the NCLB research has rightly focused on Title I and the testing requirements which have encouraged educators to focus predominantly on English, reading, mathematics, and science subjects All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  42. 42. Institute for International Studies in Education Endangered and Extinct Languages • Colonization, Modernization, and Globalization • Of the 564 federally-recognized tribes there are only a few living elders who can still speak their native languages fluently. They belong to smaller tribes; their children either did not have a sufficient chance to interact with other tribal elders or they no longer wanted to continue the tradition of their parents (including learning their parents’ native tongue). • And these last remaining native speakers are usually seniors; when they die their native language—and all aspects of living culture, traditions, and in many cases indigenous knowledge—will die with them. • In several tribes the linguistic genocide is already complete with no remaining native speakers of their respective native languages living on the earth. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  43. 43. Institute for International Studies in Education Discussion and Conclusion (1/2) • Denied Education and Linguistic Rights: Indigenous peoples are among the most affected and disadvantaged of all peoples on the earth. Their education has often been characterized by a lack of access to an education that respects their diverse cultures and languages • Government Limitations: Governments are also facing difficulties regarding the translation of those regulations or policies into actions. • Policy Dilemma: Promotion of bilingual or multilingual education vs. promotion of the majority language/s • The Increasing Demand for English Learning All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  44. 44. Institute for International Studies in Education Discussion and Conclusion (2/2) Indigenous Education Curriculum Recommendations – The basic guideline for preservation of indigenous languages, cultures, and identities through the formal education system – Fully involved in the curriculum development decision-making process and development phase for ownership, buy-in, and self-determination – National (state/provincial) curricula should have relevance to indigenous peoples. Therefore, it is essential to know how to design a relevant indigenous education curriculum and ensure that indigenous peoples participate in the curriculum development process. – It is necessary to utilize local human resources to participate in the process of teaching and learning. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  45. 45. Institute for International Studies in Education Some Issues in Indigenous Policies and Education • Lack of sufficient funding • Lack of qualified teachers and learning materials • Lack of human resources • Lack of a relevant environment for using indigenous knowledge • Limited access to higher education for indigenous peoples • Conflicts between indigenous religions and politics • Dilemma between modernization and globalization pressures and traditional preservation All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  46. 46. Institute for International Studies in Education Pathways to Succeed in Indigenous Policies and Education • Government and indigenous communities required to collaborate together in order to provide innovative and relevant approaches which can help protect and promote indigenous languages, cultures, and identities. • Since education is a universal human right, indigenous education should also be a human right and be designed with, by, and for indigenous peoples. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee
  47. 47. Institute for International Studies in Education Reference Jacob, W. James, Jing Liu, and Che-Wei Lee. 2013- Forthcoming. “Policy Debates and Indingeous Education: The Trialectic of Langue, Identity, and Culture.” In Indigenous Education: Language, Culture, and Identity, edited by W. James Jacob, Sheng Yao Cheng, and Maureen Porter. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. 47 All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee

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