A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: a message from the other members of the debate team PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: monkeys swinging through the dense jungle INFINITIVE PHRASE: asking to go with them on their Antarctic expedition APPOSITIVE PHRASE: a painting by van Gogh, the famous Dutch painter NOTE: a group of words that has both a verb and its subject is called a clause . Pg 95
A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
EXAMPLES: The Seine River flows through Paris. [The noun Paris is the object of the preposition through.] EXAMPLES: The car in front of us slid into an icy snow bank. [The pronoun us is the object of the compound preposition in front of. The noun snow bank is the object of the preposition into .]
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.
EXAMPLES: Wang Wei was a talented painter of landscapes . [the prepositional phrase of landscapes modifies the noun painter, telling what kind of painter.] EXAMPLES: Mrs. O’Meara is the one on the left . [the prepositional phrase on the left modifies the pronoun one, telling which one Mrs. O’Meara is.] Pg. 97
A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.
EXAMPLES: the snow fell throughout the day . [the phrase modifies the verb fell, telling when the snow fell.] An adverb phrase tells how, when, where, why , or to what extent ( how long, how much, or how far ). EXAMPLES: Are you good at soccer? [the phrase modifies the adjective good, telling how you are good.] Pg 99
A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun.
SUBJECT Skiing down that slope was fun . PREDICATE NOMINATIVE: Dad’s favorite pastime is fishing for trout and bass. INDIRECT OBJECT Give sailing a try. DIRECT OBJECT We enjoyed hiking in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Please sweep the front sidewalk after mowing.
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun.
Having a part-time job may interfere with your schoolwork. The townspeople heard the loud clanging of the fire bell. NOTE: When a noun or a pronoun comes immediately before a gerund, use the possessive form of the noun or pronoun.