Period to thepresentPresent PerfectSimple andContinuous
A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.
A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.     Where does ‘A’ live now?
A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.   Before coming to Rome,   I lived in London.
A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.   Before coming to Rome,   I lived in London.
Present PerfectA: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.   Before coming to Rome,   I lived in London.        Past Simple
open periodA: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.   Before coming to Rome,   I lived in London.       closed period
this grammar is only aboutdefining the duration of periods
for other meanings of     the Present Perfect, eg.   Have you ever been to Paris?        I’ve lost my keys.Someone’s been ...
1983              1993              now       10 years          20 years
I lived in London for 10 years.                  between 1983 and 1993.                  from 1983 to 1993.               ...
I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.                   since 1993.                   since I left London.
1983              1993              now       10 years          20 years
1983                   1993                         now  I came to           I left I came to  London           London Rom...
1st RULEUse the Present Perfect to define the length of an open period.Use the Past Simple to define the   length of a clo...
?ive:   How long have you lived in        Rome??ive:   How long did you live in London?
-ive:   I haven’t seen Gianni since        Thursday.but: I last saw Gianni on Thursday.
1st RULE – in translation Italian uses the Presente for open periods.And it uses the Passato Prossimo for closed          ...
I’ve lived in Rome   Presente for openfor 20 years.        periods.I lived in London    Passato Prossimo forfor 10 years. ...
I’ve lived in Rome     Vivo a Roma                     =for 20 years.          da 20 anni.I lived in London      Ho vissut...
I’ve lived in Rome     Vivo a Roma                     =for 20 years.          da 20 anni.I lived in London      Ho vissut...
prepositionsand 1 adverb
nowfrom         to   since       for                for
da           a                  da                                                now     from         to    since        ...
She has lived in Rome for 30 years.
She has lived in Rome for 30 years.BUTShe has always lived in Rome.She has lived in Rome all her life.
She has lived in Rome for 30 years.BUTShe has always lived in Rome.She has lived in Rome all her life.      NOT for all he...
omit for before          always and allShe has always lived in Rome.She has lived in Rome all her life.
translate the following sentencesSono studente a Roma Tre.Sono studente a Roma Tre da cinque anni.Sono studente a Roma Tre...
translate the following sentencesSono studente a Roma Tre. I am …Sono studente a Roma Tre da cinque anni. I’ve been … for ...
put prepositions into the spaces        for since from to until betweenShe worked there ______ 12 years.He has worked here...
put prepositions into the spaces          for since from to until betweenShe worked there for 12 years.He has worked here ...
Present PerfectContinuous
form
He has been drinking.
1    2    3He has been drinking.
1. ‘to have’  auxiliaryin present:have / has       He has been drinking.
2. ‘to be’   auxiliarypast participle:     beenHe has been drinking.
3. main verb    present participle:           —ingHe has been drinking.
period to the present
It’s been raining for 3 hours.
It started raining 3 hours agoIt’s been raining for 3 hours.
It started raining 3 hours ago        and it’s still raining nowIt’s been raining for 3 hours.
this is the same concept as the     Present Perfect Simple
I live in Rome (present duration)
I live in Rome (present duration)+ for 20 years (period)
I live in Rome (present duration)+ for 20 years (period)= I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years  (present perfect)
It’s raining (present duration)
It’s raining (present duration)+ for 3 hours (period)
It’s raining (present duration)+ for 3 hours (period)= It’s been raining for 3 hours  (present perfect continuous)
the Present Perfect Simple     describes longer,     more permanent         periods
the Present Perfect Continuous       describes shorter,        more temporary            periods
Present Perfect Simple            vs.Present Perfect Continuous
1. state verbs
I know her.
I know her.-- how long --
I know her.+ only 5 minutes
I’ve only known her   for 5 minutes.
I’ve only known her   for 5 minutes.               short             temporary               period
‘simple’  anywayI’ve only known her   for 5 minutes.
state verbs neverused in continuous       tensesI’ve only known her   for 5 minutes.
2. long period
She works at IBM.
She works at IBM.  -- how long --
She works at IBM.   + 10 years
She’s worked at IBM   for 10 years.
She’s worked at IBM   for 10 years.               long            permanent              period
‘simple’for long period    She’s worked at IBM       for 10 years.
BUTShe’s been working at IBM       for 10 years.
in spoken Englishthe ‘continuous’ is   also possibleShe’s been working at IBM       for 10 years.
3. short periods
We’re waiting
We’re waiting-- how long --
We’re waiting+ 15 minutes
We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.
We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.              short            temporary              period
‘continuous’for short period     We’ve been waiting      for 15 minutes.
summary
state verbs      long periods        short periodspresent        I know her.      She works at IBM.   We’re waiting.‘simpl...
it’s the present tense verb that             decides
state verbs      long periods        short periodspresent        I know her.      She works at IBM.   We’re waiting.‘simpl...
put these sentences in present perfect simple or continuousI [study] economics ___ 3 years.He [always like] Pink Floyd.It ...
put these sentences in present perfect simple or continuousI [study] economics ___ 3 years. I’ve been studying … for …He [...
www.davidnicholson.it
Period to the present
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Period to the present

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The Present Perfect Simple and Continuous both describe the period to the present, a period that started in the past and continues now. Here is an explanation of the grammar and how to choose between the two tenses.

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Period to the present

  1. 1. Period to thepresentPresent PerfectSimple andContinuous
  2. 2. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years.
  3. 3. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years. Where does ‘A’ live now?
  4. 4. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London.
  5. 5. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London.
  6. 6. Present PerfectA: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London. Past Simple
  7. 7. open periodA: I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London. closed period
  8. 8. this grammar is only aboutdefining the duration of periods
  9. 9. for other meanings of the Present Perfect, eg. Have you ever been to Paris? I’ve lost my keys.Someone’s been eating my sandwich. see your grammar book
  10. 10. 1983 1993 now 10 years 20 years
  11. 11. I lived in London for 10 years. between 1983 and 1993. from 1983 to 1993. until / till / ’til 1993. until I came to Rome.
  12. 12. I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years. since 1993. since I left London.
  13. 13. 1983 1993 now 10 years 20 years
  14. 14. 1983 1993 now I came to I left I came to London London Rome 10 years 20 years London Rome
  15. 15. 1st RULEUse the Present Perfect to define the length of an open period.Use the Past Simple to define the length of a closed period.
  16. 16. ?ive: How long have you lived in Rome??ive: How long did you live in London?
  17. 17. -ive: I haven’t seen Gianni since Thursday.but: I last saw Gianni on Thursday.
  18. 18. 1st RULE – in translation Italian uses the Presente for open periods.And it uses the Passato Prossimo for closed periods.BE CAREFUL: this can cause some confusion!
  19. 19. I’ve lived in Rome Presente for openfor 20 years. periods.I lived in London Passato Prossimo forfor 10 years. closed periods.
  20. 20. I’ve lived in Rome Vivo a Roma =for 20 years. da 20 anni.I lived in London Ho vissuto a Londra =for 10 years. per 10 anni.
  21. 21. I’ve lived in Rome Vivo a Roma =for 20 years. da 20 anni.I lived in London Ho vissuto a Londra =for 10 years. per 10 anni.
  22. 22. prepositionsand 1 adverb
  23. 23. nowfrom to since for for
  24. 24. da a da now from to since for for per da
  25. 25. She has lived in Rome for 30 years.
  26. 26. She has lived in Rome for 30 years.BUTShe has always lived in Rome.She has lived in Rome all her life.
  27. 27. She has lived in Rome for 30 years.BUTShe has always lived in Rome.She has lived in Rome all her life. NOT for all her life
  28. 28. omit for before always and allShe has always lived in Rome.She has lived in Rome all her life.
  29. 29. translate the following sentencesSono studente a Roma Tre.Sono studente a Roma Tre da cinque anni.Sono studente a Roma Tre dal 2007.Vivo qui da quando sono venuto a Roma.Sono sposati da diversi settimane.Abbiamo studiate dalle 18:00 a mezzanotte.È in ospedale da mercoledì.Ero in Italia da gennaio a maggio.Non fumo da quando ho deciso di smettere.Siamo qui da 6 ore.Dal inizio della storia usiamo acque come una risorsa.
  30. 30. translate the following sentencesSono studente a Roma Tre. I am …Sono studente a Roma Tre da cinque anni. I’ve been … for …Sono studente a Roma Tre dal 2007. I’ve been … since …Vivo qui da quando sono venuto a Roma. I’ve lived here since …Sono sposati da diversi settimane. They’ve been married for …Abbiamo studiate dalle 18:00 a mezzanotte. We studied from .. to …È in ospedale da mercoledì. He/She has been … since …Ero in Italia da gennaio a maggio. I was … from ... toNon fumo da quando ho deciso di smettere. I haven’t smoked since I decided…Siamo qui da 6 ore. We’ve been here for …Dal inizio della storia usiamo acque come una risorsa. Since … we have used ..
  31. 31. put prepositions into the spaces for since from to until betweenShe worked there ______ 12 years.He has worked here ______ 12 years.We were on holiday ______ June and September.They were in the office ______ 10am ______ 6pm.I’ve been in the office ______ 10am.The team haven’t played together ______ the end of the season.I studied ______ 3am.I studied ______ my friend arrived.I’ve wanted one of these ______ I first saw one.I’ve wanted one ______ all year.We’ve studied this ______ hours.
  32. 32. put prepositions into the spaces for since from to until betweenShe worked there for 12 years.He has worked here for 12 years.We were on holiday between June and September.They were in the office from 10am to 6pm.I’ve been in the office since 10am.The team haven’t played together since the end of the season.I studied until 3am.I studied until my friend arrived.I’ve wanted one of these since I first saw one.I’ve wanted one - all year.We’ve studied this for hours.
  33. 33. Present PerfectContinuous
  34. 34. form
  35. 35. He has been drinking.
  36. 36. 1 2 3He has been drinking.
  37. 37. 1. ‘to have’ auxiliaryin present:have / has He has been drinking.
  38. 38. 2. ‘to be’ auxiliarypast participle: beenHe has been drinking.
  39. 39. 3. main verb present participle: —ingHe has been drinking.
  40. 40. period to the present
  41. 41. It’s been raining for 3 hours.
  42. 42. It started raining 3 hours agoIt’s been raining for 3 hours.
  43. 43. It started raining 3 hours ago and it’s still raining nowIt’s been raining for 3 hours.
  44. 44. this is the same concept as the Present Perfect Simple
  45. 45. I live in Rome (present duration)
  46. 46. I live in Rome (present duration)+ for 20 years (period)
  47. 47. I live in Rome (present duration)+ for 20 years (period)= I’ve lived in Rome for 20 years (present perfect)
  48. 48. It’s raining (present duration)
  49. 49. It’s raining (present duration)+ for 3 hours (period)
  50. 50. It’s raining (present duration)+ for 3 hours (period)= It’s been raining for 3 hours (present perfect continuous)
  51. 51. the Present Perfect Simple describes longer, more permanent periods
  52. 52. the Present Perfect Continuous describes shorter, more temporary periods
  53. 53. Present Perfect Simple vs.Present Perfect Continuous
  54. 54. 1. state verbs
  55. 55. I know her.
  56. 56. I know her.-- how long --
  57. 57. I know her.+ only 5 minutes
  58. 58. I’ve only known her for 5 minutes.
  59. 59. I’ve only known her for 5 minutes. short temporary period
  60. 60. ‘simple’ anywayI’ve only known her for 5 minutes.
  61. 61. state verbs neverused in continuous tensesI’ve only known her for 5 minutes.
  62. 62. 2. long period
  63. 63. She works at IBM.
  64. 64. She works at IBM. -- how long --
  65. 65. She works at IBM. + 10 years
  66. 66. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years.
  67. 67. She’s worked at IBM for 10 years. long permanent period
  68. 68. ‘simple’for long period She’s worked at IBM for 10 years.
  69. 69. BUTShe’s been working at IBM for 10 years.
  70. 70. in spoken Englishthe ‘continuous’ is also possibleShe’s been working at IBM for 10 years.
  71. 71. 3. short periods
  72. 72. We’re waiting
  73. 73. We’re waiting-- how long --
  74. 74. We’re waiting+ 15 minutes
  75. 75. We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.
  76. 76. We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes. short temporary period
  77. 77. ‘continuous’for short period We’ve been waiting for 15 minutes.
  78. 78. summary
  79. 79. state verbs long periods short periodspresent I know her. She works at IBM. We’re waiting.‘simple’ I’ve known her She’s worked at IBM - for 5 minutes. for 10 years.‘continuous’ - (She’s been working We’ve been waiting at IBM for 10 years.) for 15 minutes.
  80. 80. it’s the present tense verb that decides
  81. 81. state verbs long periods short periodspresent I know her. She works at IBM. We’re waiting.‘simple’ I’ve known her She’s worked at IBM - for 5 minutes. for 10 years.‘continuous’ - (She’s been working We’ve been waiting at IBM for 10 years.) for 15 minutes.
  82. 82. put these sentences in present perfect simple or continuousI [study] economics ___ 3 years.He [always like] Pink Floyd.It [snow] ___ 10 o’clock.How long [you wait]?They [play] ___ 40 minutes.She [work] as a waitress ___ she left school.We [say] that ___ ages.She [live] the same house ___ all her life.They [live] together ___ 1995.I [listen] to music ___ all day.He [not sleep] well ___ he lost his job.
  83. 83. put these sentences in present perfect simple or continuousI [study] economics ___ 3 years. I’ve been studying … for …He [always like] Pink Floyd. He’s always liked …It [snow] ___ 10 o’clock. It’s been snowing since …How long [you wait]? How long have you been waiting?They [play] ___ 40 minutes. They’ve been playing for …She [work] as a waitress ___ she left school. She’s been working … since …We [say] that ___ ages. We’ve been saying … for …She [live] the same house ___ all her life. She’s lived … for …They [live] together ___ 1995. They’ve lived … since …I [listen] to music ___ all day. I’ve been listening … for …He [not sleep] well ___ he lost his job. He hasn’t been sleeping … since …
  84. 84. www.davidnicholson.it
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