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Preventing Plagiarism For Usjr Input

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Preventing Plagiarism

Preventing Plagiarism

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  • 1. PREVENTING PLAGIARISM in Academic Writing
    • Presented by: Dave Jay S. Manriquez, RN.
    University of San Jose-Recoletos First USJR Caritas et Scientia Research Conference 06 March 2008
  • 2. Presentation Outline
    • What is Plagiarism
    • Forms of Plagiarism
    • Punishment for Plagiarism
    • Necessary Precautions
    • Citation and Referencing Styles
  • 3. General Principle
  • 4. Examples of the works/ideas can be plagiarized
    • Essays
    • Poems
    • Videos
    • Photos, illustrations
    • Movies
    • Webpages ..
  • 5. Presentation Focus
    • Academic Essays/Reports
    • Theses
    • Dissertations
    • Critiques
  • 6. Deliberate or Accidental
    •  Ignorance is never an excuse!!!
    •  It doesn't matter if you intend to plagiarize or not!
    •  In the eyes of the law, and most publishers &
    • academic institutions, any form of plagiarism is
    • an offense that demands punitive action.
  • 7. What is Plagiarism? ( http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/what_is_plagiarism.html)
    • From Meriam-Webster Online Dictionary
    • - steal and pass as one’s own
    • - use other’s work w/o citing the source
    • - present as new and original an idea/product
    • derived from an existing source
    • - an act of fraud; violates copyright laws
    • - commit literary/academic theft
  • 8. All of the following are considered plagiarism
    •  turning in someone else's work as your own
    •  copying words/ideas from someone else w/o giving credit
    •  failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
    •  giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
    •  changing words but copying the sentence structure of a
    • source without giving credit
    •  copying so many words/ideas from a source that it
    • makes up the majority of your work, whether you give
    • credit or not.
  • 9. Forms of Deliberate Plagiarism
    •  Copying
    •  Submitting past papers/assignments
    •  Paraphrasing without acknowledging the source
    •  Summarizing without acknowledging the source
    •  Cobbling: using “chunk” of another’s work
    •  Taking materials off hardisk
    •  Borrowing computer disks – effectively cheating
    • Source: Australian National University Graduate Study Handbook, p.72
  • 10.
    • By many academic standards, it is even possible to plagiarize from yourself, if you paraphrase or copy from work you published elsewhere without citation.
    Did you know?
  • 11. Repercussion
    • entails punishment
    • Academic
    • - zero tolerance
    • - academic standard of intellectual honesty
    • often more stringent than govt copy right law
    • - to be failed; taking back of conferred degrees
    • Legal – monetary fines and imprisonment
    • Institutional – lost of jobs and denial of positions
  • 12. Preventing Plagiarism  Recognize the various forms of plagiarism, esp. the ambiguous ones  Make it clear WHO said WHAT  Rightfully and completely cite sources  Know how to paraphrase  Evaluate your sources
  • 13. APA Style Essentials http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?doc_id=796 Last modified August 1, 2007 Douglas Degelman, Ph.D., and Martin Lorenzo Harris, Ph.D. Vanguard University of Southern California In-Text citations: Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources.
      • A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors.
      • Example: Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that …. (paraphrase)
  • 14. APA Style Essentials
      • B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and year of publication appear in parentheses.
      • Example: Reviews of research on religion and health have
      • concluded that at least some types of religious
      • behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and
      • mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig,
      • 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament,
      • 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin,
      • Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).
  • 15. APA Style Essentials
      • C . When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every time the source is cited.
      • Example: Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that …. (paraphrase)
      • D . When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author's surname and "et al." are used.
      • Example: Reviews of research on religion and health have
      • concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors
      • are related to higher levels of physical and mental health
      • (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). Payne et al. (1991) showed that ...
  • 16. APA Style Essentials
      • E. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author's surname and "et al." are used every time the source is cited (including the first time).
      • Example: Sevilla et al. (2006) affirmed that…
      • F . Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read ("Grayson") that is cited in a source that you have read ("Murzynski & Degelman"), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list:
      • Example: Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996)
      • identified … (paraphrase)
  • 17. APA Style Essentials
      • G. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. Because a personal communication is not "recoverable" information, it is not included in the Bibliography section. For the in-text citation, use the following format:
      • B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed ...(paraphrase)
  • 18. APA Style Essentials
      • H. To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. If no author is identified, use the first few words of the title in place of the author. If no date is provided, use "n.d." in place of the date.
      • Examples:
      • Degelman and Harris (2000) provide guidelines for the use of APA writing style. Changes in Americans' views of gender status differences have been documented (Gender and Society, n.d.).
  • 19. APA Style Essentials
      • I. To cite the Bible, provide the book, chapter, and verse. The first time the Bible is cited in the text, identify the version used.
      • Example: "You are forgiving and good, O Lord, abounding in love to all who call to you" (Psalm 86:5, New International Version). [ Note: No entry in the References list is needed for the Bible.]
  • 20. APA Style Essentials – Referencing style
      • References: All sources included in the Reference section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the references section).
      • Pagination : The References section begins on a new page.
      • Heading : References
      • Format : The references (with hanging indent) begin on the
      • line following the References heading. Entries are
      • organized alphabetically by surnames of first
      • authors.
      • Most reference entries have three components:
        • Author(s), Year of Publication and the Source Reference
  • 21. APA Style Essentials – Referencing style
    • 1. Journal article
      • Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626.
    • 2. Book
      • Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion
      • (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    • 3. Web document on university program or department Web site
      • Degelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (2000). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18, 2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology Web site: http:// www.vanguard . edu/faculty/ ddegelman/index.aspx?doc_id=796
    • 4. Stand-alone Web document (no date)
      • Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved August 3, 2001, from http:// www.psywww.com/ psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm
  • 22. APA Style Essentials – Referencing style
    • 5. Stand-alone Web document (no author, no date)
      • Gender and society . (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2001, from http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html
    • 6. Journal article from database
      • Hien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug abuse-maternal aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved May 20, 2000, from ProQuest database.
    • 7. Abstract from secondary database
      • Garrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. Abstract retrieved July 23, 2001, from PsycINFO database.
  • 23. APA Style Essentials – Referencing style
      • 8. Journal article, Internet-only journal
        • Bergen, D. (2002, Spring). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 4 (1). Retrieved February 1, 2004, from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/bergen.html
      • 9. Article or chapter in an edited book
        • Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York: Oxford University Press.
    • 10. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
        • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
  • 24. Precautions for the Prevention of Plagiarism
    • For authors
    •  Specific facts and assertions require a reference
    •  Notes reflect an original author & require full
    • references
    •  Quotation marks are used when more than six words
    • are lifted verbatim
    •  Paraphrase ideas but reference the original sources
    •  Use your own words to express another author’s idea
    •  Acknowledge classic references (those >10 years)
    •  Understand what constitutes common knowledge &
    • fair use.
  • 25. Precautions for the Prevention of Plagiarism
    • For editors, referees, publishers and journal office workers:
    •  Unpublished material is the exclusive property of the
    • original author.
    •  Written permission is required for the use of all
    • cartoons, drawings, figures.
    •  Written permission is required for the use of all
    • published materials
    •  Internet must be searched for similar copyrighted
    • material.
  • 26. Recommended Measures
    • For lecturers/professors
    •  Know how to search for the right sourced documents (esp. online docs)
    •  Develop the habit and skill to paraphrase and acknowledge original source (author, doc, publisher, etc.)
    •  Take notes in own words, NEVER copy & paste!!!
  • 27. Helpful Websites Plagiarism Learning Center http:// www.plagiarism.org/index.html Types of Plagiarism http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/types_of_plagiarism.html Plagiarism FAQs http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/plagiarism_faq.html Preventing Plagiarism http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/preventing_writing.html#write