Constitutionalism England 1603 1649

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  • Constitutionalism England 1603 1649

    1. 1. English Constitutionalism: Royal Absolutism 1603-1649
    2. 2. English Society in the 17th Century <ul><li>Capitalism played a major role in the high degree of social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Gentry --wealthy landowner in the countryside dominate politics in the House of Commons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied heavily on legal precedent to limit the power of the king on economic and political matters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinist comprised the largest percentage of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans sought to “purify” the Church of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Protestant work ethic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinists highly opposed to any influence by the RCC </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Problems for the Monarchy in 17th c <ul><li>Stuarts ruled England for most of the 17th c </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibited absolutist tendencies but restrained by the growth of Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two major issues prior to Civil War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King vs Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglican Church follow established hierarchical form or acquire a presbyterian form </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. James I (r. 1603-1652) <ul><li>Believed in “Divine Right” </li></ul><ul><li>Twice dissolved Parliament over issues of taxation and parliamentary demands for free speech </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am surprised that my ancestors should ever be permitted such an institution to come into existence. I am a stranger, and found it here when I arrived, so that I am obliged to put up with what I cannot get rid of!” </li></ul>
    5. 5. Gunpowder Plot, 1605 <ul><li>An attempt by some provincial Catholics to kill King James I and most of the Protestant aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Blow up the House of Lords during the state opening of Parliament </li></ul>Guy Fawkes
    6. 6. Charles I (r. 1625-1649) <ul><li>Sought to rule without Parliament and control the Church of England </li></ul><ul><li>Tax issues pitted Charles I against Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Petition of Right (1628) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return for granting tax inceases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629 rules without it until 1640 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ship Money” </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The “Short Parliament” 1640 <ul><li>Scottish military revolt because of English Prayer Book </li></ul><ul><li>Needed new taxes to fight the war against Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Re-convened Parliament but did not accept the rights outlined in Petition of Right </li></ul><ul><li>Disbanded Parliament after one month </li></ul>
    8. 8. “ Long Parliament” (1640-1648) <ul><li>Desperate for money after Scottish invasion of N. England, Charles agrees to certain demands by Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not be dissolved without its own consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet a minimum of once every three years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ship Money” abolished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders that persecuted Puritans were executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star Chamber abolished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Law courts were supreme to kings courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused funds to raise army to defeat the Irish revolt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puritans represented the majority against kings Anglican supporters </li></ul>

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