COMPARATIVE EDUCATION
(ADMPS 3343)
SPRING 2012
© 12 January 2012 1
Day/Time: Thursdays, 7:15-9:55 pm
Class Room: 4301 Wesl...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 2
Czech Republic and Slovakia 900
Ecuador Lynn Purvis-Yund 800
Gree...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 3
Group Project Option 2a: Four class members will produce a case s...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 4
READING ASSIGNMENTS & CLASS SCHEDULE
(T) Required Textbooks: Hols...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 5
WEEK DATE TOPIC READINGS ASSIGNMENTS
6 Feb 9 CI-5: Gender Inequal...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 6
WEEK DATE TOPIC READINGS ASSIGNMENTS
14 Apr 5 CI-13: Higher Educa...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 7
REFERENCE LIST
Required Texts
The following books will be used th...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 8
Anweiler, Oscar. 1977. Comparative Education and the Internationa...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 9
Jacob, W. James, Jennifer R. Crandall, Jason Hilton, and Laura No...
Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343
Spring 2012
© 12 January 2012 10
Osewe, Patrick L. 2009. One National Response: Synergy Networks ...
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Syllabus, ADMPS 3343 Comparative Education, Spring 2012

  1. 1. COMPARATIVE EDUCATION (ADMPS 3343) SPRING 2012 © 12 January 2012 1 Day/Time: Thursdays, 7:15-9:55 pm Class Room: 4301 Wesley W. Posvar Hall Instructors: James Jacob David Che-Wei Lee Office: 5714 Posvar Hall 5708 Posvar Hall Telephone: 412-567-2517 (w) None Available. Email: wjacob@pitt.edu chl138@pitt.edu Office Hours: Tuesdays 9:00-10:00 am Thursdays, 5:30-6:30 pm or by appointment. or by appointment. COURSE PURPOSE The purpose of this course is to introduce the broad field of comparative, international, and development education (CIDE). Seminar meetings are designed to examine the historical roots and evolution of the field. An overview of the theoretical underpinnings and common methods of research will be discussed, including the rationale for examining education from various geographic, historical, political, cultural, and economic perspectives. After a general exploration of major theoretical and methodological issues, several other CIDE conceptual issues will be addressed. These conceptual issues include a discussion on the dominant educational paradigm, indigenous education, multiple national case study education systems, higher education organizational analysis, education changes associated with demographic trends, and several current education policy issues. COURSE ASSIGNMENTS This course requires the active participation of all class members through presentations, debate, and discussion. It is assumed that you will work with other students outside of class to prepare for in-class discussions and reciprocal-learning opportunities. Readings and Class Participation Comparative education seminar participants are expected to carefully read all assigned readings identified for a particular class session as well as actively and productively participate in class discussions. Come to class prepared to pose questions and offer comments that will facilitate yours and others’ deeper reflection on the issues raised in the readings and the implications these have for educators, policy makers and planners, scholars, and practitioners. Sociology of Education Country Case Study: This is a unique opportunity for class members to either author or co-author an article in the forthcoming edited book Sociology of Education. It is projected to be published by SAGE Publishers in late 2012 or early 2013. Below is a list of 19 countries that can be chosen for this assignment. Number Country/Region Class Member of Words European Union Laila De Klaver 1,000 Australia MA Junhan 1,000 Chile DANG Mengtian 800
  2. 2. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 2 Czech Republic and Slovakia 900 Ecuador Lynn Purvis-Yund 800 Greece Selim Selvi; Nancy Wehrheim 800 Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands Daniel Narey 800 Guatemala Liza Valle 800 Honduras Liza Valle 800 Iran Everett Herman 800 Lebanon Efrat Avramovich; Joel Dumba 800 Libya Uttam Gaulee; ZHOU Yi 800 Palestinian Territories Veysel Gokbel; Efrat Avramovich 800 Russia Kate Schechter; Saltanat Kaliyeva 900 Sweden ZHANG Xin; LU Xiaolin 800 Switzerland YIN Shengjun 800 Syria Evan Underwood 800 Thailand Somkiat Kamolpun 800 Ukraine TANG Wei 800 Venezuela WANG Xiao 800 In most cases only one author will be assigned to each article, and in some cases two authors will be assigned. Example country case studies can be found on the course website. This assignment is due no later than 15 February 2012 (via email to the instructors). Term Paper Term Paper Outlines (2 double-spaced pages) are due via email to the instructor as soon as you are able to submit this but no later than Tuesday, 19 January 2012. Write a brief abstract of your paper (approximately 200 words) that summarizes what comparative education issue or setting you will examine in your paper, including a description of your topic and preliminary findings. Also include five key words that relate to your topic and a bibliography with at least 15 references. Presentation of your final paper will be on 19 April 2012. Final papers (approximately 20 double- spaced pages in length, excluding the title, abstract, and reference sections) are due on 19 April 2012 via email. Please use the sections outlined below as a guide for your paper: Paper Sections Number of Pages Title Page 1 Abstract of no more than 200 words 1 Introduction of the Topic ~2 Background and Literature Review ~2 Research question(s) and argument 1 Critical Review of the Literature/Program/Original ~10 Data Findings Discussion and Recommendations for Future Research ~2 References Group Project Option 1: Up to three class members can choose to produce the first University Library Systems (ULS) LibGuide on CIDE as an option for their Final Term Paper. In conjunction with ULS administrators and the instructors of this course, this team will help build an online website that will serve as a resource for all students, faculty members, and the public on CIDE topics, funding opportunities, jobs, and other online and publication materials. Group members include Somkiat Kamolpun, Uttam Gaulee, and ZHANG Xin.
  3. 3. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 3 Group Project Option 2a: Four class members will produce a case study on indigenous education that will lead toward a publication in the Institute for International Studies in Education (IISE) CIDE Case Studies Archive. The focus of this case study will examine the role the United Nations should play in indigenous education efforts worldwide. The successful completion of this case study will lead to a forthcoming publication in an academic journal or edited book. This group project will include substantial guidance and periodic contributions from the instructors, who will be coauthors on all forthcoming publications that derive from this study. Class members for this project include: Lynn Purvis-Yund, Selim Selvi, Evan Underwood, and WANG Xiao. Group Project Option 2b: Four class members will produce a case study on indigenous education that will lead toward a publication in the Institute for International Studies in Education (IISE) CIDE Case Studies Archive. The focus of this case study will examine the role the World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium (WINHEC: www.win-hec.org) should play in indigenous education efforts worldwide. The successful completion of this case study will lead to a forthcoming publication in an academic journal or edited book. This group project will include substantial guidance and periodic contributions from the instructors, who will be coauthors on all forthcoming publications that derive from this study. Class members for this project include: Joel Dumba, Veysel Gokbel, LU Xiaolin, Nancy Wehrheim, and YIN Shengjun. COURSE EVALUATION The activities and assignments of the course are designed to allow you to interact with the course content through a variety of contexts: team, individual, written, oral, graphically, reading, discussion, research, synthesis, and critique. ADMPS3343 Assignments % of Grade Due Date Readings, Online and Class Participation 20% Throughout In-Class Presentation/s 10% To be announced (TBA) Country Case Study 25% 15 February 2012 Term Paper Outline 5% 19 January 2012 Final Presentation 5% 19 April 2012 Final Term Paper 35% 19 April 2012 This syllabus, and its contents, is subject to change at the discretion of the instructor. An updated syllabus will be available throughout the semester on the course Blackboard website. SPECIAL NOTICE If you have a disability for which you are or may be requesting an accommodation, you are encouraged to contact both your instructor and the Office of Disability Resources and Services, 216 William Pitt Union, (412) 648-7890; (412) 383-7355 (TTY) as early as possible in the term. DRS will verify your disability and determine reasonable accommodations for this course. On the first day of class you will receive and be asked to sign a statement of student responsibilities with respect to academic integrity. The University of Pittsburgh Department of English offers assistance in preventing plagiarism through its website: http://www.english.pitt.edu/people/avoidPlagiarism.php.
  4. 4. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 4 READING ASSIGNMENTS & CLASS SCHEDULE (T) Required Textbooks: Holsinger and Jacob (2008) and Hawkins and Jacob (2011) (BR) Book, Report, and/or Chapter available through Pitt’s online course reserve (R) Article available through Pitt’s online course reserve WEEK DATE TOPIC READINGS ASSIGNMENTS 1 Jan 5 Introduction Class Members, the Course, and Distribution of Syllabus 2 Jan 12 Historical Roots of Compar- ative Education Key Terms; Development of the Field; Comp Ed Scientific Communities; Comp Ed Today T– Jacob & Holsinger (2008), Ch 1, pp. 1-33 BR– Fraser & Brickman (1968), pp. 1-19 R– Hans (1959) BR– Kandel (1955), pp. 3-17 Further Reading (not required but helpful) R– Altbach (1991) R– Anweiler (1977) R– Brickman (1960) R– Wilson (1994) 3 Jan 19 Theoretical Background of Comparative Education Comparing Education Systems* Comparing Places, Systems, & Times T– Rust & Liao (2011), Ch 2, pp. 13-25 BR– Jacob, Crandall, et al. (2011), 69-91 BR– Cheng, Jacob, & Chen (2011), 295- 314 R– Wolhuter (1997) T– Nishimura & Byamugisha (2011), Ch 12, pp. 225-245 Suggested Further Readings BR–Noah & Eckstein (1969), pp. 4-7 R– Holmes (1984) BR– Jacob & Cheng (2005) R– Epstein (1983) R– Hayhoe (1989) R– Ruscoe & Nelson (1964) R– Bereday (1957) R– Bereday (1967) R– Kazamias (1962) R– Rust, et al. (1999) BR– Bray, et al. (2007) Final Due Date for Term Paper Outline Submission *Group 1 Presentation 4 Jan 26 Conceptual Issue (CI) No. 1: Distribution of Opportunities Key to Development CI-2: Education within the Knowledge Economy* T– Thomas & Wang (2008), Ch 2, pp. 34- 58 T– Crouch & Gove (2011), Ch 9, pp. 155- 174 T– Cassity (2011), Ch 11, pp. 199-224 T– Neubauer (2011), Ch 4, pp. 47-69 *Group 2 Presentation 5 Feb 2 CI-3: Economic Systems in International Education* CI-4: Education and Inequality in the Developing World T– Hill, Greaves & Maisuria (2008), Ch 3, pp. 59-85 T– Wu (2008), Ch 4, pp. 86-127 T – Meek & Meek (2008), Ch 22, pp. 506-537 T– Schuh Moore, et al. (2011), Ch 13, pp. 247-264 *Group 3 Presentation
  5. 5. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 5 WEEK DATE TOPIC READINGS ASSIGNMENTS 6 Feb 9 CI-5: Gender Inequalities in Education T– Hyer et al. (2008), Ch 5, pp. 128-148 T– Porter (2011), Ch 8, pp. 131-154 T– Hawkins, Jacob & Li (2008), Ch 9, pp. 215-239 T– Maslak (2008), Ch 10, pp. 240-260 T– Unterhalter & Ooman (2008), Ch 23, pp. 538-557 Case Country Article due on 15 February 2012 7 Feb 16 CI-6: Measuring Inequality of Education* T– Collins (2008), Ch 8, pp. 190-214 T– Burt & Park (2008), Ch 11, pp. 261- 289 T – Rew (2008), Ch 13, pp. 307-323 T– Lopez-Acevedo (2008), Ch 18, pp. 417-443 T– Crouch, Gustafsson, & Lavado (2008), Ch 20, pp. 461-484 Group 4 Presentation 8 Feb 23 CI-7: Indigenous Education Case of American Indians, Taiwan Aborigines, China, Vietnam R– Cheng & Jacob (2008) BR– Jacob, Liu, & Lee (2012)* Suggested Further Readings R– Crossley (2000) R– Omolewa (2007) B– Reagan (2000) 9 Mar 1 CI-8: Language and Democracy CI-9: Religious Issues and Education* T– Brock-Utne (2008), Ch 7, 172-189 T– Daun (2008), Ch 15, pp. 324-347 T– Kheiltash & Rust (2008), Ch 17, pp. 392-416 T– Stevick (2011), Ch 10, pp. 175-197 Suggested Further Reading R– Brock-Utne (2007) Group 5 Presentation 10 Mar 8 – NO CLASS – Spring Break – NO CLASS – – NO CLASS – 11 Mar 15 CI-10: The Dominant Educat- ional Paradigm BR– Hawkins (2007) T – Hung & Cheng (2008), Ch 12, pp. 290-306 T – Deer (2008), Ch 14, pp. 324-347 T – Johnson & Howard (2008), Ch 19, pp. 444-460 12 Mar 22 CI-11: Inequalities in Education for People with Disabilities T– Peters (2008), Ch 6, 149-171 R– Jacob (2012), Case of Vietnam* 13 Mar 29 CI-12: Health Education; HIV Education R– Jacob (2009) R– Jacob & Ouattara (2009) R– Nsubuga & Bonnet (2009) R – Osewe (2009) R – Mugimu & Nabdda (2009) R– Jacob, Adiya, & El-Ghali (2009) Suggested Further Readings BR– Nsubuga & Jacob (2006a) BR– Nsubuga & Jacob (2006b) R – Jacob, et al. (2007)
  6. 6. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 6 WEEK DATE TOPIC READINGS ASSIGNMENTS 14 Apr 5 CI-13: Higher Education Trends Guest Presentation: Wanhua Ma, Peking University T– Mok & Xu (2011), Ch 3, pp. 29-46 T– Hawkins (2011), Ch 5, pp. 71-88 T– Mugimu & Ssebbunga-Masembe (2011), Ch 7, pp. 109-128 R– Jacob & Ma (2012)* 15 Apr 12 CI-14: Private vs. Public Education Issues Guest Presentation: Christopher B. Mugimu, Makerere University R– Jacob, Holsinger, & Mugimu (2008) T– Holsinger & Jacob (2008), Ch 24, pp. 558-567 16 Apr 19 Final Paper Presentations FINAL PAPER DUE (via email) FINAL PRESENTATIONS *Forthcoming publications. Class Member Names Presentation Date CIDE Conceptual Issue Group 1: DANG Mengtian, Saltanat Kaliyeva, LU Xiaolin, YIN Shengjun, and ZHOU Yi January 19 Comparing Education Systems Group 2: MA Junhan and Selim Selvi January 26 CI-2: Education within the Knowledge Economy Group 3: Efrat Avramovich, Everett Herman, and Somkiat Kampolpun February 2 CI-3: Economic Systems in International Education Group 4: Uttam Gaulee, Lynn Purvis-Yund, TANG Wei, Nancy Wehrheim, and ZHANG Xin February 16 CI-6: Measuring Inequality of Education Group 5: Joel Dumba, Veysel Gokbel, Daniel Narey, Kate Schechter, WANG Xiao, and Evan Underwood March 1 CI-9: Religious Issues and Education
  7. 7. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 7 REFERENCE LIST Required Texts The following books will be used throughout this course: Holsinger, Donald B., and W. James Jacob, eds. 2008. Inequality in Education: Comparative and International Perspectives. Dordrecht & Hong Kong: Springer & Comparative Education Research Centre. Hawkins, John N., and W. James Jacob, eds. 2011. Policy Debates in Comparative, International, and Development Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Suggested Supplemental Books for Further Reading Bray, Mark, Bob Adamson, and Mark Mason, eds. 2007. Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. (ISBN: 9628093533) Comparative Education Review journal subscription and membership in the Comparative and International Education Society. This is an incredible deal at the student rate for $32.50. To register for this journal and become a CIES member, please go to the following URL: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/cer/current Gutek, Gerald L. 1993. American Education in a Global Society. New York: Longman. Hershock, Peter D., Mark Mason, and John N. Hawkins, eds. 2007. Changing Education. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. (ISBN: 9628093541). Holsinger, Donald B., W. James Jacob, Christopher B. Mugimu. 2004. Private Secondary Education in Uganda. Paris: UNESCO/IIEP. Reagan, Timothy. 2000. Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Course Reserve Readings In addition to the required textbooks, an e-copy of course readings is available online at no charge to students via the University of Pittsburgh Libraries. Please go to the following URL to access the course reserve readings: http://pittcat.pitt.edu/reserves.html From here select the course online reserve by choosing from the “instructor” or “course” pull-down menus, which will then bring you to a webpage with the title: *E-RESERVES FOR COMPARATIVE EDUCATION*. From this point select the E-RESERVES LINK, which will ask you for the course password (which you will then type in) and then push the enter button to access the reserve. Password: to be announced. Altbach, Philip G. 1991. Trends in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 35 (3): 491- 507.
  8. 8. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 8 Anweiler, Oscar. 1977. Comparative Education and the Internationalization of Education. Comparative Education 13 (2): 109-114. Bereday, George Z. F. 1957. Some Discussion of Methods in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 1 (1): 13-15. Bereday, George Z. F. 1967. Reflections on Comparative Methodology in Education, 1964-1966. Comparative Education 3 (3): 169-187. Brickman, William W. 1960. A Historical Introduction to Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 3 (3): 6-13. Brock-Utne, Birgit. 2007. Language of Instruction and Student Performance: New Insights from Research in Tanzania and South Africa. International Review of Education 53 (5-6): 509-530. Cheng, Sheng Yao, and W. James Jacob. 2008. American Indian and Taiwan Aboriginal Education: Indigenous Identity and Career Aspirations. Asia Pacific Education Review 9 (3): 233–247. Cheng, Sheng Yao, W. James Jacob, and Pochang Chen. 2011. Metatheory in Comparative, International, and Development Education: Dialectics between East and West and Other Perspectives. In Beyond the Comparative: Advancing Theory and Its Application to Practice, ed. John C. Weidman and W. James Jacob (pp. 295-314). Boston: Sense Publishers. Crossley, Michael. 2000. Bridging Cultures and Traditions in the Reconceptualisation of Comparative and International Education. Comparative Education 36 (3): 319-332. Epstein, Erwin H. 1983. Currents Left and Right: Ideology in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 27 (1): 3-29. Fraser, Stewart E., and William W. Brickman. 1968. A History of International and Comparative Education: Nineteenth-Century Documents (pp. 1-19). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Co. Hans, Nicholas. 1959. The Historical Approach to Comparative Education. International Review of Education 5 (3): 299-307. Hawkins, John N. 2007. The Intractable Dominant Educational Paradigm. In Changing Education, ed. Peter D. Hershock, Mark Mason, and John N. Hawkins. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Hayhoe, Ruth. 1989. A Chinese Puzzle. Comparative Education Review 33 (2): 155-175. Holmes, Brian. 1984. Paradigm Shifts in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 28 (4): 584-604. Jacob, W. James. 2009. Reflective HIV education design: Balancing current needs with best practice. Prospects 39 (4): 311-319. Jacob, W. James, Enkhjargal Adiya, and Hana El-Ghali. 2009. Profile of an Educator: Peter Piot. Prospects 39 (4): 413-421. Jacob, W. James, and Sheng Yao Cheng. 2005. Mapping Theories in Comparative, International, and Development Education (CIDE) Research. In Global Trends in Educational Policy (Vol. 6, pp. 231-268), ed. D. P. Baker and A. W. Wiseman. New York: Elsevier Science, Ltd.
  9. 9. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 9 Jacob, W. James, Jennifer R. Crandall, Jason Hilton, and Laura Northrop. 2011. Emerging Theories in Comparative, International, and Development Education. In Beyond the Comparative: Advancing Theory and Its Application to Practice, ed. John C. Weidman and W. James Jacob (pp. 69-91). Boston: Sense Publishers. Jacob, W. James, Donald B. Holsinger, and Christopher B. Mugimu. 2008. Private Secondary Education in Uganda: Implications for Planning. Teachers College Record 110 (4): 867-893. Jacob, W. James, Jing Liu, and Che-Wei Lee. (2012 – Forthcoming). Policy Debates and Indigenous Education: The Trialectic of Language, Culture, and Identity. In Indigenous Education: Language, Culture, and Identity. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Jacob, W. James, and Wanhua Ma. (2012 – Forthcoming). Higher Education Trends in China. Frontiers of Education in China 7 (4). Jacob, W. James, and Yafflo W. Ouattara. 2009. HIV Education in Conflict, Post-Conflict and Emergency Contexts, Prospects, 39 (4): 359-381. Jacob, W. James, Stacey M. Shaw, Donald E. Morisky, Steven J. Hite, and Yusuf K. Nsubuga. 2007. HIV/AIDS Education: What African Youth Say is Effective. Families in Society 88 (1): 104–114. Kandell, Isaac L. 1955. The Content and Method of Comparative Education. In The New Era in Education: A Comparative Study (pp. 3-17). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Kazamias, Andreas M. 1962. History, Science and Comparative Education: A Study in Methodology. International Review of Education 8 (3/4): 383-398. Morisky, Donald E., Shu-Yu Lyu, and Lianne A. Urada Lyu. 2009. The Role of Non-formal Education in Combating the HIV Epidemic in the Philippines and Taiwan. Prospects 39 (4): 335-357. Mugimu, Christopher B., and Rosemary Nabadda. 2009. The Role of Pre-service and In-service Teacher Training (PITT) Programmes in Preparing Teachers for HIV Curriculum Integration. Prospects 39 (4): 383-397. Noah, Harold J., and Max A. Eckstein. 1969. The Development of Comparative Education. In Toward a Science of Comparative Education (pp. 4-7). New York: Macmillan. Nsubuga, Yusuf K., and Sandrine Bonnet. 2009. HIV Education in the Formal Curriculum, Prospects, 39 (4): 321-334. Nsubuga, Yusuf K., and W. James Jacob. 2006a. A Multisectoral Strategy for Overcoming AIDS in Uganda. In Overcoming AIDS: Lessons Learned from Uganda (pp. 15-42), ed. D. E. Morisky, W. J. Jacob, Y. K. Nsubuga, and S. J. Hite. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Nsubuga, Yusuf K., and W. James Jacob. 2006b. Fighting Stigma and Discrimination as a Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. In Overcoming AIDS: Lessons Learned from Uganda (pp. 43–59), ed. D. E. Morisky, W. J. Jacob, Y. K. Nsubuga, and S. J. Hite. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. Omolewa, Michael. 2007. Traditional African Modes of Education: Their Relevance in the Modern World. International Review of Education 53 (5-6): 593–612.
  10. 10. Jacob and Lee ADMPS 3343 Spring 2012 © 12 January 2012 10 Osewe, Patrick L. 2009. One National Response: Synergy Networks for Effective HIV Education among Government Agencies, Nongovernmental Organizations, and Development Partners. Prospects 39 (4): 399-412. Ruscoe, Gordon C., and Thomas W. Nelson. 1964. Prolegomena to a Definition of Comparative Education. International Review of Education 10 (4): 385-392. Rust, Val D.; Aminata Soumaré, Octavio Pescador, and Megumi Shibuya. 1999. Research Strategies in Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review 43 (1): 86-109. Wilson, David N. 1994. Comparative and International Education: Fraternal or Siamese Twins? A Preliminary Genealogy of Our Twin Fields. Comparative Education Review 38 (4): 449-486. Wolhuter, C. C. 1997. Classification of National Education Systems: A Multivariate Approach. Comparative Education Review 41 (2): 161-177.

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