Topics <ul><li>Multimedia Production Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital m...
Multimedia <ul><li>What is Multimedia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital media presented in an interactive manner </li></ul></...
Digital Text <ul><li>Printed text  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g books, newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanned text </li></u...
Digital Images <ul><li>Pixel: Picture Element  </li></ul><ul><li>Screen:  1280 by 1024 pixel </li></ul><ul><li>dpi are use...
Image and pixels David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Enlarged Image Original Image
Digital Colour Images <ul><li>Black & White, Grayscale and Colour images </li></ul><ul><li>Human eye  can distinguish betw...
Raster vs Vector <ul><li>Raster or Bitmap Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>image is created as a set of points </li></ul></ul>...
Raster vs Vector <ul><li>Vector Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on drawing elements or objects such as lines, rectangle...
Digital Audio <ul><li>Human hearing:  20Hz - 20KHz </li></ul><ul><li>Three classes of digital audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Digital Audio  <ul><li>Signal Rate Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Music CD 44.1KHz 20Hz - 20KHz </li></ul><ul><li>FM Radio 32...
Digital Audio: A/D Converter & Sampling David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Stored:  5    7  8  12  …….. or  0101  0111  1000  110...
Digital Storage  <ul><li>A page of text: 8KB </li></ul><ul><li>One second of stereo sound: 22KB </li></ul><ul><li>Colour p...
Why Digital Format? <ul><li>Analog signals generated by voice are complex. It is continuous.  </li></ul><ul><li>A digital ...
Multimedia: Societal Issues <ul><li>Information, business, education,  </li></ul><ul><li>Games, entertainment, pornography...
Multimedia & Internet <ul><li>What is Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a worldwide network of connections between comput...
Multimedia Applications <ul><li>Virtual Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Music & Movies </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </l...
Multimedia in Business <ul><li>Marketing and advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based, cheaper,  </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Multimedia in Business <ul><li>Virtual shopping </li></ul><ul><li>desktop videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Se...
Multimedia in Training & Education <ul><li>Learning thro’ experience (rather than an event) </li></ul><ul><li>learner orie...
Multimedia in Education <ul><li>New and innovative learning tool </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia is not cheap, but some natur...
Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Education <ul><li>Training is available when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li>...
Drawback  of Multimedia Training <ul><li>commitment </li></ul><ul><li>different delivery methodology is needed </li></ul><...
Image Quality <ul><li>Image Quality will depend on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour Dept...
Audio Capture <ul><li>PC sound card can capture audio and digitise it </li></ul><ul><li>Audio editing software allows to m...
Digital Sound <ul><li>The three characteristics for recording sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency rate (std: 44.1KHz, 22...
Video Capture <ul><li>Video capture card </li></ul><ul><li>source can be a VHS player or video camera </li></ul><ul><li>fr...
Analog video <ul><li>Analog video: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTSC (National Television Std. Committee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Digital Video <ul><li>Digital video characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame rate (e.g. 24 fps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Examples of Firewire Interface <ul><li>Firewire is Apple's version of the IEEE-1394 interface specification.  It is also k...
Compression <ul><li>Advantages of compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce file size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce cos...
Lossy <ul><li>Lossy compression compresses a file so that when it's later decompressed, it  appears  to be the same. But i...
Image Format (All 24 bit) David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Bitmap 538KB GIF 84KB JPEG 38KB TIFF 509KB
Image JPEG format David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - 100% 92KB 80% 32KB 60% 16KB 40% 11KB
Major Compression Std. <ul><li>JPEG  (Joint Photograhic Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression Standard for cont...
Major Compression Std. <ul><li>Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed by Compuserver </li></ul>...
Video Compression <ul><li>MPEG  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital video standard  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delta-frame encod...
Examples of Multimedia Software <ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macromedia Authorware, CBT Express, Director 4.0, ...
Selection of Multimedia Software <ul><li>User friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility (platform, other packages) </li></u...
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MIS Lesson4 Multimedia

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Transcript of "MIS Lesson4 Multimedia"

  1. 1. Topics <ul><li>Multimedia Production Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital media forms/objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia: Social Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image, Audio & Video Capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage and Compression standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection Of Multimedia Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Software (Practical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation: PowerPoint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web-Design: Dreamweaver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics: Paint or Firework </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animation: Flash </li></ul></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  2. 2. Multimedia <ul><li>What is Multimedia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital media presented in an interactive manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Objects (Media forms) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text (one page = 500-1,000 Bytes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics (one pic = 300KB - 1MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio (one min. = 2.5MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animation (size varies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video (one min. = 10MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human faculties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taste </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  3. 3. Digital Text <ul><li>Printed text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g books, newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scanned text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OCR software needed to convert to machine readable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>machine readable form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be electronically transmitted or edited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text that has been linked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used widely in Internet </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  4. 4. Digital Images <ul><li>Pixel: Picture Element </li></ul><ul><li>Screen: 1280 by 1024 pixel </li></ul><ul><li>dpi are used for output devices </li></ul><ul><li>rectangular array of pixels: bitmap (or raster) </li></ul><ul><li>images can be represented in bitmap or vector graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Vector graphics: scalable, size & shape can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Raster requires recalculation and redrawing when changes are made </li></ul><ul><li>Most Multimedia graphics are raster (faster to display) </li></ul><ul><li>Font technology makes use of vector graphics </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  5. 5. Image and pixels David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Enlarged Image Original Image
  6. 6. Digital Colour Images <ul><li>Black & White, Grayscale and Colour images </li></ul><ul><li>Human eye can distinguish between 0.5 - 2 million colours </li></ul><ul><li>Video/image display: 2 1 (2 colour) to 2 24 (16.7 million) </li></ul><ul><li>4-bit and 8-bit colour: indexed colour </li></ul><ul><li>16-bit and 24-bit colour: true colour image </li></ul><ul><li>Common Graphics format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.bmp bitmap; Most efficient format for windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gif graphics interchange format; Used in Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pcd Kodak’s photo CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mac Macintosh MacPaint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.jpg Joint Photographic Experts Group; platform-independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tif Tagged Image File; have many different subformat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others: .pic (PC Paint); .pcx (Zsoft Paintbrush); .wpg (WordPerfect) </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  7. 7. Raster vs Vector <ul><li>Raster or Bitmap Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>image is created as a set of points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each point can display 2 to millions of colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 bit = 2 colour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 bit = 16 colour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 B = 256 colour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 B = 65,536 colour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 B = 16.7 million colours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>std VGA display is 640 x 480 pixels = 307,200 pixels </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  8. 8. Raster vs Vector <ul><li>Vector Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on drawing elements or objects such as lines, rectangle, circles, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Line: x1,y1,x2,y2,colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g Circle: x1,y1,radius, fill_colour, line_colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be resized/scaled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited level of details that can be represented </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  9. 9. Digital Audio <ul><li>Human hearing: 20Hz - 20KHz </li></ul><ul><li>Three classes of digital audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>waveform files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be copies and edited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sampling rate (e.g. 48 KHz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resolution (8 bit, 16 bit, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCM: Pulse Code Modulation (equal width sampling) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADPCM: Adaptive Differential PCM (variable width sampling) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two formats: music CD and CD-ROM storage (e.g. Waveform) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can synthesizes music via a command and timing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many keyboards, drum machines and effects boxes have MIDI port </li></ul></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  10. 10. Digital Audio <ul><li>Signal Rate Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Music CD 44.1KHz 20Hz - 20KHz </li></ul><ul><li>FM Radio 32KHz 20Hz - 14KHz </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone 8KHz 180Hz - 3.4KHz </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  11. 11. Digital Audio: A/D Converter & Sampling David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Stored: 5 7 8 12 …….. or 0101 0111 1000 1100 Time
  12. 12. Digital Storage <ul><li>A page of text: 8KB </li></ul><ul><li>One second of stereo sound: 22KB </li></ul><ul><li>Colour photo/image: 500KB </li></ul><ul><li>One second of video: 22MB </li></ul><ul><li>Compression techniques are used to store images, audio and video </li></ul><ul><li>Common storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disk: 1.44MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDD: 2-6 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM: 650MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapes </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  13. 13. Why Digital Format? <ul><li>Analog signals generated by voice are complex. It is continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>A digital signal is simpler it is discrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of Digital Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better integrity because there is less variation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher capacity and more efficient multiplexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier Integration of voice, data, and video signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better security and privacy through encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  14. 14. Multimedia: Societal Issues <ul><li>Information, business, education, </li></ul><ul><li>Games, entertainment, pornography, Internet addiction, privacy, censorship, encryption, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent, Copyright, Fair use (comments, teaching, news, criticism), Data protection act, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Signature Act, Multimedia Act, Telemedicine Act, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisation Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flatter organisation, improved communication, change in advertising, change in workplace, employees have greater empowerment, more efficient, less paper, more complex tools & easy to use, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual environment </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  15. 15. Multimedia & Internet <ul><li>What is Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a worldwide network of connections between computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is a huge collection of computers, cables, software and poeple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows data to be transmitted from one computer to the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it operates using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refer to presentation 2 </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  16. 16. Multimedia Applications <ul><li>Virtual Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Music & Movies </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Telemedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>How can multimedia contribute in these areas? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits and drawbacks? </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  17. 17. Multimedia in Business <ul><li>Marketing and advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based, cheaper, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training & Education </li></ul><ul><li>Office environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology based, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EDI </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce (Web-based sales & transactions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>larger customer base, easy to setup, less need for showrooms & sales personal, server admin., delivery service, web-page & database design, new strategies for marketing, customer service, & number of hits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-Money (e-cheque, e-purse, e-cash, etc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment modes, security, e-bank, customer confidence, use of smartcard (microchip) or biometric, </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  18. 18. Multimedia in Business <ul><li>Virtual shopping </li></ul><ul><li>desktop videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock report (www.sec.gov) & news (www.pointcast.com) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real estate </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Training (widely used) </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising and electronic brochures </li></ul><ul><li>Mass market applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g hair styles, dressing, etc (www.webcreations.com/styles) </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  19. 19. Multimedia in Training & Education <ul><li>Learning thro’ experience (rather than an event) </li></ul><ul><li>learner oriented (speed, time, place) </li></ul><ul><li>learner decides what he/she wants to learn (with some control) </li></ul><ul><li>learner can do self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>sufficient practice may be provided </li></ul><ul><li>post-training support can be provided </li></ul><ul><li>Method Average retention </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Reading 10% </li></ul><ul><li>AV 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Demo 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion (Group) 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Doing 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Teach & use immediately 90% </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  20. 20. Multimedia in Education <ul><li>New and innovative learning tool </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia is not cheap, but some natural settings are much more expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. training a pilot, surgical procedure, view an explosion, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia become cost efficient when audience change but the message remains the same </li></ul><ul><li>can be time and location independent </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  21. 21. Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Education <ul><li>Training is available when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every user is exposed to the same information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner can operate or troubleshoot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recordkeeping and analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information of the learner can be recorded and analysed (e.g. test) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be used as reference tool or as the main tool; small or large groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce training time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>studies have indicated a reduction of 30% (less time in training & organising) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others: motivation, adaptability to learner, improves retention level </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  22. 22. Drawback of Multimedia Training <ul><li>commitment </li></ul><ul><li>different delivery methodology is needed </li></ul><ul><li>require high initial resources </li></ul><ul><li>change in technology </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  23. 23. Image Quality <ul><li>Image Quality will depend on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour Depth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Generated Colour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hue: vector value moving from 0-360 degree on a colour wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturation: 100% is pure colour, 0 is black/white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightness: A pure colour has 50% light: 100% is white; 0% is black </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate the file size of an image that is 800x600 pixels and has 65,536 colours </li></ul><ul><li>Compression format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIF, TIFF, JPEG, etc. </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  24. 24. Audio Capture <ul><li>PC sound card can capture audio and digitise it </li></ul><ul><li>Audio editing software allows to mix several soundtrack </li></ul><ul><li>microphone </li></ul><ul><li>stereo </li></ul><ul><li>quality of sound card (16 bit, 32 bit, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U or Mu-Law (NeXT/Sun format; multiplatform: Mac, PC & Unix) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wav (Microsoft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADCPM (Adaptive Differential PCM) </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  25. 25. Digital Sound <ul><li>The three characteristics for recording sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency rate (std: 44.1KHz, 22.5KHz or 11.025KHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplitude (e.g 8-bits = 256 level; 16-bit for 65,536 level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound channel (1 channel=mono and 2 channel=stereo) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate the file size for 1 min, 44.1KHz, 16-bit stereo sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File size = 10.584MB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital audio software support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playback, Record, Stop, FF, FR, Rewind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Editing Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trimming, volume adjustment, Resampling, Fade-in/out, Digital Signalprocessing, etc </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  26. 26. Video Capture <ul><li>Video capture card </li></ul><ul><li>source can be a VHS player or video camera </li></ul><ul><li>frame rate: for 30 fps, high quality video capture card will be needed </li></ul><ul><li>support: composite video signal, S-video </li></ul><ul><li>compression: MPEG or motion JPEG </li></ul><ul><li>high processing power computer needed; high RAM (graphical workstations) </li></ul><ul><li>storage: HDD, CD-ROM, Optical storage </li></ul><ul><li>Editing software </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  27. 27. Analog video <ul><li>Analog video: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NTSC (National Television Std. Committee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use in Japan and US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>525 scan lines drawn every 1/30th second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanned at 60 cycles per second (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interlacing (two passes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAL (Phase Alternate Line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UK, Europe, Australia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>625 lines drawn every 1/25 sec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interlaced at 50 cycles per second (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SECAM (Sequential Colour with Memory) – {French} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>625 lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interlaced at 50 cycle per second (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>HDTV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,125 lines at 60 Hz </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  28. 28. Digital Video <ul><li>Digital video characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame rate (e.g. 24 fps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame Size (e.g. 640 x 480) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour Depth (e.g 24-bit colour) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate the file size for a 30fps 640 x 480 size digital video with 65,535 colours </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lossless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality is the same as original </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lossy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The quality differ from the original </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intraframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each frame is compressed individually and stored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only changes are stored </li></ul></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  29. 29. Examples of Firewire Interface <ul><li>Firewire is Apple's version of the IEEE-1394 interface specification.  It is also known as Sony's i.LINK,®.  Whether referred to as FireWire, IEEE-1394 or iLINK the interface is the only high-speed digital technology that enables consumer electronics to easily interface with computer products </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Firewire
  30. 30. Compression <ul><li>Advantages of compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce file size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce cost of storage, transmission & processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampling theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sampling rate (e.g audio: 44.1 KHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nyquist Theorem: one must sample twice as fast as the highest frequency being sampled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Techniques of Compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lossy (changes the original data on decompression) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes are indistinguishable to human eye (JPEG, MPEG) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ratio can be as high as several hundred is to one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lossless (original data is not changed on decompression) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pkzip, best ratio is 2:1 </li></ul></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  31. 31. Lossy <ul><li>Lossy compression compresses a file so that when it's later decompressed, it appears to be the same. But it isn't. </li></ul><ul><li>some brilliant algorithms delete some data from the file in such a way that when the file is later reconstructed, you don't notice the deletions </li></ul><ul><li>JPEG is lossy while TIFF is lossless </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Original Picture Uncompressed 29MB High Quality 73KB Low Quality 25KB
  32. 32. Image Format (All 24 bit) David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Bitmap 538KB GIF 84KB JPEG 38KB TIFF 509KB
  33. 33. Image JPEG format David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - 100% 92KB 80% 32KB 60% 16KB 40% 11KB
  34. 34. Major Compression Std. <ul><li>JPEG (Joint Photograhic Experts Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression Standard for continuous-tone still image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24-bit colour or gray-scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily for still image (can also be used for video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lossy (image obtained out of decompression isn’t identical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>useful for human but not for machine-analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>degree of lossiness can be varied by parameter (good for trade off of file size) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG ( Moving Picture Expert Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colour video and audio compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JPEG compress data within a frame while MPEG can exploit the similarity of adjacent frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constant bit rate (suitable for streaming or transmission) </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  35. 35. Major Compression Std. <ul><li>Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed by Compuserver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used widely in the web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses LZW compression algorithm (by Unisys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited to 256 colours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very high compression capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good for black & white image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used in publishing and fax </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  36. 36. Video Compression <ul><li>MPEG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital video standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delta-frame encoding (only changes from frame to frame will be recorded) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD, cable TV, satellite broadcast, HDTV, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-interlaced (draws every line) for playback from CD-ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interlaced version (draws every other line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadcast quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used by US Grand Alliance HDTV, European Digital Video Broadcast Group, RCA (Direct TV), etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suppose to be HDTV standard but MPEG 2 could fulfill the needs (e.g. scaling the bit rate) </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  37. 37. Examples of Multimedia Software <ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macromedia Authorware, CBT Express, Director 4.0, Multimedia Workbench, Toolbook, Quest, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CorelDraw, PhotoPaint, MacDraw, Photoshop, Professional Draw, Studio/32, Painter, Firework, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3D Studio, Animation Master, Macromedia Flash, Vision 3D, Visual Reality, Imagine, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard Graphics, PowerPoint, Lotus Cam, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio Editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roland Audio tools, SoundEdit, WAVE, Studio Vision, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video Editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicktime, VideoFusion, VideoShop, Premiere, etc. </li></ul></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  38. 38. Selection of Multimedia Software <ul><li>User friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility (platform, other packages) </li></ul><ul><li>Editing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Text option (size, colour, font) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics option (format, import/export, animation) </li></ul><ul><li>Media option (interface with various peripherals) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity (branching, menu, hot spots) </li></ul><ul><li>Management capabilities (database, folder organisation) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost (incl. Upgrades) </li></ul><ul><li>Others: Support, Reliability, number of users, hardware & memory requirements, training, installation, Documentation, etc </li></ul>David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -

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