Holt Handbook Chapter 5 The Phrase: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases
#1-What is a Phrase?
A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: a message from the other members of the debate team PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: monkeys swinging through the dense jungle INFINITIVE PHRASE: asking to go with them on their Antarctic expedition APPOSITIVE PHRASE: a painting by van Gogh, the famous Dutch painter NOTE: a group of words that has both a verb and its subject is called a clause . Pg 95
#2-The Prepositional Phrase
A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
EXAMPLES: The Seine River flows through Paris. [The noun Paris is the object of the preposition through.] EXAMPLES: The car in front of us slid into an icy snow bank. [The pronoun us is the object of the compound preposition in front of. The noun snow bank is the object of the preposition into .]
Be careful not to confuse a prepositional phrase with an infinitive. A prepositional phrase always has an object that is a noun or a pronoun. An infinitive is a verb form that usually begins with to .
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: When we went to Florida , we saw the old Spanish fort in St. Augustine. INFINITIVE: When we were in Florida, we went to see the old Spanish fort in St. Augustine. Pg 96
#3-The Adjective Phrase
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.
EXAMPLES: Wang Wei was a talented painter of landscapes . [the prepositional phrase of landscapes modifies the noun painter, telling what kind of painter.] EXAMPLES: Mrs. O’Meara is the one on the left . [the prepositional phrase on the left modifies the pronoun one, telling which one Mrs. O’Meara is.] Pg. 97
#4-The Adverb Phrase
A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.
EXAMPLES: the snow fell throughout the day . [the phrase modifies the verb fell, telling when the snow fell.] An adverb phrase tells how, when, where, why , or to what extent ( how long, how much, or how far ). EXAMPLES: Are you good at soccer? [the phrase modifies the adjective good, telling how you are good.] Pg 99
#5- Verbals and Verbal Phrases
A verba l is a word that is formed from a verb but is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. There are three kinds of verbals: the participle , the gerund , and the infinitive .
#6- The Participle
A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.
Present participles end in –ing .
The smiling child waved.
The horses trotting past were not frightened by the crowd.
---Most past participles end in –d or –ed . Some past participles are irregularly formed.
The police officers searched the abandoned warehouse.
#7 The Participial Phrase
A participial phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
Seeing itself in the mirror, the duck seemed quite bewildered .
#8- The Gerund
A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun.
SUBJECT Skiing down that slope was fun . PREDICATE NOMINATIVE: Dad’s favorite pastime is fishing for trout and bass. INDIRECT OBJECT Give sailing a try. DIRECT OBJECT We enjoyed hiking in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Please sweep the front sidewalk after mowing.
The Gerund Phrase
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun.
Having a part-time job may interfere with your schoolwork. The townspeople heard the loud clanging of the fire bell. NOTE: When a noun or a pronoun comes immediately before a gerund, use the possessive form of the noun or pronoun.
#9 The Infinitive
An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to .
NOUN: To install the ceiling fan took two hours. ADJECTIVES: The best time to visit Florida is December through April. ADVERBS: The gymnasts were ready to practice their routines.
The Infinitive Phrase
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
An infinitive may be modified by an adjective or an adverb; it may also have a complement.
The crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker . Peanuts and raisins are good snacks to take on a camping trip .
#10- Appositives and Appositive Phrases
An appositive is a noun or a pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it.
NOTE: commas are generally used with appositives that refer to proper nouns.
An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers.