2. Chapter 17 Review1. The continental crust is deepest beneath a. oceans. c. valleys. b. mountains. d. rivers.2. Oceanic crust is a. thicker and less dense than continental crust. b. thinner and less dense than continental crust. c. thicker and more dense than continental crust. d. thinner and more dense than continental crust.
3. Chapter 17 Review3. About 80 percent of Earth’s volume is made up of a. crust. c. inner core. b. mantle. d. outer core.4. Earth’s inner core is a. hot and solid. c. cool and solid. b. hot and liquid. d. cool and liquid.
4. Chapter 17 Review5. Earth’s lithosphere is composed of a. the crust only. b. the mantle only. c. the crust and the upper portion of the mantle. d. the mantle and the upper portion of the outer core.6. One hypothesis states that plate movement resultsfrom convection currents in the a. mantle. c. lithosphere. b. asthenosphere. d. outer core.
5. Chapter 17 Review7. A geologic feature of divergent plate boundaries inoceanic crust is the formation of a. trenches. c. U-shaped valleys. b. fossils. d. rift valleys.8. A divergent boundary occurs where two plates a. move toward each other. b. move away from each other. c. move past each other. d. move over each other.
6. Chapter 17 Review9. A zone where oceanic crust dives beneath continentalcrust is called a zone of a. subduction. c. reduction. b. divergence. d. rifting.10. A convergent boundary occurs where two plates a. move toward each other. b. move away from each other. c. move past each other. d. move over each other.
7. Chapter 17 Review11. A transform fault boundary occurs where two plates a. move toward each other. b. move away from each other. c. move past each other. d. move over each other.10. A convergent boundary occurs where two plates a. move toward each other. b. move away from each other. c. move past each other. d. move over each other.
8. Chapter 17 Review12. The reversal of Earths magnetic poles, as indicatedby the rock on the ocean floor, occurs on average every a. 100 000 years. c. 300 000 years. b. 200 000 years. d. 400 000 years.13. Earthquakes occur mostly a. in the middle of continents. b. in the asthenosphere. c. at plate boundaries. d. at the edges of the continents.
9. Chapter 17 Review14. The breakage of rocks along a fault line releasesenergy in the form of a. P waves. c. heat. b. seismic waves. d. light.15. Longitudinal waves a. travel the fastest. b. cannot be detected in locations between 105º and 140º from an earthquakes epicenter. c. travel through solids and liquids. d. all of the above.
10. Chapter 17 Review16. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Swaves? a. travel slower than P waves. b. cannot be detected in locations more than 105º from an earthquakes epicenter. c. travel through solids and liquids. d. only affect coastal regions.17. Waves that cause the most damage during anearthquake are a. surface waves. c. S waves. b. P waves. d. ocean waves.
11. Chapter 17 Review18. A seismograph measures a. how much the surface of Earth moves during an earthquake. b. the speed of S waves. c. the force of the earthquake. d. the location of the epicenter.19. The minimum number of seismograph stationsnecessary to determine the location of an earthquakesepicenter is a. one. c. three. b. two. d. four.
12. Chapter 17 Review20. Scientists can calculate the distance from theseismograph station to the focus using a. the difference in arrival times of P and surface waves. b. the difference in arrival times of P and S waves. c. the difference in arrival times of S and surface waves. d. none of the above.21. The magnitude of earthquakes is expressed using a. the Richter scale. b. the Mercalli scale. c. the amplitude of the P waves. d. the Mohs’ scale.
13. Chapter 17 Review22. The magma released from volcanoes is a. material from the core. b. molten rocks from the mantle and crust. c. liquid iron and nickel. d. radioactive.23. The magma of shield volcanoes is rich in a. nitrogen and oxygen. c. silica. b. magnesium and iron. d. hydrogen.
14. Chapter 17 Review24. A cinder cone volcano is caused by a. converging plates. b. diverging plates. c. large amounts of gas trapped in the magma. d. vents.25. Composite volcanoes are made up of a. many layers of cinders and lava. b. many layers of lava rich in magnesium and iron. c. many layers of cinders. d. many layers of metamorphic rock.
15. Chapter 17 Review26. A mineral a. has a chemical formula. b. occurs naturally. c. has a characteristic internal structure. d. all of the above27. Which of the following is not among the nine mostcommon rock forming minerals? a. calcite c. feldspar b. gold d. quartz
16. Chapter 17 Review28. Which of the following is not a rock? a. granite c. marble b. shale d. diamond29. Which of the following is not a rock type? a. igneous c. cubic b. sedimentary d. metamorphic
17. Chapter 17 Review30. Igneous rock forms from a. weathered rock particles. b. evaporation of water. c. magma. d. none of the above.31. Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks that canpotentially contain a. fossils. c. fractures. b. minerals. d. faults.
18. Chapter 17 Review31. Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks that canpotentially contain a. fossils. c. fractures. b. minerals. d. faults.32. Igneous rocks that have mineral crystals easily seenwith the unaided eye formed a. extrusively. c. under water. b. intrusively. d. through compaction.
19. Chapter 17 Review33. Sedimentary rocks are named according to a. the type of minerals they contain. b. where they were formed. c. when they were formed. d. the size of the fragments they contain.34. Limestone can be metamorphosed into a. gneiss. c. marble. b. shale. d. slate.
20. Chapter 17 Review35. Which type of rock is formed from weathering? a. metamorphic rock c. igneous rock b. magma d. minerals36. Rocks that are changed by heat and pressure willform a. sedimentary rocks. c. igneous rocks. b. metamorphic rocks. d. magma.
21. Chapter 17 Review 37. The rock labeled "B" is a. igneous. b. metamorphic. c. sedimentary. d. magma.
22. Chapter 17 Review 38. The rock labeled "A" is a. igneous. b. metamorphic. c. sedimentary. d. magma.
23. Chapter 17 Review39. The principle of superposition is used to a. determine the absolute age of rocks. b. determine how rocks are formed. c. determine the relative age of rocks. d. determine how rocks are changed.40. Radioactive isotopes are used to a. determine the absolute age of rocks. b. determine the relative age of rocks. c. determine how rocks are formed. d. determine how rocks are changed.
24. Chapter 17 Review41. Weathering that does not alter the chemicalcomposition of the rock is calleda. chemical weathering. c. biological weathering.b. physical weathering. d. acid weathering.42. The most effective agent of physical weathering anderosion is a. water. c. gravity. b. wind. d. plant roots.
25. Chapter 17 Review43. The process in which sediment is laid down is called a. erosion. c. weathering. b. deposition. d. cementation. 44. Which of the following valley shapes would glaciers produce? a. A c. C bB d. D
26. Chapter 17 Review45. Carbonic acid dissolved in water is a a. physical weathering agent. b. chemical weathering agent. c. biological weathering agent. d. mechanical weathering agent.46. Underground limestone caves form a. from cooling and solidification of magma below the surface. b. from the compacting and cementing of weathered rock fragments. c. oxidation decomposes the minerals in the rock. d. when the calcite is dissolved by carbonic acid in rainwater.
27. Chapter 17 Review47. Rain is naturally a. slightly acidic. c. slightly basic. b. very acidic. d. very basic.