The Past Perfect
When I arrived,
John left.
When I arrived,
John left.
When I arrived,
John left.
past simple
past simple
+ past simple
=
2 consecutive actions
Iarrived
Iarrived
Johnleft
Iarrived
Johnleft
Did I see
John?
Iarrived
Johnleft
Did I see
John?
Yes
When I arrived,
John was leaving.
When I arrived,
John was leaving.
When I arrived,
John was leaving.
past
continuous
past simple
+ past continuous
=
a short action that interrupts
a long action
Iarrived
Iarrived
John was leaving
Iarrived
John was leaving
Did John
leave?
Iarrived
John was leaving
Did John
leave?
We don’t
know
Iarrived
John was leaving
Did John
leave?
We don’t
know
maybe he
left…
Iarrived
John was leaving
Did John
leave?
We don’t
know
maybe he
left…
…or maybe
he stayed
because I
arrived
Iarrived
John was leaving
this combination of
tenses is called
‘interrupted action’
When I arrived,
John had left.
When I arrived,
John had left.
When I arrived,
John had left.
past
perfect
past simple
+ past perfect
=
an action
preceded by another action
Iarrived
Johnhadleft.
Iarrived
Johnhadleft.
Iarrived
Did I see
John?
Johnhadleft.
Iarrived
Did I see
John?
No
Johnhadleft.
Iarrived
Did I see
John?
No
He left then
I arrived
construction of the past perfect
I had done…
I had done…
auxiliary verb: ‘to have’
I had done…
auxiliary verb: ‘to have’
conjugated in the past: ‘had’
I had done…
auxiliary verb: ‘to have’
conjugated in the past: ‘had’
main verb as
past participle
I
he
she
it
we
you
they
had
done
taken
been
arrived
met
studied
etc.
She had taken…
+ive
She hadn’t taken…
-ive
Had she taken… ?
?ive
Yes, she had.
No, she hadn’t.
s.a.
tense gymnastics
!
convert
past simple to past perfect
and
past perfect to past simple
past simple past perfect
He made a cake.
I hadn’t finished.
We didn’t win the match.
Had you taken the bus?
Did you see th...
past simple past perfect
He made a cake. He’d made a cake.
I didn’t finish. I hadn’t finished.
We didn’t win the match. We...
same exercise
but be careful translating
‘essere’
past simple past perfect
He was at the bar.
They hadn’t been at work.
I didn’t get dressed.
Had you arrived early?
What ti...
past simple past perfect
He was at the bar. He had been at the bar.
They weren’t at work. They hadn’t been at work.
I didn...
homework
module 6, part 17, 1-7
www.davidnicholson.it
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Past perfect

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Introduction to the Past Perfect

Past perfect

  1. 1. The Past Perfect
  2. 2. When I arrived, John left.
  3. 3. When I arrived, John left.
  4. 4. When I arrived, John left. past simple
  5. 5. past simple + past simple = 2 consecutive actions
  6. 6. Iarrived
  7. 7. Iarrived Johnleft
  8. 8. Iarrived Johnleft Did I see John?
  9. 9. Iarrived Johnleft Did I see John? Yes
  10. 10. When I arrived, John was leaving.
  11. 11. When I arrived, John was leaving.
  12. 12. When I arrived, John was leaving. past continuous
  13. 13. past simple + past continuous = a short action that interrupts a long action
  14. 14. Iarrived
  15. 15. Iarrived John was leaving
  16. 16. Iarrived John was leaving Did John leave?
  17. 17. Iarrived John was leaving Did John leave? We don’t know
  18. 18. Iarrived John was leaving Did John leave? We don’t know maybe he left…
  19. 19. Iarrived John was leaving Did John leave? We don’t know maybe he left… …or maybe he stayed because I arrived
  20. 20. Iarrived John was leaving this combination of tenses is called ‘interrupted action’
  21. 21. When I arrived, John had left.
  22. 22. When I arrived, John had left.
  23. 23. When I arrived, John had left. past perfect
  24. 24. past simple + past perfect = an action preceded by another action
  25. 25. Iarrived
  26. 26. Johnhadleft. Iarrived
  27. 27. Johnhadleft. Iarrived Did I see John?
  28. 28. Johnhadleft. Iarrived Did I see John? No
  29. 29. Johnhadleft. Iarrived Did I see John? No He left then I arrived
  30. 30. construction of the past perfect
  31. 31. I had done…
  32. 32. I had done… auxiliary verb: ‘to have’
  33. 33. I had done… auxiliary verb: ‘to have’ conjugated in the past: ‘had’
  34. 34. I had done… auxiliary verb: ‘to have’ conjugated in the past: ‘had’ main verb as past participle
  35. 35. I he she it we you they had done taken been arrived met studied etc.
  36. 36. She had taken… +ive
  37. 37. She hadn’t taken… -ive
  38. 38. Had she taken… ? ?ive
  39. 39. Yes, she had. No, she hadn’t. s.a.
  40. 40. tense gymnastics !
  41. 41. convert past simple to past perfect and past perfect to past simple
  42. 42. past simple past perfect He made a cake. I hadn’t finished. We didn’t win the match. Had you taken the bus? Did you see the film? She had worn the dress. I drank all the beer. The alarm hadn’t rung. You didn’t choose a film. We had met before. Did they speak to her?
  43. 43. past simple past perfect He made a cake. He’d made a cake. I didn’t finish. I hadn’t finished. We didn’t win the match. We hadn’t won the match. Did you take the bus? Had you taken the bus? Did you see the film? Had you seen the film? She wore the dress. She had worn the dress. I drank all the beer. I had drunk all the beer. The alarm didn’t ring. The alarm hadn’t rung. You didn’t choose a film. You hadn’t chosen a film. We met before. We had met before. Did they speak to her? Had they spoken to her?
  44. 44. same exercise but be careful translating ‘essere’
  45. 45. past simple past perfect He was at the bar. They hadn’t been at work. I didn’t get dressed. Had you arrived early? What time did you get up? It had rained all night. Everyone went away. They hadn’t called each other. The fire didn’t die. The baby had been born. Did they relax after dinner?
  46. 46. past simple past perfect He was at the bar. He had been at the bar. They weren’t at work. They hadn’t been at work. I didn’t get dressed. I hadn’t got dressed. Did you arrive early? Had you arrived early? What time did you get up? What time had you got up? It rained all night. It had rained all night. Everyone went away. Everyone had gone away. They didn’t call each other. They hadn’t called each other. The fire didn’t die. The fire hadn’t died. The baby was born. The baby had been born. Did they relax after dinner? Had they relaxed after dinner?
  47. 47. homework
  48. 48. module 6, part 17, 1-7
  49. 49. www.davidnicholson.it
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