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NCARB Checkout Git


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  • 2. TOPICS IN THIS TALK Introduction Design Goals Architecture Using Git - Basics - Branching - Collaboration Git with Visual Studio GitHub
  • 3. GIT CULTURE Everything is a Feature Branch Commit often as work progresses Developers don't ask for permission: Clone and send a pull request Maintainers pick and choose what to merge Delegated network of trust
  • 4. HISTORY Developed in April 2005 by Linus Torvalds PRE GIT Linux Collaborators worked with patches then Bitkeeper and fallout NOW Maintained by Junio Hamano
  • 6. DISTRIBUTED The entire repository is copied. Repository work is done offline because you have the whole repository with you.
  • 7. RELIABLE Each object's filename is its hash: easy to verify. DISTRIBUTED == RELIABLE If your repository is lost, just ask for another developer's copy.
  • 8. GIT FEATURE: QUICK Snapshots, not diffs. Fast operations on switching, merging, and committing. Simple architecture with kernel hacker refinements. DISTRIBUTED == QUICK All operations are local.
  • 10. OBJECTS Hello.txt e965047ad7c57865823c7d992b1d046ea66edf78 Hellon Directory Containing Hello.txt 2ea873e13e84497d7459150a0b2b662403e3bc2b 100644 blob e965047ad7c57865823c7d992b1d046ea66edf78 Hello.txt Commit of Directory Containing Hello.txt 849d9a4ec0e853151ca4e8ff630feee25d701386 tree 2ea873e13e84497d7459150a0b2b662403e3bc2b parent 2dce1bf1497951717f34a3a0d9605436e0477832 author DAnderson <> 1375967945 -0400 committer DAnderson <> 1375968283 -0400 Committed Hello.txt
  • 11. POINTERS Master Branch .git/refs/heads/master 849d9a4ec0e853151ca4e8ff630feee25d701386 HEAD .git/HEAD ref: refs/heads/master config .git/config (snippet) [remote "origin"] url = fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/* [branch "master"] remote = origin merge = refs/heads/master
  • 12. USING GIT Basics Branching Collaboration
  • 13. BASICS Setup a Repository Stage Files Commit Staged Files Undo Changes Tagging
  • 14. SETUP A REPOSITORY CREATE A REPOSITORY git init Creates a repository filesystem in the .git subdirectory SET NAME AND EMAIL git config "DAnderson" git config "" Used in all commit files
  • 15. Stages files; files are now tracked. STAGE FILES git add . Further modifications to the same file remain unstaged until the next add. Shows which files are tracked, which files are modified Shows line-by-line changes between modified and staged/committed Shows line-by-line changes between staged and committed git status git diff git diff --cached
  • 16. Amend is an easy way to add to what was just committed COMMIT FILES git commit -m "Commit message" Branch now points to new commit file. Commit files point to previous parent(s). git commit -m "Commit message" --amend or just redo the commit message git log Review past commits
  • 17. UNDOING THINGS git checkout -- filename1 filename2 git clean -f Revert unstaged changed to their staged or committed state; clean deleted untracked files git reset HEAD git reset HEAD filename1 filename2 Unstage staged files git reset --hard Throw away all work git reset --hard HEAD^2 Undo last two commits
  • 18. TAGGING git tag -a 2.0 -m "Mid August Release" Adds a tag on branch's last commit git describe 2.0-12-8bd3fe1 Current commit description based on last created tag {last tag name}-{revisions since}-{short hash of commit}
  • 19. BRANCHES Ethos Creating Merging Resolving Conflicts Rebasing Squashing
  • 20. BRANCH ETHOS Branching, Checking out, and Merging is cheap and fast It keeps the master branch golden We branch within our own repositories; so, the main repository remains uncluttered SO, FOR EACH ENDEAVOR, BRANCH
  • 21. Switches your working files to this branches files Shortcut: creates the branch and checks it out BRANCH CREATION git branch newbranch # master, newbranch >> A; HEAD >> master Creates a new branch git checkout newbranch # HEAD >> abranch Note: Any staged files remained staged git checkout -b newbranch # master, newbranch >> A; HEAD >> abranch newbranch is now your current working branch
  • 22. Lists branches; stars current branch Deletes a branch BRANCH MANAGEMENT git branch * master feature1 git branch -D feature1
  • 23. MERGING git checkout master git merge abranch Merges changes in abranch into master FAST-FORWARD MERGE When commits have only been added to a branch, just point to the branch's commit object master >> A master, newbranch >> A master >> A <- B << newbranch A <- B << master, newbranch
  • 24. MERGING COMPOSITE MERGE When both branches have changed and can be cleanly merged, a new commit object is created; it has two parents. B (master work) ↙ ↖ A D (merge) ↖ ↙ C (newbranch work)
  • 25. CONFLICTS git merge abranch Auto-merging hello.txt CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in hello.txt Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result. git mergetool git commit The result is just like a composite merge. Typical Conflict Markup <<<<<<< HEAD Line modified in master ======= Line modified in abranch >>>>>>> abranch git merge abranch /conflict: you can hand edit it/ git add . git commit
  • 26. REBASING Reconfigure branch history so that the same changes are based on a different commit Reconfigures abranch so that when master merges it, it is a fast-forward merge B ↙ A ⇒ A ← B ← C ↖ C git checkout abranch git rebase master
  • 27. Brings up an edit-list of commits to squash together SQUASHING When you are already are without conflicts... git rebase master -i --autofix Undoes all commits, but keeps changes staged for a commit Commit to master branch in one commit git reset --soft master git commit -m "abranches work, now in one commit" git checkout master git merge --squash abranch git commit -m "abranch in one commit"
  • 28. COLLABORATING Cloning Pull Push
  • 29. CLONE git clone Init + Copies repository + adds remote references git remote add me Adds a remote git fetch Brings down objects from remote repository updates remote branch stored locally
  • 30. Shortcut for doing a fetch and Set a branch to track origin's PULL git pull Shortcut for doing a fetch and merging changes into the branch git pull --rebase rebasing the branch to be a fast-forward of the remote git branch -u origin/master master branch Set a new branch to track origin's master branch git checkout -b abranch origin/master
  • 31. Pushes local commits to the remote. Pushes a tag to a remote repository PUSH git push [remote] If there have been changes since your last fetch, your push will be cancelled. git remote set-url --push origin Changes the default repository you push to git push -f Force the remote to accept out-of-sync changes. Not usually done while collaborating. git push origin 2.0
  • 32. VISUAL STUDIO INTEGRATION msys-git posh-git GitHub for Windows See Git Visual Studio Git Provider git-tfs
  • 33. MSYS-GIT Basic Command-line support Git Bash Shell Git GUI
  • 34. POSH GIT Powershell Enhanced Git Command-line Experience C:UsersdandersonDev [master +3 ~4 -0 | +0 ~1 -0]> Fancy, color-coded command prompt Auto-completed git commands and arguments branch upstream: in sync , ahead, behind, both files: staged , unstaged + = added files ~ = modified files - = deleted files
  • 35. GITHUB FOR WINDOWS Simple GitHub account management App eye-candy Fun to view history Fun to view unified diffs Easy to sync local repositories with GitHub repositories Msys-Git and Posh-Git are bundled in with it
  • 36. SEE GIT Visual Application for Git
  • 37. VISUAL STUDIO GIT PROVIDER Team Explorer: Changed Files, Commit, Push, Pull, Conflict Resolution Solution Explorer: File Status, History Improvements forthcoming Integrated with Team Foundation Service Note: Solution Provider is git add agnostic
  • 38. GIT-TFS Plugin for Git command-line git tfs clone http://tfs:8080/tfs/DefaultCollection $/Project git checkout -b story git commit -am "Progress" git tfs pull git tfs shelve "Shelveset Name" git tfs checkintool Allows you to use git for development when repository is TFS Note: Commits to TFS as one commit, even when you have committed multiple times: no need to rebase
  • 39. GITHUB Popular Thriving Community Great Code Web Experience Organization Support Pull Requests Sophisticated Code Review Repository Wiki Issue Tracking Low Cost Web Api Team City integration
  • 40. GITHUB INTEGRATION DEVELOPER EXPERIENCE track main repository pull request when ready for review request is verfied by Team City request starts code review easy to comment directly on code changes in GitHub GitHub provides email notifications on build status and code review ability to push branches to individual account to collaborate with team members
  • 41. GITHUB INTEGRATION REVIEWER EXPERIENCE Pull Requests are checked by Team City; notifications in pull request comments Easily see if request will merge without conflicts Can use John Resig's Node.js module Pulley to rebase pull requests and close it
  • 42. CONCLUSION Git is a well-designed version control system. Microsoft supports Git. We are using git locally with git-tfs right now. — GitHub offers a sophisticated repository service. Team City supports Git and GitHub. We could be using GitHub right about now.