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As one of co-authors, I presented several policy debate topics and the increasingly important role education institutions play in preserving indigenous languages, culture, and identity. Five country case examples include China, Mexico, Taiwan, Uganda, and the United States. The historical-narrative methodology, including document, policy, and discourse analyses, is used to examine the indigenous policies followed by the debates. The findings show that most indigenous people suffer, in one degree or another, from poverty, discrimination, and marginalization issues. Most indigenous peoples make up about one third of the 900 million extremely poor rural people living on the earth. Indigenous languages, cultures, and identities are increasingly disappearing due to government policies that often prevent their preservation or systematically aim at assimilating indigenous peoples into mainstream societies. This study is of significance in explaining the dynamic relationship among these states’ ideologies, strategies, and indigenous populations’ reactions. Implications provide various stakeholders at all levels with a better understanding of how national beliefs about indigenous policies relate to their strategy use.
Keywords: indigenous language, indigenous culture, indigenous identity, indigenous education, indigenous police