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Air Masses
Definition: <ul><li>Air mass  - a large dome of air which has similar horizontal temperature and moisture characteristics ...
Continental Arctic (cA):  <ul><li>Frigid – record low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Dry - very low dew points </li></ul><...
Continental polar (cP):  <ul><li>Cold and dry - stable </li></ul><ul><li>Usually originates in NW Territory of Canada </li...
Maritime polar (mP): <ul><li>Cool and moist - unstable  </li></ul><ul><li>Originate over N. Atlantic and N. Pacific </li><...
Maritime tropical (mT):  <ul><li>Warm and very moist – unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Originate in the Gulf of Mexico and the ...
Continental Tropical (cT):   <ul><li>Very Hot and very dry – stable aloft  </li></ul><ul><li>Originates in Desert Southwes...
Source Regions
 
Fronts and their symbols
Fronts: <ul><li>Boundary between two air masses </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by shift in weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
5 Characteristics of a Front <ul><li>Sharp temperature changes over a relatively short distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes...
 
Cold Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – drops rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – rises steadily </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds – Ver...
Cold Front
(Fozzy) Cold Front
Cold Front
In the summer, cold fronts can trigger: <ul><li>thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>large hail </li></ul><ul><li>dangerous win...
Graphic Depiction!
Warm Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – rises slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – slight rise, then fall </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud...
Warm Front
Warm Front
Warm Front
Effects of warm fronts <ul><li>Slow-moving warm front can mean days of wet weather before warm air  </li></ul><ul><li>Some...
Stationary Front
Stationary Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – stagnent </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – slightly fluctuates </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds...
Occluded Front
Occluded Fronts <ul><li>Temperature –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm – gets milder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold – gets col...
Occluded Front
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Air Masses

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Transcript of "Air Masses"

  1. 1. Air Masses
  2. 2. Definition: <ul><li>Air mass - a large dome of air which has similar horizontal temperature and moisture characteristics throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>Very similar to a balloon. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Continental Arctic (cA): <ul><li>Frigid – record low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Dry - very low dew points </li></ul><ul><li>Dense - very high barometric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Usually originate north of the Arctic Circle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siberian Express </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually once or twice a winter </li></ul><ul><li>very rarely form during the summer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because the sun warms the Arctic. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Continental polar (cP): <ul><li>Cold and dry - stable </li></ul><ul><li>Usually originates in NW Territory of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Influences mainly the northern USA </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for clear and pleasant weather during the summer </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Creates troughs in the polar jet stream </li></ul><ul><li>Lake effect snow in Great Lakes areas </li></ul>
  5. 5. Maritime polar (mP): <ul><li>Cool and moist - unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Originate over N. Atlantic and N. Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Main Influence - the Pacific Northwest and the Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>can form any time of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Generally not as cold as cP air masses </li></ul>
  6. 6. Maritime tropical (mT): <ul><li>Warm and very moist – unstable </li></ul><ul><li>Originate in the Gulf of Mexico and the Southern Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Influences the eastern USA </li></ul><ul><li>Most prevalent during summer </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for hot, humid summer days across the South and the East. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Continental Tropical (cT): <ul><li>Very Hot and very dry – stable aloft </li></ul><ul><li>Originates in Desert Southwest and northern Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the summer, rarely in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Usually keeps the Desert Southwest scorching above 100 o F during summer </li></ul><ul><li>Generally clear skies, hot, low humidity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Source Regions
  9. 10. Fronts and their symbols
  10. 11. Fronts: <ul><li>Boundary between two air masses </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by shift in weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occluded </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. 5 Characteristics of a Front <ul><li>Sharp temperature changes over a relatively short distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in air moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts in wind direction </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure changes </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds and precipitation </li></ul>
  12. 14. Cold Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – drops rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – rises steadily </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds – Vertical building </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation – Heavy along front </li></ul><ul><li>Winds – Strong and shifting </li></ul><ul><li>Typically move faster than warm front </li></ul>
  13. 15. Cold Front
  14. 16. (Fozzy) Cold Front
  15. 17. Cold Front
  16. 18. In the summer, cold fronts can trigger: <ul><li>thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>large hail </li></ul><ul><li>dangerous winds </li></ul><ul><li>tornadoes </li></ul>
  17. 19. Graphic Depiction!
  18. 20. Warm Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – rises slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – slight rise, then fall </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds – strato- and cirro- </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation – long, steady </li></ul><ul><li>Winds – variable and light </li></ul><ul><li>Typically will have affect for days </li></ul>
  19. 21. Warm Front
  20. 22. Warm Front
  21. 23. Warm Front
  22. 24. Effects of warm fronts <ul><li>Slow-moving warm front can mean days of wet weather before warm air </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes water vapor in warm fronts condense to produce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freezing rain </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Stationary Front
  24. 26. Stationary Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – stagnent </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure – slightly fluctuates </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds – altocumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation – none </li></ul><ul><li>Winds – variable and light </li></ul><ul><li>Can last for days weeks </li></ul>
  25. 27. Occluded Front
  26. 28. Occluded Fronts <ul><li>Temperature – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm – gets milder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold – gets colder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressure – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm - slight drop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold – slight rise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clouds – cumulus </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation – steady and light </li></ul><ul><li>Winds – variable and light </li></ul>
  27. 29. Occluded Front
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