Pronunciation of past simple

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Aspirated and voiced consonants and how they determine the pronunciation of regular Past Simple endings

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Pronunciation of past simple

  1. 1. Pronunciationof Past Simpleregular verbs
  2. 2. likedlovedwaited
  3. 3. lik-t lov-dwait-ɪd
  4. 4. aspirated and voiced consonants
  5. 5. say: ssssssssssss
  6. 6. put your hand in front of your mouth like this
  7. 7. what do you feel?
  8. 8. say: sssssssssssswhere do you make this sound?
  9. 9. /s/is an aspirated consonant
  10. 10. /s/is an aspirated consonant
  11. 11. /s/is an aspirated consonant consonante aspirata
  12. 12. aspirated consonantsare made by expelling air
  13. 13. now say: zzzzzzzzzzz
  14. 14. put your hand in on your throat like this
  15. 15. what do you feel?
  16. 16. now say: zzzzzzzzzzzwhere do you make this sound?
  17. 17. /z/is a voiced consonant
  18. 18. /z/is a voiced consonant consonante sonora
  19. 19. voiced consonants are made byvibration of the vocal cords
  20. 20. / s / and / z /are a consonant pair
  21. 21. / s / and / z / are a consonant pairthe mouth is in the same position for both
  22. 22. exercise
  23. 23. find other consonant pairs
  24. 24. aspirated s soon voiced z zero tʃ church g ð get this
  25. 25. aspirated p s pen soon voiced b z bed zero tʃ church g ð get this
  26. 26. aspirated p f s pen fat soon voiced b v z bed very zero tʃ church g ð get this
  27. 27. aspirated p f θ s pen fat thin soon voiced b v ð z bed very this zero tʃ church g get
  28. 28. aspirated p f θ t s pen fat thin tell soon voiced b v ð d z bed very this day zero tʃ church g get
  29. 29. aspirated p f θ t tʃ s pen fat thin tell church soon voiced b v ð d dʒ z bed very this day judge zero g get
  30. 30. aspirated p f θ t tʃ ʃ s pen fat thin tell church ship soon voiced b v ð d dʒ ʒ z bed very this day judge beige zero g get
  31. 31. aspirated p f θ t tʃ ʃ s k pen fat thin tell church ship soon cat voiced b v ð d dʒ ʒ z g bed very this day judge beige zero get
  32. 32. not all consonants form pairs -here are the English consonantsthat don’t have pairs:
  33. 33. not all consonants form pairs - here are the English consonants that don’t have pairs:aspirated h hot voiced m n ŋ l r j w much nice ring leg rain you win
  34. 34. general principle
  35. 35. it’s difficult to pronouncean aspirated consonant after a voiced consonant eg. / -gt /
  36. 36. it’s difficult to pronouncean aspirated consonant after a voiced consonant or vice versa eg. / -fd /
  37. 37. it’s much easier to pronounce two aspirated consonants: eg. / -ft /
  38. 38. ortwo voiced consonants: eg. / -gd /
  39. 39. RULE
  40. 40. /t/when an infinitive ends with an aspirated consonant the Past Simple ending (-ed) is pronounced / t /
  41. 41. /t/ eg. like / laɪk /> liked / laɪkt /
  42. 42. /d/when an infinitive ends with a voiced consonantthe Past Simple ending (-ed) is pronounced / d /
  43. 43. /d/ eg. love / lʌv /> loved / lʌvd /
  44. 44. /d/when an infinitive ends with a vowelthe Past Simple ending (-ed) is pronounced / d /
  45. 45. /d/ eg. study / stʌdi /> studied / stʌdid /
  46. 46. / ɪd / when an infinitive ends in / t / or / d /the Past Simple ending (-ed) is pronounced / ɪd /
  47. 47. / ɪd / eg. wait / weɪt /> waited / weɪtɪd /
  48. 48. NB this rule is phonetic, it’s the last sound NOT the last letterthat decides the pronunciation
  49. 49. last sound of Past Simpleinfinitive pronunciationaspirated consonant -tvoiced consonant -dvowel -d-t or -d -ɪd
  50. 50. exercise
  51. 51. infinitive -t / -d / -ɪd infinitive -t / -d / -ɪd like -t remember seem -d explode study -d analyse wait -ɪd beg ask form try report need launch laugh listen arrive describe type decide
  52. 52. infinitive -t / -d / -ɪd infinitive -t / -d / -ɪd like -t remember -d seem -d explode -ɪd study -d analyse -d wait -ɪd beg -d ask -t form -d try -d report -ɪd need -ɪd launch -t laugh -t listen -d arrive -d describe -d type -t decide -ɪd

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