MAKING THE CHILDREN NUTRITION CONSCIOUS IN RELATION TO MALNUTRITION

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MAKING THE CHILDREN NUTRITION CONSCIOUS IN RELATION TO MALNUTRITION, THESIS WRITING. This presentation contains real names of persons involve of this particular study. This names should not be copied or rewritten. Used the data of this study as basis only of your thesis writing. All rights reserved 2009.

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  • would be easier if I can download this :((( It would guide us for our thesis at school ;(
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  • kua pde kuhaon nako imung theoretical background kua ? pls?
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  • pede po ba makuha un questionnaires para po sa research paper nmin sa malnutrition?
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  • Good day! I’m Monica Mendoza. I would like to ask permission to use the questionnaires regarding your thesis about the effects of making the children nutrition concious in relation to malnutrition. If you agree to use your questionnaire, just email me to this acount: niq_mendoza@yahoo.com
    thank you very much.
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MAKING THE CHILDREN NUTRITION CONSCIOUS IN RELATION TO MALNUTRITION

  1. 1. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAKING THE CHILDREN NUTRITION CONSCIOUS IN RELATION TO MALNUTRITION AMONG ADOPTED CHILDREN IN PARI-AN DROP IN CENTER AGING 6 TO 15 YEARS OLD: TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH STATUS OF THE CHILDREN ----------------------------- A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of The College of Nursing Velez College Cebu City ------------------------------ In Partial Fulfillment of The requirements in Nursing Research Second Semester 2007 ------------------------------ By: Manriquez , Dave Jay Sibi. January 15, 2007 i
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT As a gesture of deep and endless gratitude, the writer would like to acknowledge the undying assistance of all those who gave their support while he was doing this research paper, especially: To my parents who were very understanding and supportive for the production of this term paper. To the children in Pari-an Drop In Center who willingly spent their time in answering our questionnaires permitting us to interview them and listening in our short discussion about nutrition. To my Auntie Mrs. Nilda Verdegar ( Teacher in the center ), for her all out support in helping the writer in accomplishing this research paper. To Ms. Catherine Gallelero ( Social Worker ), for letting us, to stay in the area and teach the children in the center and her all out support in providing the writer needs. To my friend Ken Fonghe in accompanying the writer in Pari-an Drop In Center while teaching the children and accomplishing this research paper. To Mr. Ever Niño Doloricon, our adviser, for inculcating our minds and guiding us in doing this research study. And above all, to our Lord Jesus Christ, for giving us enough courage, strength, perseverance and enlightenment to make it through this research study despite all the obstacles we met along the way. ii
  3. 3. Velez College College of Nursing Acceptance and Approval This THESIS hereto attached, entitle ‘A descriptive study on the effects of making nutrition conscious in relation to malnutrition among adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 6 to 15 years old: To improve the health status of the children’, prepared and submitted by Dave Jay Sibi. Manriquez, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for Nursing Research. _________________________ Mr. Ever Niño L. Doloricon BSN. RN. Research Instructor _________________________ Date iii
  4. 4. A descriptive study on the effects of making the children nutrition conscious in relation to malnutrition among adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 6 to 15 years old: To improve the health status of the children I. INTRODUCTION Rationale A Drop In Center for adopted children is an integral part of society affecting and influencing it in many ways. The primary purpose of making the adopted children conscious about nutrition is to provide conditions for and to promote the continuous growth of the individual in all areas of living, with a view of achieving and maintaining the democratic way of life. There must be a relationship between food and the health of the individual, which tends to influence the health of the society in which he lives in. It has been said that nutrition is a science concerned with the movements of atoms in man to the movements of man in society. Because of the tremendous population explosion the supply of food for all people of the world is indeed becoming more critical every year. As a nutrition educator we have that moral obligation to help the nutrition of every individual; for improved nutrition is one factor involved in paving the way towards peace among men. The nutritional status of our communities is a reflection of our individual nutritional health. Perhaps the most significant factor affecting the nutritional status of communities is economics. Having sufficient funds to purchase adequate food supplies is a necessity. Malnutrition is one of the major problems that our country is facing. This problem can’t be set aside. This won’t choose any victim. It may affect adults but mostly, it affects the youth. Through this thesis, the writer may acquire knowledge about the problem, its effects to mankind and some of the factors that will lead to such a problem. 1
  5. 5. Being health practitioner to be, I cannot afford to see mankind suffering from malnutrition because of lack of knowledge about proper nutrition and the lack of resources especially the youth. Because for me, I consider the children as the hope of our country. How can there be hope if they are destroyed by ignorance about proper nutrition resulting to malnutrition? Therefore, I choose this topic for my research because I want to know the condition of those abandon children in a government center on how conscious they are regarding proper nutrition on their selves to possibly eliminate malnutrition. I want to share my little knowledge about proper nutrition to the children and how to improve their health status by educating them through a discussion. Because through this, I can be aware of the health status of the children in the center. This research will also serve as an awakening bomb to the government and health officials that should not be rejected. In our country Malnutrition is a major problem. But according to the 6 th National Nutrition Surveys there has been a general improvement between 1998 and 2003 in the country’s overall nutrition situation, affecting various population groups, as evidenced specifically by reductions in underweight and stunting among 0-5 and 6-10 years old children. Most of the Filipino now a day are aware of their health but only few are applying proper nutrition on their daily living. Theoretical Background of the Study Malnutrition is a state that adversely affects growth and development of body functions as a result of either an inadequate or overabundant supply of kilocalories or nutrients to body tissue. According to Walter Falcon the head of the Food Research Institute of Stanford University ( 1984:577 ). “ It might focus more attention on Africa where the most serious hunger exists rather than on Southeast Asia. But if only 100 million individuals are clinically malnourished; there are probably another 200 million to 400 million that go hungry part of the time. If they’re not in the hospital, they’re not doing too well”. According to Mary Alice Caliendo ( 1984:526 ). “ Malnutrition and nutritional deprivation are basically problems of poverty of unequal and inequitable income distribution not only among individuals but among countries. Malnutrition won’t disappear by simply producing more food or by raising the overall economic levels of poor nations. 2
  6. 6. According to Eleanor R. Williams ( 1984:513 ). “ “ Human brains do not live by bread alone”. Malnutrition causes children to become listless and apathetic. According to Thomas Polemar, an agricultural economist, ( 1984:515 ). “ The number of people estimated to be suffering from malnutrition range from 400 million to two-thirds of the world population”. In his view, food production in developing countries tends to be understand because taxation is often based on production and because so much backyard production is locally consumed and never counted. On the other hand, other authorities insist that much hunger especially in remote rural areas, is inadequately reported. Larry Minear of the Interreligious Task Force on United States Policy told an interviewer recently that “ Malnutrition is understated because there are a lot of people who don’t show up in the planning nets either because the censuses are bad or because they are not in the market economy and their inability to purchase food isn’t measured”. If enough food is to be produced to feed the world a number of resources such as land, water, energy, fertilizer and technology must be available and widely used. According to Dr. Weston A. Price and Dr. Francis M. Pottenger, (www.google.com). “ Today as always, the human body requires whole, nutrient-rich foods in order to achieve optimum health; and the public, more than ever, needs access to accurate information on healthy diet and life-style”. According to Margaret Newman, (www.googlesearch.com). “ The theory of health as expanding consciousness was stimulated by concern for those for whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible”. The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons regardless of their health status. The theory asserts that every person in every situation, no matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness. A process of becoming more oneself, of finding greater meaning in life, and of reaching new dimensions of connectedness with other people and the world. The theory of health as expanding consciousness stems from Roger’s theory of unitary human beings. Rogers’ assumptions regarding patterning of persons in interaction with the environment are basic to the view that consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of person to environment interaction. Consciousness is defined as the informational capacity of the system ( in this case, the human being ); that is, the ability of the system to interact with the environment. 3
  7. 7. Consciousness includes not only the cognitive and affective awareness normally associated with consciousness, but also the interconnectedness of the entire living system, which includes physiochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as the immune system. This pattern of information, which is the consciousness of the system, is part of a larger, undivided pattern of an expanding universe. Rogers’ insistence that health and illness are simply manifestations of the rhythmic fluctuations of the life process is the foundation for viewing health and illness as a unitary process moving through variations in order – disorder. According to Joyce Fitzpatrick, (www.googlesearch.com). “ The primary purpose of nursing is the promotion and maintenance of an optimal level of wellness”. The professional nurse participates in a multi-disciplinary approach to health in assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating programs in regards to how they affect optimum wellness. When assessing health care needs, the professional nurse incorporates the physical, psychological, emotional, social, environmental and spiritual aspects of the profession into her daily routine. Person – the term integrates the concepts of both self and others and recognizes individuals as having unique biological, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and spiritual attitudes. They thrive on honor and dignity, self-evaluation and growth and development. Throughout a person’s life, many factors develop within a social setting and interact with a multitude of environments that can significantly influence that person’s health and wellness. Health – is a dynamic state of being that results from the interaction of person and the environment. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gleaned from rewarding relationships with others, goal directed behavior, and expert. Wellness-Illness – is rooted in the promotion of wellness practices, the attentive treatment of those who are acutely or chronically ill or dying, and restorative care of people during convalescence. Metaparadigm – derived from and related to the basic metaparadigm concepts of person, environment, health and nursing. While much of the research in nursing has been focused on assisting individuals in their life transitions, whether through phases of growth and development, or experiences with health and illness, the conceptualizations of the nursing profession as focused on transitions has not been adequately researched. 4
  8. 8. Conceptual Framework of the Study This study aims to find out the effects of making the children nutrition conscious in relation to malnutrition among children aging 6 to 15 years old of Pari-an Drop In Center, Pari- an Cebu City. This is done through research, discussion, personal interview with the children and some social worker, and questionnaire giving. The diagram show the four major factors that contributed to malnutrition among children, namely: economic stability of the government center, ignorance about proper nutrition, media, and peer influences. Through theser four factors, we focused our study on the three aspects of a child, namely: physical, mental, and social aspects. All the data gathered that were analyzed, interpreted and verified will serve as the writer basis for study and for proposal to the children in the center aging 6 to 15 years old. 5
  9. 9. FIGURE I. Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework of the study. 6
  10. 10. Statement of the Problem It is the desire of the writer of this term paper to elucidate on teaching nutrition for the adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center and to let them be aware of the value of nutrition. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Why is there a need to teach nutrition education to those adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center? 2. Differentiate between the good nutrition and poor nutrition. 3. Give the functions of nutrients. 4. How to plan for better nutrition? 5. Are there physically malnourished children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 6 to 15 years old? 6. Does the Barangay Officials and Barangay Health Workers show concerned with the nutritional status of the children in the center? 7. What are the effects of Lack of Knowledge about proper nutrition among these children in the following aspects? a. Physical b. Mental c. Social 8. What are the factors that contributed to malnutrition or unhealthy status? Hypothesis The following hypotheses are created in this study: 1. Education about nutrition, education to adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center is vital to the prosperity of our country; 2. That the role of health practitioner (teacher) is important in the making the adopted children be conscious of nutrition or of nutrition education; 3. That planning of one’s nutrition is vital to the health of an individual; 4. That the knowledge of nutrition will elevate the standard of living of the people. 5. The Barangay Officials and Brangay Health Workers are not less concerned with the nutritional status of the children. 7
  11. 11. 6. Malnutrition only affects children physically. 7. There are no relevant factors that affect the nutritional status of the children. Importance of the Study This study is of great importance because many of our people have been victims of malnutrition when in fact, they should not be a victim if they only know the proper know how’s about the food nutrients but somehow because of ignorance they become victim of their own ignorance. Nevertheless, it has to be corrected once and for all because if our people have the proper knowledge of nutrition, even the cheapest food in town can be transformed into a balance diet which would be enough to supply the needs of the family. The society, that they may acquire a better knowledge about proper nutrition and take some precautions to prevent the bad effect of malnutrition. The government, that they may give importance to this problem, that they may build more drop in center to those abandon children on the street. The health agencies especially those government agencies assigned to those centers for abandon children, which they may give importance to the said problem that they may find solutions on how to solve this problem. The next researchers who have interest with the same topic, that they may use this as a reference to their study. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study is limited to the answer to the questions being posted in the statement of the problem and would not deviate from such answers. Minor topics would also be discussed but only on a limited scale. The focal points of the study are on the imparting of knowledge of nutrition to the adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 6 to 15 years old. The study covers all children living at Pari-an Drop In Center, Pari-an, Cebu City. The area of investigation was focused mainly on the effects of making the children nutrition conscious in relation to malnutrition especially those aging from 6 to 15 years of age. Moreover, the responses assessed in this study were dependent upon the data furnished by some respondents through the questionnaires and interview to social worker, teachers, and children as the main data-gathering instrument. The effects that are to be treated are only on the physical, mental, and social aspects. 8
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY Research Environment The writer have concentrated only on Pari-an Drop In Center, Pari-an, Cebu City. Pari-an Drop In Center has a total population of 23 children but this is only tentative, one social worker, two house parents, and a couple of teachers. Water resources are from Metropolitan Cebu Water District ( MCWD) lines. Electricity is from VECO. Environment sanitation is good due to everyday cleaning of the environment. They practice segregation of garbage. Health problems encountered mostly in the center are colds, coughs, fever, skin disease and malnutrition. Landmark of the Pari-an Drop In Center is the Pari-an Barangay Hall and fire station just beside the center. Research Subjects The subjects of the study are those children aging 6-15 years of age of Pari-an Drop In Center, Pari-an, Cebu City. There were 23 respondents: eight females and fifteen males. Also included, some Barangay Officials, Social worker of the center, and their teachers who are capable of answering the interview and questionnaires. 9
  13. 13. FIGURE II: Map of Pari-an Drop In Center, Pari-an, Cebu City. 10
  14. 14. RESEARCH PROCEDURES Data Gathering: For the gathering of important data and materials, the writer utilized the descriptive method of research through the proper utilization of the library, conducting interviews, and giving questionnaires to those children. He was fortunate enough to have all the access in the library and materials within his reach and helped in the finalization of the subject matter and also the willingness of those respondents to participate and answer those questionnaires. First and foremost, the writer looked for some possible sources in the library for information about Proper Nutrition and also Malnutrition. Preliminary readings and note taking were done. Interview with some Barangay Officials, Social Worker of Pari-an Drop In Center, and the teachers of the children followed and note taking were done. While a set of questionnaires were distributed to the children aging 6 to 15 years of age during the discussion. The outcome of the interview and the findings based on the answers were analyzed and interpreted. Treatment of Data: The results of the questionnaires distributed were sorted out, tallied and tabulated. The questionnaires are answerable by checking the options which the respondents feel appropriate. Some questions are also answerable by yes or no. In each table, options were arranged to the number of respondents by which it is presented as N. The percentage was computed with the formula: % = f/N x 100 where f = the number of options checked by a respondents N = the total number of respondents The percentage was used in statistical treatment, the percentages was taken by dividing the number of options checked by the total number of respondents, then the quotient was multiplied by one hundred. 11
  15. 15. TABLE I The Distribution of Children Living in Pari-an Drop In Center, Pari-an, Cebu City N = 23 AGE f(frequency) Percentage(%) 6 2 9% 7 0 0% 8 1 4% 9 2 9% 10 6 26% 11 3 13% 12 3 13% 13 0 0% 14 4 17% 15 2 9% TOTAL: N = 23 100% Definition of Terms: For a better and clearer understanding of the study, some of the terms are defined: Nutrition. It is the science of nourishing the living organism; that is, of providing adequate food for its growth, maintenance and repair. A process wherein living organisms utilizes food for the maintenance and repair of tissue and production of energy. Nutrition. It is the combination of processes by which the living organisms receives and utilizes the nutrients from food for the maintenance of its function and for the growth of tissues. 12 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
  16. 16. Chapter 1 of this research deals with the overview of the study. It introduces the rationale, the statement of the problem, the null hypothesis, the theoretical background of the study, the conceptual framework of the study, the schematic diagram, the significance of the study, the scope and limitation of the subject, place and time, methodology, the definition of terms. Chapter 2 of this research deals with the review of related literature, the related readings from the statement of the problem. Chapter 3 of this research includes the presentation of the data gathered and tabulated, the specific number of respondents was written together with the corresponding percentage for each table. Chapter 4 of this research includes the findings, conclusions and recommendations are found in the fourth chapter of this research work. General conclusions have been derived from the observations. Recommendations and suggestions on how to improve the health status of the children and how to make them nutrition conscious are stated in the last chapter of this research. After the fourth chapter, the bibliography is found, the glossary, the appendix follows. In the appendix, the list of the names of the respondents are found. A sample of the questionnaire which had been distributed to the respondents follows the list of the respondents. The picture of the research area, the respondents and the writer come next. The curriculum vitae of the writer and the table of body mass index for both male and female can also be found on the appendix. 13 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
  17. 17. Much have been written about nutrition education and the writer is sure that many students have already written on the same subject matter nevertheless, he has his own way of presenting from the others. The subject matter is quite common that anybody can afford to write about it as a partial fulfillment of the requirements of their instructor. Writes-up written by McWilliam, Pattisons, Barbours, and Andersons and etc. were utilized by the writer. At least these authors are prominent in their own fields especially on nutrition. The writer through painstaking efforts have made her own unique presentations but of course through his limited knowledge he would only deal on some enlightenment about the subject matter. Conscious and deliberate approach to an advanced state of physical, psychological/mental, and spiritual health is dynamic, fluctuating state of being (Cookfaire). The capacity of the person to perform to the best of his ability, the ability to adjust and adapt to varying situations, a reported feeling of well-being, and a feeling that “everything is together” and “harmonious” (Leddy and Pepper). Some Aspects of Nutritional Problems This study deals mainly with those aspects of nutritional problems and their solutions which are the primary concern of health workers. In due course a further research on the interdisciplinary nutrition programs, commonly known as applied nutrition programs will be prepared. This will primarily concern with the public health nutrition and the accurate definition of nutritional status in the community; where there is a necessary correction and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, and the organization of an adequate nutrition component in public health services. No one can deny that economic factors are the most obvious ones, responsible for malnutrition. Malnutrition is a serious public health problem mainly prevalent in developing countries; where incomes are barely adequate. 14 Nutrition education, relevant to the needs reaching to the homes and capable of being applied in family food patterns is the ultimate road to good nutrition. It is therefore a means
  18. 18. rather than an end. It should be practical and applied, adapted to economic and agricultural possibilities and in harmony with the socio-cultural setting. Nutrition education should include effective demonstration, and sometimes supplementary feeding of vulnerable groups, proctored by the mother in food preparation. It can be an invaluable part of community development both in urban and rural areas. The emphasis should be on building better health through better food habits as well as on preventing malnutrition and diseases. Nutrition Education among adopted children Increasingly we find the emphasis in health programs directed to proper food and nutrition. This is true for all age groups. If a healthy population is to be maintained, it is essential to begin the nutrition education very early in the life of the child. Because a center which promote nutrition touches so many of the homes in the community it is in a position to assume a major role in this early nutrition education. Children are in school during their formative years when food habits and mental attitudes toward food habits are being established and when normal development depends to a large extent on the consumption of an adequate diet. Classroom education in nutrition should begin when the child enters kindergarten or the first grade and continue throughout the entire school life. The school teaches nutrition may find that more alert and healthy pupils are one result of such teaching. Nutritional requirements change as the infant grows through childhood into adolescence. Nutrition influences all phases of growth and development is usually measured by changes in height and weight with age. Stature is the more significant criterion because a variation is build and the amount of adipose tissue may cause wide variations in weight. Development other than physical growth is more difficult to measure; it deals with muscle strength and coordination, with mental health, with adoptions and attitudes. 15 The rapid rate of growth of the brain, which starts before birth persists in the infant, and stays well in advance of the growth of the rest of the body, by the time a child is four years old
  19. 19. some 90 percent of the brain has been formed. The formation and functioning of the brain and nerve fibers and the laying down of the myelin sheaths of the nerves demands that adequate nutrients of the right type be available at this critical period. During the early formative years, the brain acquires each new specific function and integrates the process into its total pattern of performance and experience. Each new function seems to make its appearance chronologically at a critical period of development. It has been recognized that certain inborn errors of metabolism that certain in brain damage called mental retardation. This mental retardation is to be most evident where protein- calorie malnutrition is most serious, is lesser degrees of early malnutrition may result in a child lower intellectual capacity than his genetic intellectual. Growth occurs continuously from conception to full maturity but it is not a uniform process. It has two periods of rapid growth separated by a period of more or less uniform but slower increase in size. The first period occurs in fatal life and early infancy, the second during adolescence. What is Good Nutrition and Poor Nutrition Good nutrition means right eating. It means an adequate diet. Good nutrition helps to promote strong and healthy bodies between appearances, active and keen minds, and greater resistance to disease, longer life, and a greater ability to enjoy life. It is important to remember that without good nutrition no one can have optimum health. While poor nutrition means wrong eating. It means an inadequate diet. Poor nutrition may contribute to weak and undernourished bodies, bad teeth, poor mental development, lack of preparation, nervousness, lowered resistance to disease, lack of endurance and the consequences of an inadequate diet. 16 The results of inadequate diets divide two types hollow hunger and bedridden hunger. Hollow hunger results from an insufficient quantity or volume of food. It is felt in the stomach.
  20. 20. People are usually aware of hollow hunger and therefore will take steps to alleviate it by trying to obtain sufficient food. Starvation is the name for prolonged hollow hunger. Hidden hunger results from insufficient amounts of the protective foods, vitamins, minerals, and proteins. It may be present without the individual knowing it, it may be present even when the individuals eats sufficient fool as far as quantity is concerned. The Functions of the Nutrients Each nutrient serves at least one of the following general functions when taken into the body. It yields heat and energy, it builds and revenues body tissues, and it regulates body process of various types. The value of food such as bread, carrots or milk, will depend upon the kinds and amounts of nutrients which it supplies. The following list gives the food classes or nutrients groups of their general functions. Carbohydrates from which glucose is derived, supply heat and energy. The energy value of foods is called the calorie. Fats do supply energy and heat. Minerals build tissue and regulate body processes. Vitamins aid growth and help to regulate body processes. Water acts as a medium for transporting materials in the body, and aids in the elimination of waste and in the regulation of body temperature. Planning for Better Nutrition The way to better nutrition is usually to improved farming and gardening. Education is vital and needs to be related to local problems, to help people make the best use of their resources, especially for the nutritionally vulnerable members of their families. 17 These are community problems best dealt with by the community education and development techniques that apply to all aspects of community life and planning. Because food
  21. 21. and nutrition problems involved many phases of community action, and their solution demands interdisciplinary and interagency planning, coordination and action. However, practical nutrition education and action is needed at community level, at intermediate levels and at national level, involving workers in the fields of education, agriculture, community development, etc. as well as health workers. III. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA In this chapter, the data gathered had been presented in table forms, analyzed and interpreted. The results were based on the answers to the questionnaires distributed to the respondents and interview from Barangay Officials, social worker, and teachers. Table 2 Distribution of the number of children Aging 6 to 15 years old who are physically malnourished N = 23 RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE MALNOURISHED 18 78% NORMAL 5 22% OVERWEIGHT 0 0% OBESE 0 0% TOTAL: N = 23 100% Table 2 shows the number of children aging 6 to 15 years old who are physically malnourished. The table has three columns; the first column of the table are the responses classified into four categories: a. malnourished b. normal c. overweight d. obese. The second and the third columns are for the frequency and percentage respectively, while their total is recorded at the bottom. Each category is divided into the number of cases, 23, and is multiplied by 100 thereby garnering their percentage. 18 Among the 23 children of Pari-an Drop In Center, 18 or 78% falls under malnourished while 5 or 22% are normal.
  22. 22. The data means that the health status of the children in Pari-an Drop In Center is bad since 78% of the 23 children are malnourished. This would imply that more children needs enough food, rest and medications in order to have a normal health status. This would also imply that the children needs to be educated about proper nutrition like what are those foods that is healthy to be eaten despite of the limited food resources of the said center. Table 3 Government Officials of Barangay Pari-an Cebu City who are Concerned with the Health Status of the Children N = 11 Responses of the Respondents: GOV’T OFICIALS CONCERNED % NOT CONCERNED % TOTAL Barangay Captain 1 9% 0 0% 9% Barangay Councilor 2 18% 6 55% 73% Barangay Health 2 18% 0 0% 18% Worker TOTAL: N = 11 N = 11 100% Table 3 shows the distribution of government officials that are concerned with the health status of the children. The first column of the table represents the government officials of Barangay Pari-an Cebu City which is classified into 3 categories: a. Barangay Captain b. Barangay Councilor c. Barangay Health Workers. The second column refers to the responses of the respondents and the last column refers to the total percentage. This table shows that the Barangay Captain and the Barangay Health Workers are very concerned with the health status of the children in the center. 18% or 2 of the Barangay Councilors are concerned with the health of the children, but there are those who said that some of the Brgy. Councilors are not concerned because they are assigned to other development programs in regards to their Barangay. 19 The table implies that the Barangay Officials of Barangay Pari-an Cebu City are trying their best in providing more effort in working about the health status of the children or improving
  23. 23. them by having some programs that will enhance their knowledge about proper nutrition by providing seminars and discussion to the children. Table 4 Factors Contributing to Unhealthy Status or Malnutrition N = 23 FACTORS f(frequency) PERCENTAGE a. Low income of the Center 2 9% to buy the necessary healthy foods. b. Lack of knowledge about 7 30% proper nutrition. c. Peer Influence 9 39% d. Media Influence 5 22% TOTAL: N = 23 100% Table 4 shows the different factors that contributed to unhealthy status or malnutrition. The table is divided into 3 columns; the first column refers to the different factors and it is categorized into four, namely: a. low income of the center to buy the necessary healthy foods b. lack of knowledge about proper nutrition c. peer influence d. media influence. The second and third column refers to the frequency and percentage, respectively. Each category is divided into the number of cases, 23, and is multiplied by 100 thereby garnering their percentage. The respondents choose peer influence as the major factor that contributed to malnutrition or unhealthy status. Out of 100%, peer influence garnered 39%, then lack of knowledge about proper nutrition with 30%, then media influence with 22% and lastly, low income of the Center to buy the necessary healthy foods with 9%. This table shows that peer influence really entices the children in the center to eat unhealthy foods such as junk foods, thus, leading to malnutrition. 20 Table 5 Physical effects of Improper Nutrition that lead to Malnutrition or Unhealthy Status N = 23
  24. 24. EFFECTS f(frequency) PERCENTAGE Stunted Growth 10 44% Decreased Physical Ability 7 30% Decreased Weight 6 26% TOTAL N = 23 100% Table 5 shows the distribution of the physical effects of improper nutrition on children. The table has three columns, the first column refers to the physical effects of improper nutrition that lead to malnutrition that is categorized into three: a. stunted growth b. decreased physical ability and c. decreased weight. The second and third column refers to the frequency and the percentage, respectively. Among the three categories, stunted growth ranked first with 44%, then decreased physical activity with 30% and lastly, decreased weight with 26%. The table implies that the children in the center are really affected physically because of improper nutrition that may lead to malnutrition. The children are in the state of not growing normally; they are very weak to do daily activities and having a low weight below normal. Table 6 Social effects of Improper Nutrition that lead to Malnutrition or Unhealthy Status N = 23 EFFECTS f(frequency) PERCENTAGE Inferiority Complex 18 78% Social Discrimination 5 22% TOTAL: N = 23 100% Table 6 shows the social effects of improper nutrition to the children in the center. The first column of the table represents what are the social effects of improper nutrition that lead to malnutrition that is categorized into two: a . inferiority complex b. social discrimination. 21 The second column refers to the frequency and the last column is for the percentage. This table shows that 78% makes up for inferiority complex which is a social effect of improper nutrition that lead to malnutrition while social discrimination yields up to 22%.
  25. 25. This table implies that lack of knowledge about proper nutrition will really lead to malnutrition and affects the respondents socially. They can’t socialize with others because of inferiority complex and social discrimination which is because of their poor health status. Table 7 Mental/Psychological effects of Improper Nutrition that lead to Malnutrition or Unhealthy Status N = 23 EFFECTS f(frequency) PERCENTAGE a. Decrease ability to think 6 26% properly 14 61% b. Poor mental development c. Inactive mind 3 13% TOTAL: N = 23 100% Table 7 shows the psychological effects of improper nutrition to the children in the center. The first column of the table represents what are the psychological effects of improper nutrition that lead to malnutrition that is categorized into three: a. decrease ability to think properly b. poor mental development c. inactive mind. The second column refers to the number of respondents and the last column is for the percentage. Among the three categories, poor mental development ranked first with 61%, then decrease ability to think with 26% and lastly, inactive mind with 13%. This table implies that lack of knowledge about proper nutrition will really lead to malnutrition and affects the respondents psychologically. They can’t think properly, they are also having poor mental development that result to inactive mind. They can’t communicate effectively to other people because they are not precise with their thinking. Their idea may not be appropriate with the situation. 22 Table 8 A table showing the Usual Food Serving in a day at Pari-an Drop In Center TIME USUAL FOOD SERVINGS BREAKFAST ( 7:00 AM ) Pandesal, hot coffee, milo, dried fish LUNCH ( 12:00 NN ) Rice, mongo, okra, tomato (kamatis), vegetables that is available in the center, pork
  26. 26. and beef is not usually serve SNACKS ( 3:00 PM ) Banana cue, biscuits, crackers, usually they eat junkfoods (chichiria) SUFFER ( 7:00 PM ) Rice, noodles, vegetables that is available in the center, fish, can goods Table 8 shows the usual food serving in a day at Pari-an Drop In Center. As you see the children at the center is fun of eating junk food due to peer influence. Most of them are fun of imitating others, “they eat what others eat “. They are not thinking whether the food they are eating is nutritious or not. This lack of knowledge about proper nutrition makes the children unhealthy or malnourished. To avoid this, the children must be educated about proper nutrition, its use, and its benefits to our body. Most of the children in the center do not eat on time. Most of the children also do not eat during breakfast because of lack of food supply. It is sad to say that the children do not eat during breakfast because of lack of food supply in the center this is also because of their number. Most of the foods serve in the center are not nutritious except for the fish and vegetables. Usually they eat foods with preservatives such as those can goods and noodles. The center lacks the resources to buy foods that are not only presentable but also nutritious. The children usually eat those foods being offered to them by the visitors. Most of them are fun of eating sweets. The children must be guided about proper nutrition by making them nutrition conscious through a informal discussion about proper nutrition and other things that would promote wellness or health. 23 IV. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is the desire of the writer of this term paper to elucidate on teaching nutrition for the adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center and to let them be aware of the value of nutrition. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Why is there a need to teach nutrition education to those adopted children at
  27. 27. Pari-an Drop In Center? 2. Differentiate between the good nutrition and poor nutrition. 3. Give the functions of nutrients. 4. How to you plan for better nutrition? 5. Are there physically malnourished children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 6 to 15 years old? 6. Are the Barangay Officials and Barangay Health Workers show concerned with the nutritional status of the children in the center? 7. What are the effects of Lack of Knowledge about proper nutrition among these children in the following aspects? a. Physical b. Mental c. Social 8. What are the factors that contributed to malnutrition or unhealthy status? SUMMARY One of the realistic approaches to the solution of these problems as they comprise a multi-frontal attack on the various causes of under and malnutrition, nutritionally inappropriate food behavior and improving food production. For the purpose of demonstration form is put up proper techniques of improving food and nutritional conditions particularly children and mothers through self-help efforts. However, the school gardening or green revolution will emphasize today in the new society of promoting food production. 24 SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS: Upon examining the respondents answers to the given questionnaires and response from interviews, the writer found out that:
  28. 28. 1. There is need to teach nutrition education to those adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center since 78% of the children are malnourished and only 22% are normal. It is good also that nobody of those children are overweight and obese. 2. Most of the children cannot differentiate which of the foods that is available in the center that is good for the health and which is not good for the health. They usually eat those foods what their peers are eating and what they usually see in the television. 3. Most of the children don’t know the function of nutrients in our body. They just eat in order for them to survive and not fell the pain of hunger. They don’t know that the foods they are eating are converted into energy that keeps them going. 4. Most of the children in the center don’t plan for better nutrition. They just eat the food that is being served by them by the center. They don’t mind whether they are eating nutritious food or not. 5. Among the 23 children living at Pari-an Drop In Center, 18 or 78% of them are malnourished and 5 or 22% are in good nutritional status. 6. The Barangay Officials are really doing there best in working about the health status of the children. They are doing their best to reach out and to give support to the children living in the center by doing programs such us as seminars and discussion about proper nutrition and how they are going to have improve health status. 7. Peer influence ranked first with 39% when it comes to the different factors that contributed to malnutrition, then followed by lack of knowledge about proper nutrition with 30%, then media influence with 22% and lastly, low income of the center to buy the necessary healthy foods with 9%. 8. Majority of the respondents answered that stunted growth is the number one physical effect of improper nutrition that lead to malnutrition to the children in the center, then followed by decreased physical ability and lastly, decreased weight. 9. Inferiority complex is the number one social effect of improper nutrition that lead to malnutrition to the children in the center, which enables the children to stop socializing with their peers. 25 CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of the study, it is safe to conclude that:
  29. 29. 1. Majority of the children aging 6 to 15years old living in Pari-an Drop In Center is malnourished. 18 of them out of 23 are malnourished which denotes a negative sign for the nutritional status of the children in the center. 2. The Barangay Officials of Pari-an, Cebu City are very concerned in improving the health status of the children in Pari-an Drop In Center by providing development programs that is related to health. 3. Peer influence is the major factor that entices the children to eat junk foods that leads to malnutrition or unhealthy status. 4. Physical effects of improper nutrition in children 6 to 15 years old causes stunted growth of individuals and also inferiority complex in relating to their peers. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following recommendations are hereby offered by the writer: 1.Every teacher in Pari-an Drop In Center must be teaching the proper use of food and better health. 2. Educational materials should be needed in teaching nutrition among the adopted children in Pari-an Drop In Center. 3. Their teacher must assign those children in gardening to have more knowledge on livelihood. 4. Parents in the community who have children must be invited in the center while demonstration lessons are being done about proper nutrition and caring for children during seminars. 5. The children need Reading materials, not only if it is pleasant reading, but also it is essential to present and future knowledge of those children. 6. Barangay officials in charged with the health of the children should commit themselves and should be sincere in helping those who need their assistance in order to solve malnutrition problems in the center. 26 7.Government officials, teachers and concerned citizens should be involved in educating the people with the concept of good nutrition so that all factors that hinder proper health could be eliminated.
  30. 30. 8. Social worker and teachers should encourage their children to eat nutritious foods and make sure that the children have enough time to rest and play in order to obtain a good nutritional health. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Eppright Ercel, N. Pattison, H. Barbour. Teaching Nutrition. Iowa, U. S. A. : Iowa State University Press, 1971. Rynbergen, Mitchell and Dible, Anderson. Nutrition in Health and Disease. J.B. Lippincott Co., 1971. Manual for Rural Nutrition Work. Part II Nutrition Program, June 23,1972. Williams, Eleanor R. Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy. 1984 pg. 513. De Guzman, Ma. Patrocinio E. Basic Nutrition for Filipino. Manila, Philippines: Meriam and Webster, Inc., 1988 pp. 231-245. Nutrition Learning Packages. Health Alert. 102: 83 F 90, pg.213 Nutrition The World Book Encyclopedia. V. 14, pp. 466-470 Nutrition The Colliers Encyclopedia. V. 18, 1990, pp 30-34 The Colliers Dictionary. 1986 Internet Source: www.googlesearch.com www.DOH-Philippines.com www.yahoosearch.com 27 GLOSSARY
  31. 31. Good Nutrition. Benefits the well-balanced diet. Poor Nutrition. Lack of essential nutrients. Malnutrition. Condition resulting from a lack of nutrients in the body tissue. Descriptive Study. A careful or critical examination: investigation having the quality or function of describing: characterized by description. Health Status. State or the condition of the body and mind. Body Mass Index – A table used to determine whether a child is appropriate with his/her weight regarding with his/her age by determining whether the child is malnourished, normal, overweight, and obese. With the formula: BMI = (Wt.)kg/(Ht.)m2 28 APPENDIX A LIST OF RESPONDENTS
  32. 32. GIRLS: Abella , Michelle Camachu , Kimberly Camachu , Mercy Ladaño , Shella Ladaño, Cheryl Lasconia , Janice Lendio , Alyssa Lopez , Irene BOYS: Aresgado , John Aerofh Cabarce , Arnold Cañete , Richard Chavez , Basillo Dela Madrid , Jelord Eschosar , Rolando Español , Ronadil Flores , Andres Gonzaga , Argill Ladaño , Joseph Jr. Naval , Ronald Rellen , Danny Boy Ramlee , Sarail Thjin , Johnpaul Tranguia , Antoni 29 APPENDIX B
  33. 33. LIST OF RESPONDENTS GIRLS: Body Mass Index: Abella , Michelle 16.23 kg/m2 Camachu , Kimberly 16.12 kg/m2 Camachu , Mercy 13.42 kg/m2 Ladaño , Shella 13.17 kg/m2 Ladaño, Cheryl 13.61 kg/m2 Lasconia , Janice 19.56 kg/m2 Lendio , Alyssa 21.49 kg/m2 Lopez , Irene 20.92 kg/m2 BOYS: Aresgado , John Aerofh 14.83 kg/m2 Cabarce , Arnold 15.91 kg/m2 Cañete , Richard 18.12 kg/m2 Chavez , Basillo 15.82 kg/m2 Dela Madrid , Jelord 15.71 kg/m2 Eschosar , Rolando 20.40 kg/m2 Español , Ronadil 24.31 kg/m2 Flores , Andres 11.57 kg/m2 Gonzaga , Argill 14.26 kg/m2 Ladaño , Joseph Jr. 16.67 kg/m2 Naval , Ronald 12.79 kg/m2 Rellen , Danny Boy 17.56 kg/m2 Ramlee , Sarail 13.32 kg/m2 Thjin , Johnpaul 15.13 kg/m2 Tranguia , Antoni 16.45 kg/m2 30 APPENDIX C LIST OF CHILDREN LIVING IN PARI-AN DROP IN CENTER NAME SEX AGE WT. HT. BMI
  34. 34. GIRLS: 1. Abella , Michelle F 12 25 kg 124cm Malnourished 2. Camachu , Kimberly F 12 26kg 127cm Malnourished 3. Camachu , Mercy F 8 19kg 119cm Malnourished 4. Ladaño , Shella F 10 24kg 135cm Malnourished 5. Ladaño, Cheryl F 6 15kg 105cm Malnourished 6. Lasconia , Janice F 15 40kg 143cm Normal 7. Lendio , Alyssa F 10 39kg 135cm Normal 8. Lopez , Irene F 14 41kg 140cm Normal BOYS: 9. Aresgado , John Aerofh M 10 21kg 119cm Malnourished 10. Cabarce , Arnold M 14 33kg 144cm Malnourished 11. Cañete , Richard M 15 35kg 139cm Malnourished 12. Chavez , Basillo M 14 39kg 157cm Malnourished 13. Dela Madrid , Jelord M 11 23kg 121cm Malnourished 14. Eschosar , Rolando M 14 49kg 155cm Normal 15. Español , Ronadil M 9 35kg 120cm Normal 16. Flores , Andres M 6 14kg 110cm Malnourished 17. Gonzaga , Argill M 10 23kg 127cm Malnourished 18. Ladaño , Joseph Jr. M 10 24kg 120cm Malnourished 19. Naval , Ronald M 11 24kg 137cm Malnourished 20. Rellen , Danny Boy M 12 27kg 124cm Malnourished 21. Ramlee , Sarail M 9 25kg 137cm Malnourished 22. Thjin , Johnpaul M 10 17kg 106cm Malnourished 23. Tranguia , Antoni M 8 21kg 113cm Malnourished Legend: ( According to Body Mass Index ) Malnourished = 0 to 19 kg/m2 Overweight = 25 to 30 kg/m2 Normal = 19 to 25 kg/m2 Obese = 30 kg/m2 and above 31 SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
  35. 35. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAKING THE CHILDREN NUTRITION CONSCIOUS IN RELATION TO MALNUTRITION AMONG ADOPTED CHILDREN IN PARI-AN DROP IN CENTER AGING 6 TO 15 YEARS OLD: TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH STATUS OF THE CHILDREN. Dear Respondents, I Dave Jay Sibi. Manriquez, a third year Nursing student of Velez College are studying the effects of making the children nutrition conscious in preventing the possible effect of malnutrition among children aging 6 to 15 years of age at Pari-an Drop In Center. I would like to give some sample questionnaire that is essential for the completion of the study. Please, answer the following questions as honestly as you can. Answer the following questions by checking the appropriate column or by writing it in phrase. QUESTIONS: 1. What is your source of water for drinking? ____ Mineral Water _____ Artesian Well (bomba) ____ MCWD/ Pipe System _____ Others: (specify): _____ 2. What are the foods usually served during mealtime? ( breakfast, lunch and dinner ) a. Meat ______ d. Vegetables _______ b. Fish _____ e. Others Specify:_______ c. Seafoods/Shellfish ______ 3. Do you kids eat on time? ____ Yes _____ No 4. Do you kids have a snack? ____ Yes _____ No 5. What are the snacks being served by the center? Enumerate…______________ Do you kids take them all? ____ Yes _____ No 6. Do you kids prefer eating junk foods? ____ Yes _____ No Answer No. 6 to 8 if you check yes for No.5 7. What kind of junk foods? Specify: _______________________ 8. How many times and the amount being taken in eating the junk foods?_________ 32 9. Why do you eat junk foods? a. Peer influences ______
  36. 36. b. Media influences ______ 10. Do you kids drink milk or chocolate drinks? ____ Yes _____ No 11. Do you kids eat foods coming from a can? ____ Yes _____ No How many times you kids usually eat it? ____ 12. Do you kids eat nutritious fruits and vegetables? ____ Yes _____ No _____ Sometimes 13. Do the center have regular deworming schedules for you children? _____ Yes _____ No 14. How often? _____ Every 3 months _______ Annually _____ Others specify:___________ 15. Do you kids have a health worker or nutritionists in the center? _____ Yes ______ No 16. Are the health workers and nutritionists assigned in the center actively doing their job in controlling malnutrition? _____ Yes ______ No 17. How? _____ Advice you children to eat nutritious foods _____ Advice you children to keep your surrounding always clean _____ Do nothing to help you gain more information with regards to proper nutrition _____ Others specify:______________ 18. Does the Barangay Captain show concern for your welfare in the center? ____ Yes _____ No If Yes, in what way?_________ 19. Does the Barangay Councilors show concern for your welfare in the center? ____ Yes _____ No If Yes, in what way?_________ 20. Do your teachers teach you about proper nutrition and those proper foods to be eaten that are essential for growth? _____ Yes ______ No 33 January 3,2007 To: Hon. William C. Balaga
  37. 37. Barangay Captain Brgy. Pari-an, Cebu City Dear Sir; I Dave Jay S. Manriquez of BS-Nursing Third Year section B of Velez College requesting clearance to conduct an interview/interrogation to the children in Pari-an Drop In Center situated in your Barangay with in this week. This is a part of my training on Nursing Research pertaining Nutrition Conscious among children. Further request kind consideration on this matter with thanks. Respectfully Yours, Dave Jay S. Manriquez BS-Nursing 3B Velez College Noted: Mr. Ever Niño Doloricon BSN. RN. Instructor Hon. William C. Balaga Brgy. Pari-an, Barangay Captain 34 CEBU VELEZ COLLEGE 79 F. Ramos Street Cebu City 6000
  38. 38. January 25, 2007 To: Margarita V. Osmeña Chairperson of Cebu City Task Force on Street Children Cebu City 6000 Dear Madam: I Dave Jay S. Manriquez of BS- Nursing 3B of Velez College is requesting to conduct a research pertaining proper nutrition in preventing malnutrition to the children in Pari-an Drop In Center with in this week. This research is part of enclosure on fulfillment on my Term paper about children nutrition. Hoping your kind approval on this matter with thanks. Respectfully yours. Dave Jay S. Manriquez Approved by: Mr. Ever Niño L. Doloricon BSN. RN. Research Instructor Noted by: Mrs. Margarita V. Osmeña First Lady of Cebu 35 PICTURE A AT PARI-AN DROP IN CENTER
  39. 39. JANUARY 18, 2007 36 PICTURE B AT PARI-AN DROP IN CENTER
  40. 40. JANUARY 18, 2007 37 CURRICULUM VITAE
  41. 41. Name: Dave Jay Sibi. Manriquez Birthday: January 18, 1987 Age: 20 years old Nickname: Dave Birthplace: Labangon, Tisa, Cebu City Address: 14 Sapphire Street Sta. Teresita Village, Tisa, Cebu City Hobbies: Playing Computer, Watching T.V., and Reading books Motto: There are always first time for everything so don’t be afraid and make the most out of it. Dreams: To be a professional nurse. To work and earn dollars in abroad. To take care of my parents when they become too old. To be a good follower of Christ. Goal in life: To finish school and to help my unfortunate relatives. To reach heaven by doing good things. EDUCATION ATTAINMENT: PRESCHOOL - University of San Carlos (South Grade School) 1993-1994 ELEMENTARY - University of San Carlos (South Grade School) 1994-2000 HIGH SCHOOL - University of San Carlos (Boys High School) 2000-2004 COLLGE - Velez College, College of Nursing 2004-2008 38
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