Volcano:
an openingopening in the earth’s surface
through which lava, hot gases, and
rock fragments erupterupt
Introductio...
 Magma 50-100 miles below the
earth’s surface slowly begins to rise
to the surface
 As the magma rises it melts gaps in
...
 Pressure from the surrounding
rock causes the magma to blast
or melt a conduit (channel) to the
surface where magma erup...
 The magma, now called lava, builds
up at the vent forming a volcano
How do they form?
 Often the volcano sides will be
higher than the vent forming a
depression called a crater
How do they Form?
Crater:
Caldera:
an unusually large crater or the
remains when the cone collapses
into its own magma chamber
Anatomy of a Volcano
Cone:
the above ground structure
built from lava and/or tephra
Conduit:
the path that magma takes from
the magma chamber to the vent
Magma Chamber:
the reservoir located under the
volcano where magma collects and
becomes the supply of magma/lava
to build ...
Lava:
molten, liquidliquid rock on the surface
of the earth
Parasitic Cone:
 a smaller secondary volcano built
on the side of or near the main
volcano, but sharing the same
conduit ...
Fumarole:
a secondary vent that emits
only gases
Fissure:
a long fissure (crackcrack) from
which lava flows
Vent: opening of the volcano, through which lava,
ash and gases flow
What comes out of volcanoes?What comes out of volcanoes?
•Lava
•Tephra
•Gases
Lava—3 kinds:
Pahoehoe lava:
 Hot, thin, fast
flowing
 harden with a
relatively smooth
surface
 Often has a ropy or
wrinkled appearan...
Pahoehoe lava:
Aa lava:
• Cooler, thicker,
slow moving
• Hardens with a
rough, jagged,
sharp edge
surface
Pillow Lava:
 Lava suddenly cooled by
water
 shows sack-like
segments (stuffed
pillows)
Tephra
 Basically, rockrock fragments
• Also known as pyroclasticpyroclastic rock
fragments.
• There are many different p...
Ash & dust
Volcanic Bombs
This dacite breadcrust
bomb (about 15 cm in
diameter) was erupted
from the lava dome at
Mount St. Helens,
W...
Lahar (mudflow):
 mixture of ash, eroded land, and
water flowing down river valleys
Lahar (mudflow):
GASES
water vapor, carbon dioxide,
nitrogen, sulfur dioxide,
hydrogen sulfide, chlorine
Where do Volcanoes Occur?
Where do Volcanoes Occur?
location Examples
Divergent
Boundaries:
where plates move
APARTAPART
IcelandIceland
Where do Volcanoes Occur?
location Examples
convergent
Boundaries:
where plates comecome
togethertogether
Cascade rangeCas...
 Cascade Volcanoes
Where do Volcanoes Occur?
location Examples
Hot Spots:
plates riding over anplates riding over an
especially hot placeespe...
Hot Spots
Two factors determine the type of
eruption:
 Amount of water vapor &
other gases in the magma
 The chemical composition ...
 Trapped gases
under high
pressure will
violently
explode when
the magma
reaches the
lower pressure
of the surface.
Explo...
 Has granitic
magma is very
thick and plugs
the vent
causing the
pressure to
build until it
blows violently
out the vent
...
 The high water
content of the
magma produces
more water
vapor which
when mixed in
granitic magma
produces
explosive
erup...
 Low
pressure
gas
Quiet EruptionsQuiet Eruptions
 Has
basaltic
magma (is
more fluid
and will flow
instead of
explode)
Quiet EruptionsQuiet Eruptions
 …and has low
water content
 Examples: Hawaii
Quiet EruptionsQuiet Eruptions
Cinder conesCinder cones
oSmall base, steep-sided, loosely consolidated
oUp to 1000 feet tall
oLife span of a few years
oC...
Cinder Cones:
Cinder Cones
Shield volcanoesShield volcanoes
oLarge base, gentle slope, lava rock layers
oA few miles high
oLife span of a million yea...
Shield volcano on Mars;
Taken from space
Take a look at these examples:
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/tpgallery.cfm?cate...
Shield Volcanoes
Mauna Kea
Shield volcanoes
Composite or stratoComposite or strato
Large mountain volcano often snow capped, a
few miles high
Life span of million yea...
Composite or stratoComposite or strato
oHave alternating eruptions of tephra (air-
borne) and lava. The tephra adds height...
STrato/CompositeSTrato/Composite
aima Volcano, Chile.
Composite (strato)Composite (strato)
Volcanoes examples:Volcanoes examples:
Mt. Rainier
Mt. Fuji
Mt. Kilimanjaro
Composite/strato volcanoes
Active (awake):
 Has erupted within recent time and
can erupt again at any time.
Pre-eruption activities:
 Increase in e...
Mt St. Helens
Dormant (sleeping):
 No eruption within recent times,
but there is record of past
eruptions
 Can become active and erupt...
Extinct:
 No eruption within recorded
history
 Not expected to ever erupt again
Example: Mount Mazama (Crater Lake)
Crater Lake
Mount RainierMount Rainier
• The most dangerousdangerous volcano in the US
• The danger is mostly from laharslahars travel...
Mount Rainier
• The mountain is dangerously unstableunstable, a tall,
steep heap of loose rock held together by the
force ...
Earthquakes
Earthquakes
Earthquakes
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Earthquakes

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Earthquakes

  1. 1. Volcano: an openingopening in the earth’s surface through which lava, hot gases, and rock fragments erupterupt Introduction to volcanoes
  2. 2.  Magma 50-100 miles below the earth’s surface slowly begins to rise to the surface  As the magma rises it melts gaps in the surrounding rock  As more magma rises a large reservoir forms as close as 2 miles below the surface (magma chamber) How do they form?
  3. 3.  Pressure from the surrounding rock causes the magma to blast or melt a conduit (channel) to the surface where magma erupts onto the surface through a vent (opening) How do they form?
  4. 4.  The magma, now called lava, builds up at the vent forming a volcano How do they form?
  5. 5.  Often the volcano sides will be higher than the vent forming a depression called a crater How do they Form?
  6. 6. Crater:
  7. 7. Caldera: an unusually large crater or the remains when the cone collapses into its own magma chamber
  8. 8. Anatomy of a Volcano Cone: the above ground structure built from lava and/or tephra
  9. 9. Conduit: the path that magma takes from the magma chamber to the vent
  10. 10. Magma Chamber: the reservoir located under the volcano where magma collects and becomes the supply of magma/lava to build the volcano
  11. 11. Lava: molten, liquidliquid rock on the surface of the earth
  12. 12. Parasitic Cone:  a smaller secondary volcano built on the side of or near the main volcano, but sharing the same conduit to the magma chamber
  13. 13. Fumarole: a secondary vent that emits only gases
  14. 14. Fissure: a long fissure (crackcrack) from which lava flows
  15. 15. Vent: opening of the volcano, through which lava, ash and gases flow
  16. 16. What comes out of volcanoes?What comes out of volcanoes? •Lava •Tephra •Gases
  17. 17. Lava—3 kinds:
  18. 18. Pahoehoe lava:  Hot, thin, fast flowing  harden with a relatively smooth surface  Often has a ropy or wrinkled appearance
  19. 19. Pahoehoe lava:
  20. 20. Aa lava: • Cooler, thicker, slow moving • Hardens with a rough, jagged, sharp edge surface
  21. 21. Pillow Lava:  Lava suddenly cooled by water  shows sack-like segments (stuffed pillows)
  22. 22. Tephra  Basically, rockrock fragments • Also known as pyroclasticpyroclastic rock fragments. • There are many different possible sizes, from very small (volcanic ashash or dustdust to much larger rocks (called volcanic bombsbombs)
  23. 23. Ash & dust
  24. 24. Volcanic Bombs This dacite breadcrust bomb (about 15 cm in diameter) was erupted from the lava dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington.
  25. 25. Lahar (mudflow):  mixture of ash, eroded land, and water flowing down river valleys
  26. 26. Lahar (mudflow):
  27. 27. GASES water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine
  28. 28. Where do Volcanoes Occur?
  29. 29. Where do Volcanoes Occur? location Examples Divergent Boundaries: where plates move APARTAPART IcelandIceland
  30. 30. Where do Volcanoes Occur? location Examples convergent Boundaries: where plates comecome togethertogether Cascade rangeCascade range volcanoes, Andesvolcanoes, Andes
  31. 31.  Cascade Volcanoes
  32. 32. Where do Volcanoes Occur? location Examples Hot Spots: plates riding over anplates riding over an especially hot placeespecially hot place in the mantlein the mantle Hawaii, Yellowstone,Hawaii, Yellowstone, IcelandIceland
  33. 33. Hot Spots
  34. 34. Two factors determine the type of eruption:  Amount of water vapor & other gases in the magma  The chemical composition of the magma Types of Volcanic Eruptions
  35. 35.  Trapped gases under high pressure will violently explode when the magma reaches the lower pressure of the surface. Explosive EruptionsExplosive Eruptions
  36. 36.  Has granitic magma is very thick and plugs the vent causing the pressure to build until it blows violently out the vent Explosive EruptionsExplosive Eruptions Mt. St. Helens
  37. 37.  The high water content of the magma produces more water vapor which when mixed in granitic magma produces explosive eruptions Explosive EruptionsExplosive Eruptions Mont serrat
  38. 38.  Low pressure gas Quiet EruptionsQuiet Eruptions
  39. 39.  Has basaltic magma (is more fluid and will flow instead of explode) Quiet EruptionsQuiet Eruptions
  40. 40.  …and has low water content  Examples: Hawaii Quiet EruptionsQuiet Eruptions
  41. 41. Cinder conesCinder cones oSmall base, steep-sided, loosely consolidated oUp to 1000 feet tall oLife span of a few years oCommonly built from gravel size lava rock fragments called cinders oViolent eruptions, dangerous when close---High pressure gas bubbles causes thick lava to explode into the air, lava begins to cool as it rises and falls becoming very sticky oWhen lava hits the ground it sticks rather than flows oThis builds a steep cone with a small base
  42. 42. Cinder Cones: Cinder Cones
  43. 43. Shield volcanoesShield volcanoes oLarge base, gentle slope, lava rock layers oA few miles high oLife span of a million years or more oThe lava is hot, thin, very fluid often basaltic oExample: Hawaiian Islands, Iceland
  44. 44. Shield volcano on Mars; Taken from space Take a look at these examples: http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/tpgallery.cfm?category=Shield%20Volcanoes The Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii— the largest volcano on Earth—has the broad expanse characteristic of shield volcanoes. It spreads across half the island of Hawaii.
  45. 45. Shield Volcanoes Mauna Kea Shield volcanoes
  46. 46. Composite or stratoComposite or strato Large mountain volcano often snow capped, a few miles high Life span of million years or more
  47. 47. Composite or stratoComposite or strato oHave alternating eruptions of tephra (air- borne) and lava. The tephra adds height to the volcano and the lava cements the tephra together and adds to the base. oFound mostly in subduction zones and have violent eruptions.
  48. 48. STrato/CompositeSTrato/Composite aima Volcano, Chile.
  49. 49. Composite (strato)Composite (strato) Volcanoes examples:Volcanoes examples: Mt. Rainier Mt. Fuji Mt. Kilimanjaro
  50. 50. Composite/strato volcanoes
  51. 51. Active (awake):  Has erupted within recent time and can erupt again at any time. Pre-eruption activities:  Increase in earthquake activity under the cone  increase in temperature of cone,  melting of ice/snow in the crater  swelling of the cone  steam eruptions  minor ash eruptions Volcano Activity Levels (Stages)
  52. 52. Mt St. Helens
  53. 53. Dormant (sleeping):  No eruption within recent times, but there is record of past eruptions  Can become active and erupt again after a “wake up” period  ExampleExample: Mt. Rainier
  54. 54. Extinct:  No eruption within recorded history  Not expected to ever erupt again Example: Mount Mazama (Crater Lake)
  55. 55. Crater Lake
  56. 56. Mount RainierMount Rainier • The most dangerousdangerous volcano in the US • The danger is mostly from laharslahars traveling down river valleys at a speed of 25mph and destroying everything in its path • 100,000 people live on the solidified mudflows of previous eruptions
  57. 57. Mount Rainier • The mountain is dangerously unstableunstable, a tall, steep heap of loose rock held together by the force of gravity and a cubic mile of glacier ice that could be melted or shaken loose • Lahar flows average every 500 years500 years and have gone as far as the Puget Sound lowlands • Mount Rainier has erupted 4 times4 times in the last 4000 years with the last eruption 200 years ago
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