Wars Of Religion Thirty Years War
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  • 1. Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  • 2. Most important war of the 17th c
    • Failure of the Peace of Augsburg 1555
  • 3. First Phase: Bohemian Phase
    • Defenestration of Prague (1618)
      • Holy Roman Emperor placed sever restrictions on Protestantism
      • Two HRE officials thrown out a window and fell 70 feet
      • The Emperor then sought to annihilate the Calvinist nobility in Bohemia
    • Protestant forces defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia
  • 4. Second Phase: Danish Phase
    • Height of Catholic power during the war
    • Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634)
      • Mercenary general paid by the emperor
    • Edict of Restitution (1629)
      • All church territories that had been secularized since 1552 automatically restored to Catholic Church
      • Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious rights
  • 5. Third Phase: Swedish Phase
    • Protestants liberated territory lost in Danish Phase
    • Gustavus Adolphus (King of Sweden)
      • Led army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia
      • Battle of Breitenfeld 163--Ended Hapsburg hopes of reuniting Germany
    • HREer reluctantly annulled the Edict of Restitution
    • France feared resurgence of Catholicism in the HRE
  • 6. Forth Phase: French (International) Phase
    • Cardinal Richelieu
      • Allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE
      • Policies reflected Catholic France’s paramount diplomatic concerns as political, not religious; thus politique
    • Most Destructive
      • Agriculture collapsed
      • 8 million dead
      • Massive inflation
      • Trade crippled throughout Europe
    • France did not want strong state on eastern border
  • 7. Treaty of Westphalia 1648
    • Ended Catholic Reformation in Germany
    • Renewal of Peace of Augsburg but added Calvinism as a politically accepted faith
      • Germany remain divided for centuries
    • Dissolution of HRE confirmed
      • Netherlands and Switzerland gained their independence from Spain
      • 300+ German states become sovereign
      • Pope denied right to intervene in HRE affairs
    • France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) received various territories and gained international stature
    • The two Hapsburg branches were weakened
      • Spanish saw empire dramatically
      • Austrian lost much influence in Germany
  • 8. Results of the Thirty Years’ War
    • Germany physically devastated
    • Further divided by decline of the HRE
    • Ends the wars of religion
    • Beginning of the Rise of France as the dominant European power; also accelerated the continued rise of Britain and the Netherlands
      • Balance of power diplomacy emerges in Europe