Modal Verbs of Deduction
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Modal Verbs of Deduction

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Modal verbs of deduction behave differently to the other types of modal verbs

Modal verbs of deduction behave differently to the other types of modal verbs

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Modal Verbs of Deduction Modal Verbs of Deduction Presentation Transcript

  • Modal verbsofdeduction
  • cancan’twill /won’tshall may mustcould would should might -
  • Is Sally at home now?
  • we use indicative tensesto say what we know
  • Sally is at home now.I know
  • we use modals when wesuppose, deduce, imagine
  • Sally must be at home now.I suppose
  • the choice of modal verb sayshow certain we are
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I’m convinced(even if I don’tknow)
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I suppose
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.it’s possible
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.c.f. modal verbsof possibility
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I suppose sheisn’t
  • Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I’m sure she isn’t(even if I don’tknow)
  • notice the opposites
  • Sally must be at home now.Sally can’t be at home now.
  • Sally will be at home now.Sally won’t be at home now.
  • modal verbs of deductionhave a continuous form
  • Somethingmustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe working.
  • use the continuous infinitiveafter the modal
  • continuous infinitivebe workingbe speakingbe thinkingetc.
  • N.B.
  • other meanings of the modalsdon’t use the continuousinfinitive
  • e.g.He can’t speak French.He can’t be speaking in French.
  • e.g.He can’t speak French.He can’t be speaking in French.he doesn’tknow how
  • e.g.He can’t speak French.He can’t be speaking in French.I don’t believehe’s doing it
  • modal verbs of deductionhave a past form
  • Somethingmustwillmaymightwon’tcan’thave worked.
  • use the perfect infinitiveafter the modal
  • perfect infinitivehave workedhave spokenhave thoughtetc.
  • N.B.
  • other meanings of the modalsdon’t use the perfect infinitive
  • e.g.He couldn’t speak French.He can’t have spoken in French.
  • e.g.He couldn’t speak French.He can’t have spoken in French.he didn’t know howwhen he wasyounger
  • e.g.He couldn’t speak French.He can’t have spoken in French.I don’t believe hespoke in French
  • exercise
  • convert continuous modalsto perfectand perfect modalsto continuous
  • continuous modal perfect modalShe might be calling.They can’t have studied.He must be going by bus.She won’t have cooked dinner.He will be wearing the jacket.They won’t have taken their exams.I must be dreaming it.They may have argued.He can’t be choosing.You must have paid a lot.She will be enjoying her holiday.
  • continuous modal perfect modalShe might be calling. She might have called.They can’t be studying. They can’t have studied.He must be going by bus. He must have gone by bus.She won’t be cooking dinner. She won’t have cooked dinner.He will be wearing the jacket. He will have worn the jacket.They won’t be taking their exams. They won’t have taken their exams.I must be dreaming it. I must have dreamt it.They may be arguing. They may have argued.He can’t be choosing. He can’t have chosen.You must be paying a lot. You must have paid a lot.She will be enjoying her holiday. She will have enjoyed her holiday.
  • may have donevs.might have done
  • 1. when we don’t know
  • Theymaymighthave lost my letter.
  • Theymaymighthave lost my letter.it’s possible thatthey have lost myletter
  • Theymaymighthave lost my letter.‘may’ and ‘might’mean the same
  • 2. result that didn’t happen
  • You might have killed yourself.
  • You might have killed yourself.you didn’t killyourself, but youdid risk it
  • You might have killed yourself.only ‘might’ ispossible
  • I might not have married her.
  • I might not have married her.I married her butif…
  • homework
  • module 7, parts 12, 13, 14
  • www.davidnicholson.it