MIS Lesson2 Hardware

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MIS Lesson2 Hardware

  1. 1. Information Technology <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be processed manual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be using technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computer hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computer software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology can be used to process information more effectively and efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>IT is essentially a convergence of technological developments in hardware, software and communications which constructively relate and interact with potential information users </li></ul><ul><li>IT is the hardware and software that make information systems possible </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  2. 2. IT <ul><li>Benefits of IT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improves efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve quality of information (e.g. accuracy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater flexibility and responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase access to users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhance user interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better communication </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  3. 3. Basic Terms <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><li>I/O devices </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers, minicomputers and mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>bits, bytes, KB, MB, and GB </li></ul><ul><li>pixels </li></ul><ul><li>analog vs digital </li></ul><ul><li>digitising </li></ul><ul><li>data compression </li></ul><ul><li>data encryption </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  4. 4. Bits and Bytes <ul><li>bit: b inary dig it </li></ul><ul><li>1 byte = 8-bits </li></ul><ul><li>American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  5. 5. January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  6. 6. Basic Elements of a computer January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham INPUT OUTPUT Main Memory ALU Control Unit Computer Secondary Storage Microprocessor
  7. 7. January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  8. 8. January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham microprocessor
  9. 9. ICT Infrastructure <ul><li>A small business organisation with 20 employees, plan to setup and IS system for the organisation. List ICT infrastructure (Hardware/Equipment) that will be needed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Internet for this exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will need to give some details of the components/hardware </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  10. 10. CPU & Memory January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  11. 11. HDD, DVD & Graphic Card January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  12. 12. CPU: Others January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  13. 13. Options January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  14. 14. January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of using Open Source Software? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the issues and challenges in deploying open source in your company? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be done to address these issues? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are the CIO, would you deploy OSS in your company? Why? </li></ul></ul>The Corporate World Migrates to Open-Source
  15. 15. January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham Interactive Session: Open-Source <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the Internet and list the OSS that will be useful to your company. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 64-bit Processor vs 32-bit Processor <ul><li>A 64-bit processor is a microprocessor with a word size of 64 bits </li></ul><ul><li>a requirement for memory and data intensive applications such as computer-aided design ( CAD ) applications, database management systems, technical and scientific applications, and high-performance servers. </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit computer architecture provides higher performance than 32-bit architecture by handling twice as many bits of information in the same clock cycle . </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  17. 17. CPU January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham Can you identify the components?
  18. 18. Dual Core Technology <ul><li>Dual core technology refers to two individual microprocessors on a single die cast chip. </li></ul><ul><li>This is essentially two computer processing units (CPUs) in one. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of a dual core chip is that tasks can be carried out in parallel streams, decreasing processing time. This is referred to as thread-level parallelism (TLP) . </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  19. 19. DDR-SDRAM <ul><li>Double-Data-Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory , better known as DDR SDRAM or DDR RAM for short, is a type of very fast computer memory. </li></ul><ul><li>DDR RAM is based on the same architecture as SDRAM, but utilizes the clock signal differently to transfer twice the data in the same amount of time. </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  20. 20. Storage devices <ul><li>Magnetic tape </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disk </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disk/DVD/etc </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham Tracks Sectors Index track Index hole Access time - seek time - latency time - R/W time DISK TAPE o
  21. 21. HDD January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  22. 22. HDD – RAID Level 0 January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham RAID (originally redundant array of inexpensive disks , now also known as redundant array of independent disks ) refers to a data storage scheme using multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives.
  23. 23. HDD – RAID Level 1 January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  24. 24. HDD – Level 10 January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  25. 25. HDD – RAID 0+1 January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  26. 26. I/0 devices <ul><li>Input devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboards & mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital camers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical readers (OCR, MICR or OMR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar code scanners, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers (hard copy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors/consoles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plotters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDD </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  27. 27. Image Capture: Digital Camera <ul><li>6-10 M pixel </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Media (xD, SD, Flash Card, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Removable 2MB </li></ul><ul><li>CompactFlash memory card </li></ul><ul><li>View Finder: 1.8&quot; color LCD Image </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: JPEG </li></ul><ul><li>Image Quality: 24-bit color </li></ul><ul><li>PC interface cable and Video-out cable </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham xD card Compact card SD (Secure Card)
  28. 28. Image Capture: Scanner <ul><li>1200 dpi Hardware Super Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>600 dpi Optical Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI compatible </li></ul><ul><li>36-Bit and Superior Quality Optics </li></ul><ul><li>Network Ready </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 95, 98, and NT 4.0 Compatible </li></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  29. 29. Storage Servers January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  30. 30. Storage Server (con’t) January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  31. 31. January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  32. 32. Tape Storage for Backup January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  33. 33. Storage media <ul><li>CD-ROM (Compact Disc - Read Only Memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650MB = 430 floppy = 250,000 pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: cost, quality, speed, lower duplication cost, permanent storage, multiple secure access & searchable (direct access), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speed: 4X, 10X, 40X, etc (600, 900, 1200 KBps etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-R & CD-RW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>write-once or read-write technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photo CD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photo images can be transferred to the photo CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be played on a computer or CD-I player </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  34. 34. Storage media <ul><li>VCD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video compact disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single-interchange standard for both TV-based and PC applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward-read compatibility with existing CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A low-cost format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable data storage and retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High online capacity (135 minutes of MPEG-2 video on a single side) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High performance for sequential and non-sequential data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-quality video & sound </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  35. 35. Storage Media <ul><li>DVD-RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high-capacity, high-performance optical disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data can be read, written and erased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to floppy disk, allowing users to copy and delete files from it, and use it to run programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offers all of the benefits of DVD ­ including high capacity and compatibility with CD formats </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  36. 36. Others January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham VIDEO CAPTURE CARD HUB NETWORK CARD
  37. 37. Hardware Selection <ul><li>Two important steps in hardware selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulating the Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the systems specification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity for an expansion workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce turnaround time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide new application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve production & computation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish desired mode of operation </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  38. 38. Checklist <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the speed, capacity and throughput? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the purchase price? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will be its cost of operations and maintenance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it widely used? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the risk of malfunction? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the error control and diagnostic features? </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  39. 39. Checklist <ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery date </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it compatible with existing hardware? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it compatible with existing or other software provided by other vendors? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can it be upgraded? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new untested product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>risk of obsolescence </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  40. 40. Checklist <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can it be link to LAN & WAN of different type of computers? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical, air-con and other requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of wide range of application and systems software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support and services from vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online & hotline support </li></ul></ul>January 2, 2010 Information Technology David Asirvatham
  41. 41. Case Study <ul><li>A college with 5,000 students and 100 lecturers plans to setup two computer laboratories with network facilities. Each laboratory will have 25 computers and a server. </li></ul><ul><li>The following applications will be used on the computers in the laboratories: </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Web page development </li></ul><ul><li>Java Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Database applications </li></ul><ul><li>You are required to prepare the tender documents for the purchase and installation of the network. You tender document should include: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Computer specifications </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Server specifications </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the benefits of having a network environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What type if software are needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the budget needed for the above project. </li></ul>January 2, 2010 David Asirvatham

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