Present Perfect Continuous

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Period to the present and recent past in the Present Perfect Continuous

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Present Perfect Continuous

  1. 1. Present Perfect Continuous
  2. 2. form
  3. 3. He has been drinking.
  4. 4. He has been drinking. 1 2 3
  5. 5. He has been drinking. 1. ‘to have’ auxiliary in present: have / has
  6. 6. He has been drinking. 2. ‘to be’ auxiliary past participle: been
  7. 7. He has been drinking. 3. main verb present participle: —ing
  8. 8. period to the present
  9. 9. It’s been raining for 3 hours.
  10. 10. It’s been raining for 3 hours. It started raining 3 hours ago
  11. 11. It’s been raining for 3 hours. It started raining 3 hours ago and it’s still raining now
  12. 12. this is the same concept as the Present Perfect Simple
  13. 13. I live in Rome (present duration)
  14. 14. I live in Rome (present duration) + for 22 years (period)
  15. 15. I live in Rome (present duration) + for 22 years (period) = I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years (present perfect)
  16. 16. It’s raining (present duration)
  17. 17. It’s raining (present duration) + for 3 hours (period)
  18. 18. It’s raining (present duration) + for 3 hours (period) = It’s been raining for 3 hours (present perfect continuous)
  19. 19. the Present Perfect Simple describes longer, more permanent periods
  20. 20. the Present Perfect Continuous describes shorter, more temporary periods
  21. 21. Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Perfect Continuous
  22. 22. 1. state verbs
  23. 23. I know her.
  24. 24. I know her. -- how long --
  25. 25. I know her. + only 5 minutes
  26. 26. I know her. or
  27. 27. I know her. + 15 years
  28. 28. I’ve only known her for 5 minutes.
  29. 29. or
  30. 30. I’ve known her for 15 years.
  31. 31. I’ve only known her for 5 minutes. short temporary period
  32. 32. I’ve known her for 15 years. long permanent period
  33. 33. I’ve (only) known her for 5 minutes / 15 years. short or long period the tense is simple
  34. 34. I’ve (only) known her for 5 minutes / 15 years. short or long period the tense is simple because ‘know’ is a state verb
  35. 35. I’ve only known her for 5 minutes. state verbs never used in continuous tenses
  36. 36. 2. long period
  37. 37. She works at IBM.
  38. 38. She works at IBM. -- how long --
  39. 39. She works at IBM. + 10 years
  40. 40. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years.
  41. 41. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years. long permanent period
  42. 42. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years. ‘simple’ for long period
  43. 43. She’s been working at IBM for 10 years. BUT
  44. 44. She’s been working at IBM for 10 years. in spoken English the ‘continuous’ is also possible
  45. 45. 3. short periods
  46. 46. We’re waiting
  47. 47. We’re waiting -- how long --
  48. 48. We’re waiting + 15 minutes
  49. 49. We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.
  50. 50. We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes. short temporary period
  51. 51. We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes. ‘continuous’ for short period
  52. 52. summary
  53. 53. state verbs long periods short periods present I know her. She works at IBM. We’re waiting. ‘simple’ I’ve known her for 5 minutes. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years. - ‘continuous’ - (She’s been working at IBM for 10 years.) We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.
  54. 54. it’s the present tense verb that decides
  55. 55. state verbs long periods short periods present I know her. She works at IBM. We’re waiting. ‘simple’ I’ve known her for 5 minutes. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years. - ‘continuous’ - (She’s been working at IBM for 10 years.) We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.
  56. 56. NB. negatives
  57. 57. She’s been checking her email all day.
  58. 58. BUT
  59. 59. I’m not checking my email.
  60. 60. I’m not checking my email -- how long --
  61. 61. I’m not checking my email + the start of the lesson
  62. 62. I haven’t checked my email since the start of the lesson
  63. 63. I haven’t checked my email since the start of the lesson NOT I haven’t been checking
  64. 64. use the Present Perfect Simple NOT the Continuous for negative periods to the present
  65. 65. present perfect simple or continuous (or both) She has worked / has been working since 3pm. They haven’t studied / haven’t been studying for 3 days. I have wanted / have been wanting this CD since it came out. They have waited / have been waiting for 30 minutes. How long has he studied / has he been studying English? He has studied / has been studying economics since 2011. I have had / have been having this computer for 2 weeks. We have walked / have been walking for 4 hours. How long have you lived / have you been living in Rome? It hasn’t rained / hasn’t been raining since lunchtime. She has played / has been playing tennis since 1999.
  66. 66. present perfect simple or continuous (or both) She has worked / has been working since 3pm. cont. in present They haven’t studied / haven’t been studying for 3 days. negative I have wanted / have been wanting this CD since it came out. state verb They have waited / have been waiting for 30 minutes. short period How long has he studied / has he been studying English? cont. in present He has studied / has been studying economics since 2011. cont. in present I have had / have been having this computer for 2 weeks. state verb We have walked / have been walking for 4 hours. cont. in present How long have you lived / (have you been living) in Rome? long period It hasn’t rained / hasn’t been raining since lunchtime. negative She has played / (has been playing) tennis since 1999. long period
  67. 67. recent past
  68. 68. someone’s been eating my sandwich!
  69. 69. Goldilocks grammar!
  70. 70. … Goldilocks fell asleep. And as she was sleeping, the three bears came home. "Someone's been eating my porridge," growled Papa bear. "Someone's been eating my porridge," said Mama bear. "Someone's been eating my porridge and they’ve eaten it all up!" cried Baby bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair," growled Papa bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair," said Mama bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair and they've broken it all to pieces," cried Baby bear. …
  71. 71. … Goldilocks fell asleep. And as she was sleeping, the three bears came home. "Someone's been eating my porridge," growled Papa bear. "Someone's been eating my porridge," said Mama bear. "Someone's been eating my porridge and they’ve eaten it all up!" cried Baby bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair," growled Papa bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair," said Mama bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair and they've broken it all to pieces," cried Baby bear. …
  72. 72. someone’s been eating my sandwich
  73. 73. emphasis on incomplete activity
  74. 74. someone’s eaten my sandwich
  75. 75. emphasis on conclusion
  76. 76. "Someone's been eating my porridge and they’ve eaten it all up!" Baby Bear wants to emphasise both activity and conclusion
  77. 77. emphasis on conclusion also means number
  78. 78. John’s been eating the cheese. He’s drunk 2 bottles of wine.
  79. 79. John’s been eating the cheese. He’s drunk 2 bottles of wine. incomplete activity
  80. 80. John’s been eating the cheese. He’s drunk 2 bottles of wine. conclusion (number)
  81. 81. present perfect simple or continuous I have cleaned / have been cleaning the windows. I have done / have been doing four. There’s just one left. You have done / have been doing Module 6. You have done / have been doing Module 7. You have done / have been doing the first 5 exercises. I have read / have been reading three books this week. She has written / has been writing emails today. How many chapters have you studied / have you been studying? He hasn’t done / hasn’t been doing all the exercises. He’s had / been having trouble with his computer recently. He can’t send emails. She has memorised / has been memorising verbs. But she hasn’t learnt / hasn’t been learning very many.
  82. 82. present perfect simple or continuous I have cleaned / have been cleaning the windows. I have done / have been doing four. There’s just one left. unfinished; number You have done / have been doing Module 6. conclusion You have done / have been doing Module 7. You have done / have been doing the first 5 exercises. unfinished; number I have read / have been reading three books this week. conclusion (number) She has written / has been writing emails today. activity How many chapters have you studied / have you been studying? conclusion (number) He hasn’t done / hasn’t been doing all the exercises. conclusion (number) He’s had / been having trouble with his computer recently. He can’t send emails. unfinished She has memorised / has been memorising verbs. But she hasn’t learnt / hasn’t been learning very many. unfinished; number
  83. 83. transitive vs. intransitive
  84. 84. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently.
  85. 85. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently. intransitive verb
  86. 86. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently. emphasis on activity
  87. 87. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently. emphasis on conclusion
  88. 88. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently. what’s the present consequence ?
  89. 89. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently. activity: my wrist hurts I haven’t been reading etc
  90. 90. I’ve been writing a lot recently. I’ve written a lot recently. conclusion: I’ve finished a lot of pages etc
  91. 91. present perfect simple or continuous She [talk] a lot. Now she has a sore throat. The Oracle [speak]. She won’t speak again for a long time. He [study] very hard. And he’s ready for the exam. They [not study]. They might not pass the exam. I [read] a lot. Now my eyes are tired. I [read] everything on the subject. Now I know it all. She [write] to everyone in her class. Each person got a personalised card. I [write] my thesis. It’s going well.
  92. 92. present perfect simple or continuous She has been talking a lot. Now she has a sore throat. activity The Oracle has spoken. She won’t speak again for a long time. conclusion He has studied very hard. And he’s ready for the exam. conclusion They haven’t been studying. They might not pass the exam. activity I have been reading a lot. Now my eyes are tired. activity I have read everything on the subject. Now I know it all. conclusion She has written to everyone in her class. Each person got a personalised card. conclusion I have been writing my thesis. It’s going well. activity
  93. 93. experience recent past period to the present present perfect simple I’ve been to Paris. Someone’s eaten my sandwich. She’s worked for IBM for 10 years. present perfect continuous - Someone’s been eating my sandwich. It’s been raining for 3 hours.
  94. 94. homework
  95. 95. module 7, parts 6, 7, 11
  96. 96. www.davidnicholson.it

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