From MMO Player Types to Gamification User Types


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A quick look at how and why I went from Bartle's four MMO player types to my eight Gamification user types.
Bartle’s Player Types work really well for MMO games. However, their interactions rely on one major thing – Gameplay.
I decided to create a categorisation that was more suited to gamified systems (with a little input from Richard himself).

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  • Griefers Act Implicitly on PlayersPoliticians Act Explicitly on PlayersFriends Interact Implicitly on PlayersNetworkers Interact Explicitly on PlayersOpportunists Act Implicitly on WorldPlanners Act Explicitly on WorldScientists Interact Explicitly on WorldHackers Interact Implicitly on World
  • From MMO Player Types to Gamification User Types

    1. 1. From MMO PlayerTypes to Gamification User Types Andrzej Marczewski @daverage
    2. 2. Bartle’s Player Types• Bartle’s 4 Player Types are well known in game design and gamification.• They are; Killer, Achiever, Explorer, Socialiser.• The player types are a dynamic model based on MMO games.• Richard explains all of the various interactions for each type in great detail.• There is also a model that explains how many players will ‘evolve’ through different player types over time.• Many people don’t know that he later expanded this 4 type model to a more comprehensive 8 types © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    3. 3. The very well know Bartle’s 4 Player Types ACTING Killers AchieversPLAYERS WORLD Socialisers Explorers INTERACTING © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    4. 4. The less well known Bartle’s 8 Player Types Griefers Opportunists ACTINGPoliticians Planners IMPLICIT PLAYERS WORLD EXPLICIT Friends Hackers INTERACTINGNetworkers Scientists © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    5. 5. Andrzej’s 4 User Types• Bartle’s Player Types work really well for MMO games. However, their interactions rely on one major thing – Gameplay.• I decided to create a categorisation that was more suited to gamified systems (with a little input from Richard himself).• I came up with 4 main user types; Achiever, Philanthropist, Free Spirit, Socialiser and one modifier type that I initially referred to as the Player type.• As I explored these categories it became clear that 4 was just not going to be enough. © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    6. 6. The Initial User Types and their basic motivations Willing to Player Rewards “Play” Not Willing to Relatedness / Socialiser “Play” Social Free Spirit Autonomy Achiever Mastery Philanthropist Purpose I started by looking at the 4 basic intrinsic motivations, Relatedness, Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose. I thenwanted to represent the types of users who would respond to Extrinsic rewards. © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    7. 7. The 4 basic user types mapped against personal gain and structure Material Achievers Free Spirits Mastery AutonomyStructured Unstructured Relatedness Purpose Socialisers Philanthropists Non - Material © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    8. 8. Andrzej’s 8 User Types• Following in Bartle’s footsteps, I moved away from looking at the types of gain that a user would get and whether they needed structure or not.• I decided to go with Richards original axes – Acting on and What they are acting on. In this case, Users or Systems (rather than Players or Worlds)• I now had 8 user types, 4 that were motivated intrinsically and those that needed extrinsic motivations. © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    9. 9. The Player User Type Expanded Socialiser + Reward = Networker Free Spirit + Reward = Exploiter Achiever + Reward = ConsumerPhilanthropist + Reward = Self Seeker I quickly realised that the Player type was a categorisation in it’s own right, one that was extrinsically motivated. © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    10. 10. Andrzej’s 8 User Types Self Seekers Motivations Reward Primary Secondary Exploiters Purpose Networkers Consumers Mastery PhilanthropistsRelatedness / Social Achievers Socialisers Autonomy Free Spirits © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    11. 11. User Types – Acting On / Intrinsic Motivation ACTING Philanthropist Achiever Purpose MasteryUSERS SYSTEM Relatedness Autonomy Socialiser Free Spirit INTERACTING © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    12. 12. User Types – Acting On / Extrinsic Motivation ACTING Self Seeker Consumer Reward RewardUSERS SYSTEM Reward Reward Networker Exploiter INTERACTING © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    13. 13. 8 User Types of Gamification Self Seekers Consumers ACTINGPhilanthropists Achievers EXTRINSIC USERS SYSTEM INTRINSIC Networkers Exploiters INTERACTING Socialisers Free Spirits © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    14. 14. Supporting User Types SocialVirtual Goods Badges Points Social Status Networkers Connections Visible Status Virtual Goods Badges Points Exploiters Virtual Goods Consumers ExclusiveLeaderboards Virtual Goods Badges Points Self Seekers Content Social Social Status Socialisers Connections Unlockable Customisation Free Spirits Content Exclusive Visible Status Quests Levels Achievers Content Social Status Giving Philanthropists © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    15. 15. For more, please visit Philanthropists: Seek a sense purpose from a system (e.g. answering questions on Quora, contributing to Wikipedia). Achievers: Seek enrichment and mastery from the system (e.g. learning systems, being best at tasks). Socialisers: Seek interactions and relatedness with other people (e.g. engaged social media users). Free Spirits: Seek autonomy and creativity in a system (e.g. customisation of environment, avatar, journey). Self Seekers: Seek rewards from interacting with others (e.g. answering peoples questions just for points. Quantity over Quality). Consumers: Seek to get rewards from the system with little interaction (e.g. loyalty schemes). Networkers: Seek to connect to others to increase their profile and the rewards that may bring (e.g. Klout obsessive’s). Exploiters: Seek to gain reward from using the system, possibly by any means (e.g. liking Facebook pages for prizes, finding the loopholes that help them win).Acting On for Intrinsic Reasons Acting On for Extrinsic Rewards Personal Gain and need for Structure © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
    16. 16. Andrzej Marczewski @daverageGamification is one tool to increase engagement, enjoyment and motivation. However, throwing game elements at a fundamentally broken system is a like putting a long hairy tail on a rabbit and calling it a monkey. It’s not going to work and it isn’t going to fool anyone. © Andrzej Marczewski 2013
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