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Chapter 5

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  • 1. Holt Handbook Chapter 5 The Phrase: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases
  • 2. #1-What is a Phrase?
    • A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.
    PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: a message from the other members of the debate team PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: monkeys swinging through the dense jungle INFINITIVE PHRASE: asking to go with them on their Antarctic expedition APPOSITIVE PHRASE: a painting by van Gogh, the famous Dutch painter NOTE: a group of words that has both a verb and its subject is called a clause . Pg 95
  • 3. #2-The Prepositional Phrase
    • A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
    EXAMPLES: The Seine River flows through Paris. [The noun Paris is the object of the preposition through.] EXAMPLES: The car in front of us slid into an icy snow bank. [The pronoun us is the object of the compound preposition in front of. The noun snow bank is the object of the preposition into .]
  • 4. NOTE:
    • Be careful not to confuse a prepositional phrase with an infinitive. A prepositional phrase always has an object that is a noun or a pronoun. An infinitive is a verb form that usually begins with to .
    PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: When we went to Florida , we saw the old Spanish fort in St. Augustine. INFINITIVE: When we were in Florida, we went to see the old Spanish fort in St. Augustine. Pg 96
  • 5. #3-The Adjective Phrase
    • A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.
    EXAMPLES: Wang Wei was a talented painter of landscapes . [the prepositional phrase of landscapes modifies the noun painter, telling what kind of painter.] EXAMPLES: Mrs. O’Meara is the one on the left . [the prepositional phrase on the left modifies the pronoun one, telling which one Mrs. O’Meara is.] Pg. 97
  • 6. #4-The Adverb Phrase
    • A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.
    EXAMPLES: the snow fell throughout the day . [the phrase modifies the verb fell, telling when the snow fell.] An adverb phrase tells how, when, where, why , or to what extent ( how long, how much, or how far ). EXAMPLES: Are you good at soccer? [the phrase modifies the adjective good, telling how you are good.] Pg 99
  • 7. #5- Verbals and Verbal Phrases
    • A verba l is a word that is formed from a verb but is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. There are three kinds of verbals: the participle , the gerund , and the infinitive .
  • 8. #6- The Participle
    • A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.
      • Present participles end in –ing .
        • The smiling child waved.
        • The horses trotting past were not frightened by the crowd.
        • ---Most past participles end in –d or –ed . Some past participles are irregularly formed.
        • The police officers searched the abandoned warehouse.
  • 9. #7 The Participial Phrase
    • A participial phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
    Seeing itself in the mirror, the duck seemed quite bewildered .
  • 10. #8- The Gerund
    • A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun.
    SUBJECT Skiing down that slope was fun . PREDICATE NOMINATIVE: Dad’s favorite pastime is fishing for trout and bass. INDIRECT OBJECT Give sailing a try. DIRECT OBJECT We enjoyed hiking in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Please sweep the front sidewalk after mowing.
  • 11. The Gerund Phrase
    • A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun.
    Having a part-time job may interfere with your schoolwork. The townspeople heard the loud clanging of the fire bell. NOTE: When a noun or a pronoun comes immediately before a gerund, use the possessive form of the noun or pronoun.
  • 12. #9 The Infinitive
    • An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to .
    NOUN: To install the ceiling fan took two hours. ADJECTIVES: The best time to visit Florida is December through April. ADVERBS: The gymnasts were ready to practice their routines.
  • 13. The Infinitive Phrase
    • An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
    • An infinitive may be modified by an adjective or an adverb; it may also have a complement.
    The crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker . Peanuts and raisins are good snacks to take on a camping trip .
  • 14. #10- Appositives and Appositive Phrases
    • An appositive is a noun or a pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it.
    NOTE: commas are generally used with appositives that refer to proper nouns.
    • An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers.