Treatment modality involving three or more patients with a therapist to relieve emotional difficulties, increase self – esteem, develop insight , LEARN NEW ADAPTIVE WAYS TO COPE WITH STRESS and improve behavior with others
Genetics: identical twins 50%, 15% for fraternal twins
Dopamine hypothesis: overactive
Decreased brain volume, enlarged ventricles, deeper fissures, and loss or underdeveloped brain tissue
lack of trust during the early stages
Defenses: REPRESSION, REGRESSION, PROJECTION
Environment influences: poverty, lack of social support, hostile home environment, isolation, unsatisfactory housing, disruption in interpersonal relationships (divorce or death), job pressure or unemployment
SOMATIZATION D/O: hx of many physical complaints beginning before the age of 30 occurring over a pd of several yrs resulting in ttt being sought or significant occupational or social fxning.
CONVERSION D/O: 1 or more sx of deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function suggesting a neurological or general medical condition; preceded by conflicts or stressors; can’t be explained and sanctioned by cultural behavior.
Most common: blindness, deafness, paralysis, inability to talk
HYPOCHONDRIASIS: preoccupation with fears of having, or ideas that one has, a serious dse based on the person’s misinterpretation of bodily sx and persist despite appropriate medical eval and reassurance and has existed for @ least 6 mos. (e.g.:extensive use of home remedies)
PAIN D/O: pain in 1 or more anatomical sites severe enough to warrant clinical attention and causes clinically significant distress or impairment in fxning.
an IQ below 70, significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behavior (i.e., ability to function at age level in an ordinary environment), and evidence that the limitations became apparent in before 18 y.o.
The following ranges, based on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), are in standard use today:
A variety of behaviors that threaten the health, comfort, and possibly the lives of the elderly, including physical and emotional neglect, emotional abuse, violation of personal rights, financial abuse, and direct physical abuse.
CHEMICAL RESTRAINTS: Medications used to restrict the patient’s freedom of movement or for emergency control of behavior but are not a standard treatment for the px’s medical or psychiatric condition.
PHYSICAL RESTRAINTS: Are any manual method or physical or mechanical device attached to or adjacent to the px’s body that he or she cannot easily remove and that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to one’s body, material or equipment.
Reluctance or avoidance of verbalizing or experiencing troubling aspects of oneself
Eg: suppression or repression, intensification of sx, self-devaluation or hopelessness, intellectual inhibitions, acting out or irrational behavior, superficial talk, intellectual insight/ intellectualization, transference reactions.
Created by the nurse’s specific emotional response to the qualities of the patient; inappropriate in the context, content and intensity of emotion; nurses identify the px with individuals from their past, and personal needs
Types: Reactions of INTENSE
love or caring
Disgust or hostility
Anxiety, often in response to resistance by the px