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  • 1. Topics
    • Multimedia Production Systems
      • Multimedia Objects
      • Digital media forms/objects
      • Multimedia: Social Impact
      • Multimedia Application
        • Business
        • Education
      • Image, Audio & Video Capture
      • Storage and Compression standards
      • Selection Of Multimedia Software
      • Multimedia Software (Practical)
        • Presentation: PowerPoint
        • Web-Design: Dreamweaver
        • Graphics: Paint or Firework
        • Animation: Flash
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 2. Multimedia
    • What is Multimedia?
      • Digital media presented in an interactive manner
    • Multimedia Objects (Media forms)
      • Text (one page = 500-1,000 Bytes)
      • Graphics (one pic = 300KB - 1MB)
      • Audio (one min. = 2.5MB)
      • Animation (size varies)
      • Video (one min. = 10MB)
    • Human faculties
      • sight
      • sound
      • touch
      • smell
      • taste
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 3. Digital Text
    • Printed text
      • e.g books, newspaper
    • Scanned text
      • image
      • OCR software needed to convert to machine readable
    • Electronic text
      • machine readable form
      • can be electronically transmitted or edited
    • Hypertext
      • text that has been linked
      • used widely in Internet
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 4. Digital Images
    • Pixel: Picture Element
    • Screen: 1280 by 1024 pixel
    • dpi are used for output devices
    • rectangular array of pixels: bitmap (or raster)
    • images can be represented in bitmap or vector graphics
    • Vector graphics: scalable, size & shape can be changed
    • Raster requires recalculation and redrawing when changes are made
    • Most Multimedia graphics are raster (faster to display)
    • Font technology makes use of vector graphics
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 5. Image and pixels David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Enlarged Image Original Image
  • 6. Digital Colour Images
    • Black & White, Grayscale and Colour images
    • Human eye can distinguish between 0.5 - 2 million colours
    • Video/image display: 2 1 (2 colour) to 2 24 (16.7 million)
    • 4-bit and 8-bit colour: indexed colour
    • 16-bit and 24-bit colour: true colour image
    • Common Graphics format
      • .bmp bitmap; Most efficient format for windows
      • .gif graphics interchange format; Used in Internet
      • .pcd Kodak’s photo CD
      • .mac Macintosh MacPaint
      • .jpg Joint Photographic Experts Group; platform-independent
      • .tif Tagged Image File; have many different subformat
      • Others: .pic (PC Paint); .pcx (Zsoft Paintbrush); .wpg (WordPerfect)
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 7. Raster vs Vector
    • Raster or Bitmap Images
      • image is created as a set of points
      • each point can display 2 to millions of colour
        • 1 bit = 2 colour
        • 4 bit = 16 colour
        • 1 B = 256 colour
        • 2 B = 65,536 colour
        • 3 B = 16.7 million colours
      • std VGA display is 640 x 480 pixels = 307,200 pixels
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 8. Raster vs Vector
    • Vector Images
      • based on drawing elements or objects such as lines, rectangle, circles, etc
      • e.g. Line: x1,y1,x2,y2,colour
      • e.g Circle: x1,y1,radius, fill_colour, line_colour
      • can be resized/scaled
      • limited level of details that can be represented
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 9. Digital Audio
    • Human hearing: 20Hz - 20KHz
    • Three classes of digital audio
      • waveform files
        • can be copies and edited
        • sampling rate (e.g. 48 KHz)
        • resolution (8 bit, 16 bit, etc)
        • Sampling methods
          • PCM: Pulse Code Modulation (equal width sampling)
          • ADPCM: Adaptive Differential PCM (variable width sampling)
      • CD audio
        • two formats: music CD and CD-ROM storage (e.g. Waveform)
      • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
        • can synthesizes music via a command and timing system
        • many keyboards, drum machines and effects boxes have MIDI port
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 10. Digital Audio
    • Signal Rate Bandwidth
    • Music CD 44.1KHz 20Hz - 20KHz
    • FM Radio 32KHz 20Hz - 14KHz
    • Telephone 8KHz 180Hz - 3.4KHz
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 11. Digital Audio: A/D Converter & Sampling David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Stored: 5 7 8 12 …….. or 0101 0111 1000 1100 Time
  • 12. Digital Storage
    • A page of text: 8KB
    • One second of stereo sound: 22KB
    • Colour photo/image: 500KB
    • One second of video: 22MB
    • Compression techniques are used to store images, audio and video
    • Common storage devices
      • Floppy disk: 1.44MB
      • HDD: 2-6 GB
      • CD-ROM: 650MB
      • Tapes
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 13. Why Digital Format?
    • Analog signals generated by voice are complex. It is continuous.
    • A digital signal is simpler it is discrete.
    • Advantages of Digital Format
      • Better integrity because there is less variation.
      • Higher capacity and more efficient multiplexing
      • Easier Integration of voice, data, and video signals
      • Better security and privacy through encryption
      • Lower cost
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 14. Multimedia: Societal Issues
    • Information, business, education,
    • Games, entertainment, pornography, Internet addiction, privacy, censorship, encryption, etc
    • Cyber Law
      • Patent, Copyright, Fair use (comments, teaching, news, criticism), Data protection act,
      • Digital Signature Act, Multimedia Act, Telemedicine Act,
    • Organisation Impact
      • flatter organisation, improved communication, change in advertising, change in workplace, employees have greater empowerment, more efficient, less paper, more complex tools & easy to use,
    • Virtual environment
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 15. Multimedia & Internet
    • What is Internet?
      • is a worldwide network of connections between computers
      • it is a huge collection of computers, cables, software and poeple
      • allows data to be transmitted from one computer to the other
      • it operates using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
      • refer to presentation 2
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 16. Multimedia Applications
    • Virtual Shopping
    • Music & Movies
    • Video Conferencing
    • Training
    • Marketing
    • Telemedicine
    • Manufacturing
    • Discussion
    • How can multimedia contribute in these areas?
    • What are the benefits and drawbacks?
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 17. Multimedia in Business
    • Marketing and advertising
      • Web-based, cheaper,
    • Training & Education
    • Office environment
      • technology based,
    • EDI
    • E-commerce (Web-based sales & transactions)
      • larger customer base, easy to setup, less need for showrooms & sales personal, server admin., delivery service, web-page & database design, new strategies for marketing, customer service, & number of hits
    • E-Money (e-cheque, e-purse, e-cash, etc)
      • Payment modes, security, e-bank, customer confidence, use of smartcard (microchip) or biometric,
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 18. Multimedia in Business
    • Virtual shopping
    • desktop videoconferencing
    • Financial Services
      • Stock report (www.sec.gov) & news (www.pointcast.com)
    • Real estate
    • Corporate Training (widely used)
    • Advertising and electronic brochures
    • Mass market applications
      • e.g hair styles, dressing, etc (www.webcreations.com/styles)
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 19. Multimedia in Training & Education
    • Learning thro’ experience (rather than an event)
    • learner oriented (speed, time, place)
    • learner decides what he/she wants to learn (with some control)
    • learner can do self-assessment
    • sufficient practice may be provided
    • post-training support can be provided
    • Method Average retention
    • Lecture 5%
    • Reading 10%
    • AV 20%
    • Demo 30%
    • Discussion (Group) 50%
    • Doing 75%
    • Teach & use immediately 90%
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 20. Multimedia in Education
    • New and innovative learning tool
    • Multimedia is not cheap, but some natural settings are much more expensive
      • e.g. training a pilot, surgical procedure, view an explosion,
    • Multimedia become cost efficient when audience change but the message remains the same
    • can be time and location independent
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 21. Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Education
    • Training is available when needed
    • Consistency
      • every user is exposed to the same information
    • Simulation
      • Learner can operate or troubleshoot
    • Recordkeeping and analysis
      • information of the learner can be recorded and analysed (e.g. test)
    • Flexibility
      • can be used as reference tool or as the main tool; small or large groups
    • Reduce training time
      • studies have indicated a reduction of 30% (less time in training & organising)
    • Others: motivation, adaptability to learner, improves retention level
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 22. Drawback of Multimedia Training
    • commitment
    • different delivery methodology is needed
    • require high initial resources
    • change in technology
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 23. Image Quality
    • Image Quality will depend on
      • Resolution
      • Colour Depth
    • Computer Generated Colour
      • Hue: vector value moving from 0-360 degree on a colour wheel
      • Saturation: 100% is pure colour, 0 is black/white
      • Brightness: A pure colour has 50% light: 100% is white; 0% is black
    • Calculate the file size of an image that is 800x600 pixels and has 65,536 colours
    • Compression format:
      • GIF, TIFF, JPEG, etc.
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 24. Audio Capture
    • PC sound card can capture audio and digitise it
    • Audio editing software allows to mix several soundtrack
    • microphone
    • stereo
    • quality of sound card (16 bit, 32 bit, etc)
    • Audio Compression
      • PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)
      • AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
      • U or Mu-Law (NeXT/Sun format; multiplatform: Mac, PC & Unix)
      • Wav (Microsoft)
      • MPEG
      • ADCPM (Adaptive Differential PCM)
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 25. Digital Sound
    • The three characteristics for recording sound
      • Frequency rate (std: 44.1KHz, 22.5KHz or 11.025KHz)
      • Amplitude (e.g 8-bits = 256 level; 16-bit for 65,536 level)
      • Sound channel (1 channel=mono and 2 channel=stereo)
    • Calculate the file size for 1 min, 44.1KHz, 16-bit stereo sound
      • File size = 10.584MB
    • Digital audio software support
      • Playback, Record, Stop, FF, FR, Rewind
    • Editing Audio
      • Trimming, volume adjustment, Resampling, Fade-in/out, Digital Signalprocessing, etc
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 26. Video Capture
    • Video capture card
    • source can be a VHS player or video camera
    • frame rate: for 30 fps, high quality video capture card will be needed
    • support: composite video signal, S-video
    • compression: MPEG or motion JPEG
    • high processing power computer needed; high RAM (graphical workstations)
    • storage: HDD, CD-ROM, Optical storage
    • Editing software
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 27. Analog video
    • Analog video:
      • NTSC (National Television Std. Committee)
        • Use in Japan and US
        • 525 scan lines drawn every 1/30th second
        • Scanned at 60 cycles per second (Hz)
        • Interlacing (two passes)
      • PAL (Phase Alternate Line)
        • UK, Europe, Australia
        • 625 lines drawn every 1/25 sec
        • Interlaced at 50 cycles per second (Hz)
      • SECAM (Sequential Colour with Memory) – {French}
        • 625 lines
        • Interlaced at 50 cycle per second (Hz)
    • HDTV
      • 1,125 lines at 60 Hz
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 28. Digital Video
    • Digital video characteristics
      • Frame rate (e.g. 24 fps)
      • Frame Size (e.g. 640 x 480)
      • Colour Depth (e.g 24-bit colour)
    • Calculate the file size for a 30fps 640 x 480 size digital video with 65,535 colours
    • Compression
      • Lossless
        • Quality is the same as original
      • Lossy
        • The quality differ from the original
      • Intraframe
        • Each frame is compressed individually and stored
      • Interframe
        • Only changes are stored
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 29. Examples of Firewire Interface
    • Firewire is Apple's version of the IEEE-1394 interface specification.  It is also known as Sony's i.LINK,®.  Whether referred to as FireWire, IEEE-1394 or iLINK the interface is the only high-speed digital technology that enables consumer electronics to easily interface with computer products
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Firewire
  • 30. Compression
    • Advantages of compression
      • reduce file size
      • reduce cost of storage, transmission & processing
    • Sampling theory
      • sampling rate (e.g audio: 44.1 KHz)
      • Nyquist Theorem: one must sample twice as fast as the highest frequency being sampled
    • Techniques of Compression
      • Lossy (changes the original data on decompression)
        • changes are indistinguishable to human eye (JPEG, MPEG)
        • ratio can be as high as several hundred is to one
      • Lossless (original data is not changed on decompression)
        • pkzip, best ratio is 2:1
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 31. Lossy
    • Lossy compression compresses a file so that when it's later decompressed, it appears to be the same. But it isn't.
    • some brilliant algorithms delete some data from the file in such a way that when the file is later reconstructed, you don't notice the deletions
    • JPEG is lossy while TIFF is lossless
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Original Picture Uncompressed 29MB High Quality 73KB Low Quality 25KB
  • 32. Image Format (All 24 bit) David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - Bitmap 538KB GIF 84KB JPEG 38KB TIFF 509KB
  • 33. Image JPEG format David Asirvatham LESSON 4 - 100% 92KB 80% 32KB 60% 16KB 40% 11KB
  • 34. Major Compression Std.
    • JPEG (Joint Photograhic Experts Group)
      • Compression Standard for continuous-tone still image
      • 24-bit colour or gray-scale
      • Primarily for still image (can also be used for video)
      • lossy (image obtained out of decompression isn’t identical)
      • useful for human but not for machine-analysis
      • degree of lossiness can be varied by parameter (good for trade off of file size)
    • MPEG ( Moving Picture Expert Group)
      • colour video and audio compression
      • JPEG compress data within a frame while MPEG can exploit the similarity of adjacent frames
      • constant bit rate (suitable for streaming or transmission)
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 35. Major Compression Std.
    • Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)
      • developed by Compuserver
      • used widely in the web
      • uses LZW compression algorithm (by Unisys)
      • limited to 256 colours
    • Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
      • very high compression capability
      • good for black & white image
      • used in publishing and fax
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 36. Video Compression
    • MPEG
      • digital video standard
      • delta-frame encoding (only changes from frame to frame will be recorded)
      • CD, cable TV, satellite broadcast, HDTV, etc
    • MPEG 1
      • non-interlaced (draws every line) for playback from CD-ROMs
    • MPEG 2
      • interlaced version (draws every other line)
      • broadcast quality
      • used by US Grand Alliance HDTV, European Digital Video Broadcast Group, RCA (Direct TV), etc
    • MPEG 3
      • suppose to be HDTV standard but MPEG 2 could fulfill the needs (e.g. scaling the bit rate)
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 37. Examples of Multimedia Software
    • Authoring
      • Macromedia Authorware, CBT Express, Director 4.0, Multimedia Workbench, Toolbook, Quest, etc
    • Graphics
      • CorelDraw, PhotoPaint, MacDraw, Photoshop, Professional Draw, Studio/32, Painter, Firework, etc
    • Animation
      • 3D Studio, Animation Master, Macromedia Flash, Vision 3D, Visual Reality, Imagine, etc
    • Presentation
      • Harvard Graphics, PowerPoint, Lotus Cam, etc
    • Digital Audio Editing
      • Roland Audio tools, SoundEdit, WAVE, Studio Vision, etc
    • Video Editing
      • Quicktime, VideoFusion, VideoShop, Premiere, etc.
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -
  • 38. Selection of Multimedia Software
    • User friendly
    • Compatibility (platform, other packages)
    • Editing facilities
    • Text option (size, colour, font)
    • Graphics option (format, import/export, animation)
    • Media option (interface with various peripherals)
    • Interactivity (branching, menu, hot spots)
    • Management capabilities (database, folder organisation)
    • Cost (incl. Upgrades)
    • Others: Support, Reliability, number of users, hardware & memory requirements, training, installation, Documentation, etc
    David Asirvatham LESSON 4 -