Electricity
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Electricity

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Electricity Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Atoms…
    • Have neutrons , protons , and electrons .
    • Protons are positively charged
    • Electrons are negatively charged
  • 3. Electrons…
    • Are located on the outer edges of atoms…they can be moved .
    • A concentration of electrons in an atom creates a net negative charge.
    • If electrons are stripped away, the atom becomes positively charged.
  • 4. The world is filled with electrical charges : + - + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - -
  • 5. What is this electrical potential called?
    • Static Electricity
    - - - - - - - + + + + +
  • 6. Static Electricity
    • The build up of an electric charge on the surface of an object.
    • The charge builds up but does not flow.
    • Static electricity is potential energy . It does not move. It is stored .
  • 7. Static Discharge…
    • Occurs when there is a loss of static electricity due to three possible things:
        • Friction - rubbing
        • Conduction – direct contact
        • Induction – through an electrical field (not direct contact)
  • 8. Electricity that moves …
    • Current : The flow of electrons from one place to another.
    • Measured in amperes (amps)
    • Kinetic energy
  • 9. How can we control currents?
    • With circuits .
    • Circuit : is a path for the flow of electrons. We use wires .
  • 10. There are 2 types of currents:
    • Direct Current (DC) – Where electrons flow in the same direction in a wire.
  • 11. There are 2 types of currents:
    • Alternating Current (AC) – electrons flow in different directions in a wire
  • 12. simple circuits Here is a simple electric circuit. It has a cell, a lamp and a switch. To make the circuit, these components are connected together with metal connecting wires. cell lamp switch wires
  • 13. simple circuits When the switch is closed, the lamp lights up. This is because there is a continuous path of metal for the electric current to flow around. If there were any breaks in the circuit, the current could not flow.
  • 14. circuit diagram battery switch lamp wires Scientists usually draw electric circuits using symbols;
  • 15. circuit diagrams In circuit diagrams components are represented by the following symbols; battery switch motor ammeter voltmeter resistor
  • 16. types of circuit There are two types of electrical circuits; SERIES CIRCUITS PARALLEL CIRCUITS
  • 17. The components are connected end-to-end, one after the other. They make a simple loop for the current to flow round. SERIES CIRCUITS If one bulb ‘blows’ it breaks the whole circuit and all the bulbs go out.
  • 18. PARALLEL CIRCUITS The current has a choice of routes. The components are connected side by side. If one bulb ‘blows’ there is still be a complete circuit to the other bulb so it stays alight.
  • 19. measuring current Electric current is measured in amps (A) using an ammeter connected in series in the circuit. A
  • 20. measuring current This is how we draw an ammeter in a circuit. SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT A A
  • 21. measuring current SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT
    • current is the same
    • at all points in the
    • circuit.
    2A 2A 2A
    • current is shared
    • between the
    • components
    2A 2A 1A 1A
  • 22. Conductors vs. Insulators
    • Conductors – material through which electric current flows easily .
    • Insulators – materials through which electric current cannot move .
  • 23. Examples
    • Conductors :
      • Metal
      • Water
    • Insulators :
      • Styrofoam
      • Rubber
      • Plastic
      • Paper
  • 24. What is Resistance?
    • The opposition to the flow of an electric current, producing heat .
    • The greater the resistance, the less current gets through.
    • Good conductors have low resistance.
    • Measured in ohms.
  • 25. What Influences Resistance?
    • Material of wire – aluminum and copper have low resistance
    • Thickness – the thicker the wire the lower the resistance
    • Length – shorter wire has lower resistance
    • Temperature – lower temperature has lower resistance
  • 26. What is Voltage?
    • The measure of energy given to the charge flowing in a circuit.
    • The greater the voltage, the greater the force or “pressure” that drives the charge through the circuit.
  • 27. Difference between Volts and Amps
    • Example – you could say that…
      • Amps measure how much water comes out of a hose.
      • Volts measure how hard the water comes out of a hose.
  • 28. Ohm’s Law Ohm's Law defines the relationships between (P) power, (E) voltage, (I) current, and (R) resistance.
    • Resistance = Voltage / Current
    • Ohms = Volts / Amps
  • 29. Practice with Ohm’s Law 8 48 6 5 45 9 15 30 2 10 150 15 25 100 4 Amps Volts Ohms