Chemical Bonding

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Chemical Bonding

  1. 1. Chemical Bonding
  2. 2. 3 Types of Bonding <ul><li>Ionic Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic Bonding </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Ionic bonding is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Lose an electron Atom is Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Gain an electron Atom is Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Ion is called Cation </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Ion is called Anion </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Ionic Compounds <ul><li>1) Crystalline solid at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>2) Have higher melting and boiling points compared to covalent bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Conduct electrical current in solution state. </li></ul><ul><li>4)Extremely polar bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>5)Most are soluble in water. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Magic # <ul><li>The magic number is 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Every atom wants to gain electrons up to 8, or lose electrons to equal zero, In order to be stable just like the noble gases </li></ul><ul><li>Exception= Hydrogen= only needs two electrons </li></ul>
  7. 7. Helpful Hint <ul><li>An easy way to check if a bond is Ionic: </li></ul><ul><li>One atom must be from group 1, 2, or 13 on the periodic table and the other atom from groups 14-17. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Oxidation Number (Charge) Group 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 Charge +1 +2 +3 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
  9. 9. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Covalent Bonds are formed as a result of the sharing of one or more pairs of bonding electrons. Each atom donates half of the electrons to be shared. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2 forms of covalent bonds <ul><li>1) Polar Covalent - unequal sharing of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>2) Non-Polar Covalent – equal sharing of electrons between atoms. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Single Covalent Bond <ul><li>A single covalent bond would be the sharing of two electrons between the 2 bonded atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>H-H H-Cl F-F </li></ul><ul><li>The dash line is symbolic of the bonding pair. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Double Covalent Bond <ul><li>A double covalent bond is 2 pairs of electrons being shared. </li></ul><ul><li>O=O C=O </li></ul>
  13. 13. Triple Covalent Bond <ul><li>A triple covalent bond is the sharing of 3 pairs of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>N = N C = C C = N </li></ul>
  14. 14. Metallic Bond <ul><li>The metallic bond occurs only between 2 metal atoms. In this type of bond the valence electrons are free to move about the electron clouds of all metals participating in the bond. </li></ul>

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