The role of the Architectin Turbulent Times MihaKralj Sr. Architect Microsoft Corporation Session Code: ARC207
Architecture Impetus You can’t build a sky rise the way you build a dog house… Booch, SD’99 Architectural leadership always comes from the least expected direction… Unknown Architecture??? We are in recession,who needs architecture now! CIO of undisclosed company
Architecture is the translation of intent into technology Architecture: Raison d'être Technology Business
Architecture is the translation of intent into technology Architecture: Raison d'être Technology Business Aesthetics
Architecture is the translation of intent into technology Architecture: Raison d'être Technology Business Aesthetics:Judgment of sentiments and taste Aesthetics
Architecture: Raison d'être Business desires the right Function Technology Business Aesthetics
Architecture: Raison d'être Technology seeks the rightStructure Business desires the right Function Technology Business Aesthetics
Architecture: Raison d'être Technology seeks the rightStructure Business desires the right Function Technology Business Aesthetics requires the rightAppearance Aesthetics
Architecting process Design Requirements Analysis Design Conscious effort to create something that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing All architecture is design. Not all design is architecture.
Who Does What Best? Business Analyst DeveloperIT Professional . Architect Design Requirements Analysis
Architectural Levels Design all things by considering them in their larger contexts An enterprise in an industry A system in an enterprise A component in a system An object in a component Put the large rocks in the place first
Scope of Architectural Decisions Architecture is the set of decisions that cannot be delegated without compromising overall system objectives product family architecture decisions decisions optimized over the whole, making tradeoffs and compromises across the products for the overall good of the whole product architecture decisions Product family scope Product B scope Product A scope Component scope decisions made here are tuned to product A
Enterprise Architecture - Definition Enterprise Architecture Addresses Enterprise objectives: Encompasses: Application Architecture Consistency, Integration, Interoperability, Security Infrastructure Architecture Flexibility to make, buy or outsource IT solutions Information Architecture Reuse across applications, solutions and product families Business Architecture EA has Enterprise-wide scope and crossesintra-organizational boundaries
Value EA = BA + EWITA Enhance Business/IT Alignment EA = EWITA Enhance Value Management EA = TA Reduce IT cost and enhance operations Scope Evolution of Enterprise Architecture
Goal of an Architect Get the Architecture Right Right Direction: Architectural Vision and Strategy Right Focus: Architectural Requirements and Prioritization Right Solution: Architecture Specification Get the Architecture Used Right Get the Architecture used (at all)
Architect responsibilities What it really is: What you think the job is: Technical work Solving interesting problems Technical work Touchy-feely stuff Applying design patterns Organizational politics Technology choices, system design Getting participation Building consensus Non-technical work
The Main Activities of an Architect What an Architect really does? Think, Analyze Present, Meet, Teach, Discuss Listen, Talk, Walk around Test, Integrate Design, Brainstorm, Explain Write, Consolidate, Browse Assist with risks, WBS, schedule Read, Review How do you explicitly measure success of these tasks? GerritMuller, “The Role and Task of the System Architect”, http://www.gaudisite.nl/RoleSystemArchitectPaper.pdf
Architect Competencies Technical Competencies Business Competencies Personal Competencies Leadership Technology in Breadth Organizational Dynamics Communication Strategy Technology in Depth Process and Tactics
Split of the Role in the Hard Times Business Analyst Project Manager Strategy Advisor Development Lead Testing Lead Operations Lead Technical Competencies Business Competencies Personal Competencies Leadership Technology in Breadth Organizational Dynamics Communication Strategy Technology in Depth Process and Tactics
Split of the Role by Domain Focus EA Solution Architecture (Infrastructure, Information) Technical Architecture (Software, Application, System)
Split of the Role by Domain Focus Business Analyst Project Manager Strategy Advisor EA Solution Architecture (Infrastructure, Information) Development Lead Testing Lead Operations Lead Technical Architecture (Software, Application, System)
Shifting the Focus Diminishing Old Priorities New Projects – due to the overwhelming amount of internal optimization new projects are few and far apart. Large-scale SOA projects – With widespread failures of large SOA projects architects are reconsidering their approach to SOA Web 2.0 projects – The experiments on if this technology paradigm is viable is deemed non mission-critical. Server consolidation – the lifetimes of servers is extended thus reducing the amount of consolidation projects
Shifting the Focus Emerging New Priorities Optimization of current portfolio– How to leverage Company’s assets in a struggling economy (do more with less) Cost Reducing Programs – Programs that look at cost reductions are becoming a major property for architects Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)– Many pre- and post-M&A projects will occur during the recession time Compliance– New regulations will emerge to control all aspects of how IT operates Value Add Customer-facing projects – Furthering the reach of the company past traditional methods to add to the value chain
Four Key Architectural Imperatives What to do in the times of uncertainty Align – Find direct links to business imperatives. Optimize– Do more with what you have Externalize – Move IT assets outside of the IT operating environment, if they do not add value Consolidate – Reduce unnecessary redundancies
Align the Architecture Assessments Key Metrics Repeatable and consistent assessments should drive how decisions are made, and they must illustrate how architectural trade-offs occurred. Instead of defining IT-specific metrics, architecture organizations need to operate more like a business. By doing so, they need not only to demonstrate their effectiveness, but also to quantify it. Define the assessment metrics for all aspects of your work Redefine how you are measured and evaluated
Link the Architecture Architecture Management Requirements Management Architecture management should link into the standard processes, such as application portfolio management and Project Management Office processes. Capturing functional and nonfunctional requirements in reusable ways will help align architectures to the business and drive both the functionality and the architecture. Prove the value of architecture through PMO Align with business with the right requirements capturing process
Optimize the Architecture ALM Management Portfolio Management ALM improvements can include process optimizations to streamline efforts, new tools to automate and accelerate application development, and key information-gathering points to support architecture efforts and quantify business value. Reviewing the IT portfolio of applications will allow architects to either inventory existing systems or review the systems that have been cataloged. How can you improve the ALM tools, process or skills? What Solutions bring the most value and return?
Optimize your Tools and Solutions Optimizing Solutions Development tooling With a wave of new innovations in social computing, context-aware architectures, cloud-based architectures, and SaaS, there are ways to introduce lower risk, cost, and support for your company. Optimizing the tooling that is used in the actual development and architectural planning is essential for companies. In times of slowed project work, it is optimal to retool. Find the low-cost refactoring ideas and approaches. Are you using the right tools for the architecting process?
Consolidate your IT Assets IT Services IT Infrastructure Collaboration, VOIP, e-mail, business intelligence, portals, system monitoring, and project-management systems are all IT services that can be streamlined by creation of standards or consolidation of multiple vendors. The hardware backbone of an enterprise often is the first to be consolidated with virtualization solutions. While it is easy to virtualize, there is careful planning needed, as it could lead to the same problem that we have with server sprawl. What redundant IT Services can you find and consolidate? What infrastructure elements are ready for virtualization?
Consolidate your IT Assets Process Management Solution Architectures Process management can be a valuable exercise to consolidate disconnected and redundant processes. This streamlines your architectural efforts by providing repeatable and predictable measurements. Companies often find redundancies in solutions across LOBs or functional areas. Consolidating solutions will be key to lowering costs and complexity within the organization. What processes are fat, long and unnecessary? How much cost-reduction can you bring with consolidation?
Invent New Usage of Current Technology Use technology NOT as originally intended Redefine where the applied cutting edge really is Go beyond prescribed scenarios and personas Are you using technology the same way as your competition? Improve Customer Experiences Experience is more important than functionality If you don’t improve the experience, someone else will! Eliminate negative, tedious or hard-to-understand parts How do you get dissatisfied users to talk before they walk?
Render Your Own Cash Cow Obsolete Is there a single product/service that generates the majority of income? Create new Cash Cows out of Stars and Question marks (BCG) Anyone’s Cash Cow can be (and will be) stolen How do you reposition your own current Cash Cow? Learn to Fail Fast Plan ahead and get the advantage of unavoidable future Don’t refuse to accept failure; Invest in the next success If horse is dead, GET OFF! Is your product, service or engagement slowly failing?
Systematically Look Into the Future Focus on the NEW big picture Look for trends, patterns and new disruptors Technological changes can redefine the entire industries What changes can you identify that might yield an opportunity? Solve Predictable Future Problems Today Shift from Crisis Management to Opportunity Management Most of Future Issues are predictable and avoidable Anticipate, Plan and Pre-empt What problems can you eliminate before they happen?
Co-create the Future with your Customers Reward and stimulate customer innovation Foster collaborative research and creation Customers will help you design future products with THEM in mind Do customers send you their innovate ideas to implement? Create Strategic Alliances Cooperation and Competition are merging (Coopetition) Alliances are partnerships of equal players Strategic alliances tend to create advantages for all Which alliance would benefit your ecosystem?
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