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Chemical Bonding
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Transcript

  • 1. Chemical Bonding
  • 2. 3 Types of Bonding
    • Ionic Bonding
    • Covalent Bonding
    • Metallic Bonding
  • 3. Ionic Bonding
    • Ionic bonding is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms.
  • 4.
    • Lose an electron Atom is Positive
    • Gain an electron Atom is Negative
    • Positive Ion is called Cation
    • Negative Ion is called Anion
  • 5. Characteristics of Ionic Compounds
    • 1) Crystalline solid at room temperature
    • 2) Have higher melting and boiling points compared to covalent bonds.
    • 3)Conduct electrical current in solution state.
    • 4)Extremely polar bonds.
    • 5)Most are soluble in water.
  • 6. Magic #
    • The magic number is 8
    • Every atom wants to gain electrons up to 8, or lose electrons to equal zero, In order to be stable just like the noble gases
    • Exception= Hydrogen= only needs two electrons
  • 7. Helpful Hint
    • An easy way to check if a bond is Ionic:
    • One atom must be from group 1, 2, or 13 on the periodic table and the other atom from groups 14-17.
  • 8. Oxidation Number (Charge) Group 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 Charge +1 +2 +3 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
  • 9. Covalent Bonds
    • Covalent Bonds are formed as a result of the sharing of one or more pairs of bonding electrons. Each atom donates half of the electrons to be shared.
  • 10. 2 forms of covalent bonds
    • 1) Polar Covalent - unequal sharing of electrons
    • 2) Non-Polar Covalent – equal sharing of electrons between atoms.
  • 11. Single Covalent Bond
    • A single covalent bond would be the sharing of two electrons between the 2 bonded atoms.
    • H-H H-Cl F-F
    • The dash line is symbolic of the bonding pair.
  • 12. Double Covalent Bond
    • A double covalent bond is 2 pairs of electrons being shared.
    • O=O C=O
  • 13. Triple Covalent Bond
    • A triple covalent bond is the sharing of 3 pairs of electrons.
    • N = N C = C C = N
  • 14. Metallic Bond
    • The metallic bond occurs only between 2 metal atoms. In this type of bond the valence electrons are free to move about the electron clouds of all metals participating in the bond.