Superconductivity – 100 years David Quesada School of Science, Technology, and Engineering Management 16401 NW 37 Ave., Miami Gardens FL 33054
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes “the gentleman of absolute zero”, discovered Superconductivity on April 1911. Onnes won the Nobel Prize in 1913, just two years after his incredible discovery. Onnes died in 1926. In 1898 Onnes’ rival, James Dewar, beat him in the race to liquefy hydrogen . Onnes then moved on to a new goal, liquefying helium , and this time, Onnes beat Dewar in the race, producing the first liquid helium in July 1908 . Though he only liquefied a tiny amount of helium at that time, the liquefaction of helium made it possible to cool other substances to such low temperatures. Onnes managed to cool the liquid to about one degree above absolute zero, at the time the coldest temperature ever achieved. “ The resistance of pure mercury at helium temperatures,” Communications from the Physical Laboratory at Leiden, April 1911. “ On the Sudden Change in the Rate at which Resistance of Mercury Disappears.” November 1911. Soon after finding the effect in mercury, Onnes showed that tin and lead also become superconducting at low temperatures. In 1913 Onnes first used the term “supraconductivity,” to describe the effect; later he changed it to “superconductivity.” By 1914 he had found another interesting feature: he started a supercurrent flowing in a lead wire, and a year later, found that it was still flowing, with no noticeable change. Onnes himself had believed that quantum mechanics would explain the effect, but he wasn’t able to produce a theory.
James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physicist and mathematician father of the theory of electro-magnetic fields, the first unification of two fields in nature " On Physical Lines of Force ," which he published between 1861 and 1862. 1905 – 1915 – Quantum Mechanics Edwin Schrodinger Albert Einstein Niels Bohr
Electromagnetic Properties of Superconductors Walter Meissner Fritz London
Superconducting Materials and Theory of Phase Transitions
Quantum Solid State Physics – Applications of Quantum Mechanics Bose – Einstein Condensation
Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer (BCS) Lev D. Landau and V. Ginzburg Theories of Superconductivity A.A. Abrikosov
BCS Theory of Superconductivity Superconducting Gap in the electronic spectrum – Order parameter.
Brian Josephson In 1961 , Deaver, Fairbank, Doll, and Näbauer showed that a closed superconducting loop will contain integers of flux quantum, which in units of magnetic flux is Φ0≈2.0678×10-15Wb . A Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) is a device that can measure the number of these flux quantum that are threading a superconducting loop. Currently SQUID can detect magnetic fields of around 10-15T and they have noise levels as low as 3fT×Hz-1/2. Macroscopic Wave Function
N.N. Bogoliubov Quasi - means Lev Gorkov G.M. Eliashberg
How did I get introduced to Physics and Mathematics? Moscow State University “M.V. Lomonosov”
Dr. and Professor Alla Andreevna Novakova, Solid State Physics Division, School of Physics, Moscow State University Lomonosov Mossbauer Spectroscopy in Fe-based compounds Rudolph Mossbauer
High Temperature Superconductivity Breakthrough Muller and Bednorz, 1987 Paul Chu, 1988
Historical Events while I was studying in Moscow Chernobyl nuclear accident April 26, 1986 Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan In Moscow. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law On May 31, 1988 President Ronald Reagan addressed the students and faculty at Moscow State University (MSU). Although previous presidents desired such an opportunity, no other U.S. president except Richard M. Nixon had stood east of the Berlin Wall and spoken directly to the citizens of the Soviet Union. Berlin Wall turn down, Nov. 9 1989 Challenger disaster January 28, 1986
MS in Physics and Mathematics – Suma Cum Laude Thesis Title : Coulomb’s contribution to the phonon spectrum of compounds of YBCO family. Area : Theoretical Solid State Physics (1984 – 1990) <ul><li>“ Structural Study of Amorphous Alloy Fe-Si-B-C obtained by detonation technique” (poster presentation), Structural Problems in Amorphous Metallical Alloys, Moscow, 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Structural Study of Amorphous Alloy Fe-Si-B-C obtained by detonation technique” (oral presentation), Young Scientific Conference: Students and Scientific Progress, Novosibirsk University, April 12-14, 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Application of Mossbauer spectroscopy in archeology dating” (poster presentation), International Conference LACAME'90, Havana, Cuba, Oct. 29-Nov. 2, 1990. </li></ul>
Effect of Co – gamma radiation dose on ceramic Superconductors and its response in presence of magnetic fields <ul><li> - Cobalt-60 Radiation Effects in High Temperature Superconductors, Leyva-Fabelo, </li></ul><ul><li>J.C. Suarez-Sandín, M. Mora-Alfonso, C.M. Cruz-Inclán, D. Quesada-Sáliba, </li></ul><ul><li>A. Gómez-González, Nucleus 13, 3, (1992). </li></ul><ul><li>Ac Magnetic Susceptibility in High Temperature Superconductors irradiated with -Rays, A. Leyva, </li></ul><ul><li>J.C. Suarez, M. Mora, C.M. Cruz and D. Quesada, Phys.Stat.Solidi (a) 134, K 29, (1992). </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Field distribution in superconducting grain of spherical shape, D. Quesada, in Proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>of the Conference: Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications, Section III (Part 2), Havana, </li></ul><ul><li>1991, Ed. by J.L. Sánchez Llamasares and F. Lecabue, IOP Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>M. Mora, C. Cruz, A. Leyva, J.C. Suarez, D. Quesada, Nucleus 18, 21 (1995). </li></ul>
Typical Crystalline Structures found within Superconductors
School of Physics, University of Havana, Cuba 1992 - 2001 Dr. and Professor Carlos Trallero-Giner, Theoretical Solid State Physics Effects of low-dimensionality in the electronic spectrum of high T c onto superconducting properties. Band structure models Dr. and Professor Rafael Baquero, Solid State Physics Division, CINVESTAV – IPN Mexico DF
d-wave order parameter Note the different behavior along. Nodal direction ( in red ) and anti Nodal direction ( in blue ) Anisotropic s-wave order parameter. Note the extended character of nodes for this parameter in contrast to d-wave order parameter Effect of low dimensionality of the electronic spectrum onto superconductivity Electronic specific heat in the normal state. Note the appearance of a peak at Some characteristic temperature T * , determined only by the position of the Van Hove singularity with respect to the Fermi level. Electronic Topological Transitions and Van Hove singularity
Gap model functions The temperature dependence of the gap is in agreement with the BCS behavior
Electronic Specific Heat Normal state Superconducting state <ul><li>Comparative study of the Electronic specific heat in the superconducting state for a mixture of d-wave and isotropic s symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>The s-wave gap is determining the T c , while the second gap (d-wave) increases in value. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The d-wave gap drives the T c , the s-gap appears as a small jump in the background of the d-wave symmetry. </li></ul>
Oracio Navarro, 2001 Hawaii Yuri Gurevich Gerardo Gonzalez de la Cruz Coherence Length
<ul><li>Workshops and Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>1. “On the Van Hove Scenario” and “Estimation of the </li></ul><ul><li>Electron-Phonon interaction from GP-DOS measurements in 123 </li></ul><ul><li>compounds” (oral presentations), Second CINVESTAV </li></ul><ul><li>Superconductivity Symposium: Manifestation of the Electron-Phonon </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction in Oxide Superconductors, Tequisquiapan, Querétaro, </li></ul><ul><li>México, Nov 2-6, 1992 . </li></ul><ul><li>2. “Are Universal Relations within the van Hove Scenario possible?” </li></ul><ul><li>(poster presentation), IV International Conference on Nanostructured </li></ul><ul><li>Materials, Cancún, México, August 27 to September 3, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>3. “Thermodynamics of the van Hove BCS model: Mixed gap </li></ul><ul><li>symmetries” (poster presentation), University of Miami Conference on High </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Superconductivity and related topics HTS99, January 7 - 13, </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Coral Gables Miami, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>4. “Implications of the pairing symmetry and the Van Hove singularity </li></ul><ul><li>for the normal and superconducting properties of cuprates” (poster </li></ul><ul><li>presentation), 6 th International Conference Materials and Mechanism of </li></ul><ul><li>superconductivity and high temperature superconductors, February 20-25, </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Houston Texas, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>BCS theory in systems with van Hove singularity in the electronic </li></ul><ul><li>spectrum, D. Quesada, C. Trallero-Giner y R. Baquero, </li></ul><ul><li>Rev. Mex. Fis. 41 , 1397, (1995). </li></ul><ul><li>2. BCS Universal Ratios within the van Hove Scenario, R. Baquero, </li></ul><ul><li>D. Quesada and C. Trallero-Giner, Physica C 271 , 122, (1996). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Thermodynamic functions within the van Hove BCS model: symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing effects, D. Quesada, R. Peña and C. Trallero-Giner, </li></ul><ul><li>Physica C 322 , 169 (1999). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Thermodynamics of the van Hove BCS model: Mixed gap symmetries, </li></ul><ul><li>D. Quesada, R. Peña and C. Trallero-Giner, High Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Superconductivity, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol 483, Ed. by S.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Barnes, J. Ashkenazi, J. Cohn, F. Zuo, AIP Woodbury New York (1999). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Implications of the pairing symmetry and the van Hove singularity for the </li></ul><ul><li>normal and superconducting properties of cuprates, D. Quesada and </li></ul><ul><li>R. Peña, Physica C 341-348 , 1683 (2000). </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Van Hove singularity as a source of anomalies in NIN and NIS </li></ul><ul><li>tunneling experiments, D. Quesada, Physica C 364 -365 , 170 (2001). </li></ul>Graduated from Universidad de La Habana, Cuba 2000, Ph.D. in Physics, Best young scholar research of the year 2000 – School of Physics
Roger Pena-Escobio, BS Drs. Roberto Mulet and Ernesto Altshuler Alexei Vazquez From Superconductivity to Complexity and Dynamical Systems
Fermi Liquid Approach Strongly Correlated Systems Free electron picture Tight binding electrons with singularities in the electronic Density of States Interactions and Luttinger theorem Landau picture of quasi-particles, Electronic Topological Transitions Nested and Almost Localized Fermi liquids Marginal and Almost Magnetic Fermi Liquids Hubbard based models : Single and multi-band models Zhang-Rice Anderson localization Local pairs : bi-polarons And spin-bags Stripes and Flux phases Slave-boson ansatz Brickman-Rice point Gutzwiller ansatz
Phillip Anderson, RVB theory Angle Resolved Photo-emission Spectroscopy
Superconductivity and Strongly Correlated Electron Systems
Two band model with anisotropic hopping depending only on plane momentum. Eight points in the FBZ where this hopping element becomes zero Four points in the FBZ where this hopping element becomes zero Spectral Function in ARPES Normal State No interactions included Interactions included Superconducting State No interactions included (modified BCS spectral function) Self-energy models
“ The kink” could be explained by appealing to self-energy effects. The self-energy could depend or not on momentum as a necessary condition. No dependence on k in There is a Renormalization of the quasi-particle energy but the Fermi surface Topology (critical points) remains the same. x=k x a y=k y a The ARPES experiment and the superconducting gap symmetry: How far can we determine the gap symmetry? D. Quesada , Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 17, 3559 (2003).
From Superconductivity to Quantum Computers - Qubits “ Dynamics of the Josephson junction immersed in a non linear medium” (poster presentation), Z. Barrientos and D. Quesada, First Ibero-American workshop of Nanostructures and its application for Opto and Microelectronics, November 20-24, 2000 CINVESTAV-DF, Mexico-DF, Mexico .
Bogoliubov and Landau ideas of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking From Superconductivity to Higg’s Boson and Astrophysics Guth Linde, phase transition ideas applied to symmetry breaking in forces of nature, symmetry breaking of super-forces.