13th century Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert. Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai. 13th-12th centuries Israelites settle in the Land of Israel 1020 Jewish Monarchy established; Saul, first king. c.1000 Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom. c.960 First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon c. 930 Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel 722-720 Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes). First a “short” Time - Line
586 Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia 538-515 Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt. 332 Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule. 166-160 Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple 142-129 Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy. 63 Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey. 63 BCE - 4 CE Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel; Temple in Jerusalem refurbished Time Line
c. 20-33 Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth 66 Jewish revolt against the Romans 70 Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple. 73 Last stand of Jews at Masada. 132-135 Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome. c. 210 Codification of Jewish oral law ( Mishnah ) completed. c. 390 Commentary on the Mishnah (Jerusalem Talmud ) completed. 614 Arab invasion Time Line
691 On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik. 1099-1291 Crusader domination (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem) 1291-1516 Mamluk Rule 1517-1917 Ottoman Rule 1882-1903 First Aliyah (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia. 1897 First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded. Time Line
1904-14 Second Aliyah , mainly from Russia and Poland. 1917 400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest; British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine". 1922 Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations. 1924-32 Fourth Aliyah, mainly from Poland. 1933-39 Fifth Aliyah, mainly from Germany. Time Line
1939 Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper. 1939-45 World War II; Holocaust in Europe. 1947 UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land. 1948 End of British Mandate (14 May). State of Israel proclaimed (14 May). Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May) War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949) Israel Defence Forces (IDF) established 1949 Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon. Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule. First Knesset (parliament) elected . Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th membrer. Time Line
13th-12th centuries Israelites settle in the Land of Israel
722-720 Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes). 586 Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia
538-515 Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt. In October 539 BCE, the Persian king Cyrus took Babylon, the ancient capital of an oriental empire covering modern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Since he was already lord of peripheral regions in modern Turkey and Iran, the conquest of Babylonia meant the birth of a true world empire. Cyrus allowed the Jews (who were exiled in Babylonia) to return home.
After two centuries of serving as a vassal state to Persia, Judah suddenly found itself the vassal state of Macedonia, a Greek state. Alexander the Great had conquered Persia and had, in doing so, conquered most of the world. For most of the world belonged to Persia; in a blink of an eye, it now fell to the Greeks. . Alexander 332- 363 BC
This great Greek empire would last no longer than Alexander's brief life; after his death, altercations between his generals led to the division of his empire among three generals. One general, Antigonus and then later Ptolemy, inherited Egypt; another, Seleucus, inherited the Middle East and Mesopotamia. Judah conquered first by one, and then by the other, as it shifted from being a Seleucid vassal state to a Ptolemaic vassal state. Between 319 and 302 BCE, Jerusalem changed hands seven times. . 319 - 302 BCE
The Seleucids king Antiochus III defeated the Egyptians and incorporated Judea into his empire. Antiochus backed down in the face of Jewish opposition to his effort to introduce idols in their temples. His son, Antiochus IV, who inherited the throne in 176 B.C. resumed his father's original policy. A brief Jewish rebellion only hardened his views and led him to outlaw central tenets of Judaism such as the Sabbath and circumcision, and defile the holy Temple by erecting an altar to the god Zeus, allowing the sacrifice of pigs, and opening the shrine to non-Jews. . 198 B.C
166-160 B.C Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple 142-129 B.C Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
When the Romans replaced the Seleucids as the great power in the region, they granted the Hasmonean king, Hyrcanus II, limited authority under the Roman governor of Damascus. The Jews were hostile to the new regime, and the following years witnessed frequent insurrections. A last attempt to restore the former glory of the Hasmonean dynasty was made by Mattathias Antigonus, whose defeat and death brought Hasmonean rule to an end (40 BCE), and the Land became a province of the Roman Empire. . 63 - 40 B.C
Herod was the pro-Roman king of the small Jewish state in the last decades before the common era. He started his career as a general, but the Roman statesman Mark Antony recognized him as the Jewish national leader. During a war against the Parthians, Herod was removed from the scene, but the Roman Senate made him king and gave him soldiers to seize the the throne. As 'friend and ally of the Romans' he was not a truly independent king; however, Rome allowed him a domestic policy of his own. Although Herod tried to respect the pious feeling of his subjects, many of them were not content with his rule, which ended in terror. He was succeeded by his sons. . Herod 73 bc - 4 ad
70 AD Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple. Titus lays siege to Jerusalem with 80,000 soldiers. He establishes his main camp opposite the northern outer wall and posts a legion on the Mount of Olives. He plans to breach the outer wall, move rapidly through the defending forces, move on to the first wall, capture Herod's Palace and the Upper city, and finish the siege in one stroke. Jerusalem is defended by 24,000 experienced but unorganized fighters. .
133 – 135 Destruction followed by deportation The complete destruction of Jerusalem, and the settlement of several Grecian and Roman colonies in Judea, indicated the express intention of the Roman government to prevent the political regeneration of the Jewish nation. Nevertheless, forty years later the Jews put forth efforts to recover their former freedom. These efforts, resolute but unwise attempt of the Jews of Palestine to regain their independence (133-135). From this time on the Jews of Palestine, reduced in numbers, destitute, and crushed, lost their preponderance in the Jewish world. Jerusalem had become, under the name "Ælia Capitolina," a Roman colony, a city entirely pagan, to enter which was forbidden the Jews, under pain of death. .
A city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Jerusalem, Jews were forbidden to live in the city. Roman enforcement of this prohibition continued through the fourth century. The urban plan of Aelia Capitolina was that of a typical Roman town wherein main thoroughfares crisscrossed the urban grid lengthwise and widthwise. The Hadrianic Cardo Maximus of Aelia terminated somewhere in the area of the present David Street. . 131 - Aelia Capitolina
Map of the Byzantine Empire (595) The Roman emperor Constantine converted to Christianity. Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Jews were considered subversive for their refusal to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah Constantine established a new capital in Byzantium (now İstanbul, Turkey), in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. After Rome fell to invaders in 476, the Roman Empire in the west collapsed, but the Roman Empire in the east, which came to be known as the Byzantine Empire, remained strong. The Byzantine Empire had far more Jews under its rule than did states in the Western Roman Empire, and it dealt more harshly with them. Jews under Byzantine rule often had difficulty making a living and, among other obstacles, they were barred from building new synagogues or holding public office. .
Map of the Byzantine Empire (668) 614 - Arab invasion. 691 - On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
632 - Death of Muhammad By this time, by military and diplomatic means, Islam had spread to almost all western and central Arabia 656 - Arab Empire west to Tripoli (Libya), north to Taurus and Causaus mountians (Turkey and Georgia) and east to Pakistan 732 - Arabs entered Spain to the west (via North Africa) and crossed the Indus river in India. Defeat at Tours (France) marks deepest inroad into Western Europe (via Spain)
1099-1291 Crusader domination (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)
Salah Ad Din 1138 - 1193 Saladin united Arab forces and recaptured the city of Jerusalem from Christian Crusaders in the 12th century A.D. His conquest of Jerusalem in 1188 prompted the Third Crusade, led by Richard I of England; Richard's forces defeated Saladin in several battles, but could not retake Jerusalem. Saladin and Richard signed an armistice in 1192, and the two are often linked in histories of the era. . Saladin's empire and its vassals shown in red ; Territory taken from the Crusader states 1187-1189 shown in pink . Light green indicates Crusader territories surviving Saladin's death.
1291-1516 Mamluk Rule Islamic rulers created this warrior caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys and training them as cavalry soldiers especially loyal to their owner and each other. They converted to Islam in the course of their training. Slaves from Turkey, that held the Egyptian throne from about 1250 until 1517 and remained powerful until 1811.
He was a commander of the Mamluks in around 1250, when he defeated the Seventh Crusade of Louis IX of France. He continued what was to become a lifelong struggle against the Crusader kingdoms. In 1263 he attacked Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but was unable to take it. Nevertheless, he defeated the Crusaders in many other battles (Arsuf, Athlith, Haifa, Safad, Jaffa, Ashkalon, Caesarea). Whenever possible he took prisoners who were members of the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller, who were much hated in the Muslim world at the that time as they defended Christian castles and at the same time considered to be a great military threat. . Baybars 1223 - 1277
The Sykes-Picot Agreement, reached on 15-16 May 1916 by Sir Edward Grey and Paul Cambon, divided the Middle East into areas of influence for Britain and France. 16 May 1916
Lord Earl Peel, former Secretary of State for India, headed the Commission. The Peel Report recommended the partition of Palestine into two states, one Arab and the other Jewish. The British Government accepted the recommendations of the Peel Commission in principle, but did not implement them due to continued Arab rioting the Royal Commission arrived in Jerusalem November 11, 1936. 11 November 1936