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Project Management 2. Portfolio Management
Week 2
Project selection and portfolio management
Project selection and portfolio management
Project selection and portfolio management What are the inputs that cause the project process to begin?
Unit Objectives <ul><li>Implement IT project planning and selection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the importance...
<ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying IT Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Project Proposals </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying IT Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Project Proposals </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>But first </li></ul>
<ul><li>Assignment 1  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Assignment 1  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Write a project plan” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Assignment 1  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Write a project plan” </li></ul><ul><li>Topic: Week 3 </li></ul>
http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/Dalton.htm
<ul><li>Back to the programme… </li></ul>
Strategic Planning
Strategic Planning <ul><li>What is strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>How do projects relate to strategy? </li></ul>
Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability
5 Forces analysis Supplier power Customer power Threat of New Entrants Substitutes Intensity of competition Michael Porter...
business model template VALUE PROPOSITION COST STRUCTURE CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP TARGET CUSTOMER DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL VALUE ...
Process efficiency Scorecard Customer satisfaction Financial Learning and innovation Balanced Scorecard Kaplan & Norton (1...
Kaplan & Norton (1998?) HBR http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/pix/strategy-bsc-map.png   Strategy Map
Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability
<ul><li>Strategic Management Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves determining long-term objectives, predicting future t...
Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
SWOT Analysis
<ul><li>SWOT = SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we now? </li></ul>
S T W O
S T W O Positive Negative
S T W O Internal External
S T W O Internal External Positive Negative
S T W O Internal External Positive Negative
Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_(project_management) S Specific M Measurable A Achievable R Relevant T Time-bound
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_(project_management) Letter Major Term Minor Terms S Specific Significant [3] , Stretch...
<ul><li>Examples of “not smart” goals? </li></ul>
Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
 
Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4
Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability projects projects projects projects Strateg...
<ul><li>What are the goals of the projects? </li></ul>
Figure 2.1  Strategic Management Process  (Gray & Larson, 2006, p25)
projects
projects projects projects projects
projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects
<ul><li>PPPM </li></ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul><ul><li>Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Managemen...
Programme OPM3 Portfolio Projects
Projects Programme Portfolio Project Programme Project Project Projects Project Project Projects Project Project Projects
One Portfolio or Several? Categories Approaches to  project  portfolio management
One Portfolio or Several?
Categories Venture: Projects that  transform  the business Growth: Projects that  grow  revenue or market share Core: Proj...
<ul><li>What are the benefits of Project Portfolio Management? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Builds discipline into project selection process </li></ul><ul><li>Links project selection to strategic metrics </...
<ul><li>Problems with Project Portfolio Management </li></ul>
Different views from senior management on what  (and how)  should be done
Competition  (& effective utilisation)  for resources
How to <ul><li>Senior Management Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide guidance in selecting criteria that are aligned with ...
Figure 2.8  Sample project portfolio approach (Schwalbe, 2005, p51)
Figure 1.5  Project management compared to project portfolio management (Schwalbe, 2005, p15)
Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability projects projects projects projects projects programme projects ...
Short term Mid term Long term projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects pr...
http://www.betterprojects.net/search?q=strategy
projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects Strategy 2 Str...
Identifying IT Projects
Identifying IT Projects <ul><li>Many organizations follow a planning process for selecting IT projects which is aligned wi...
Figure 2.1  Pyramid for the Project Selection Process (Schwalbe, 2005, p35)
Project Proposals
 
Most business units have a strategic plan
Which SHOULD align with the organisation’s strategic plan Which SHOULD align with the organisation’s strategic plan
Solicitation of Project Proposals <ul><ul><li>Within the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for proposal (RFP...
<ul><li>When ranking proposals, consider; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li>...
Project Initiation forms Figure 2.4B  Risk Analysis (Gray & Larson, 2006, p39) Figure 2.4A  Major Project Proposal  (Gray ...
Project Initiation forms Figure 2.4B  Risk Analysis (Gray & Larson, 2006, p39) Figure 2.4A  Major Project Proposal  (Gray ...
Project Selection Methods
Not all project proposals make it to initiation
<ul><li>Every project idea isn’t progressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul>
<ul><li>Methods for selecting projects include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on broad organizational needs </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Focusing on Broad Organizational Needs   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Non-financial, but important benefits </li></u...
<ul><li>Categorizing IT Projects   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the project provides a response to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Financial Analysis $$$ Net Present Value Payback model Return on Investment (there are more)
Financial Analysis $$$ Net Present Value Payback model Return on Investment (there are more)
Net Present Value <ul><li>Net Present Value (NPV) Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses management’s minimum desired rate-of-re...
Payback model Figure 4.1  Charting the Payback Period  (Schwalbe, 2006, p129) <ul><li>Measures the time it will take to re...
Return on Investment <ul><li>Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated by subtracting project costs from...
Non-financial Analysis $$$ Weighted scoring model Balanced Scorecard
<ul><li>A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteri...
<ul><li>Balanced Scorecard  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Kaplan and David Norton developed this approach to help select an...
Applying a selection model
Applying a Selection Model <ul><li>Project Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding how well a strategic or operation...
Project Selection
The Business Case <ul><li>Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Costs & Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly compares alternatives   </l...
The Business Case <ul><li>Elevator pitches? </li></ul>
Table 3.4  Sample business case (Schwalbe, 2005, pp74-76) Example business case
Contents of a Business Case <ul><li>Introduction/Background </li></ul><ul><li>Business Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Current...
Figure 2.3  The Process for Developing a Business Case (Marchewka, 2003, p34)
Project Success
<ul><li>By the way, </li></ul><ul><li>Things are getting better </li></ul>
<ul><li>Source: CHAOS Report 1995 by the Standish Group </li></ul><ul><li>Access it here:  h ttp://net.educause.edu/ir/lib...
<ul><li>Source: CHAOS Report 2002 by the Standish Group </li></ul><ul><li>Access it here:  http://www.standishgroup.com/qu...
53% Challenged 16% Success 31%   Critical Failures 1994 51% Challenged 34% Success 15%   Critical Failures 2002
1994 2005 Wasted money as a share of total project spend Billions of dollars
What happened?
<ul><li>“ The reasons for the increase in successful projects vary. First, the average cost of a project has been more tha...
<ul><li>“ The reasons for the increase in successful projects vary. First, the average cost of a project has been more tha...
Better Selection Portfolio Mgt Strategic Alignment More recently
Things you should have (if you want to succeed) <ul><li>Executive support </li></ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>inc rem en tal </li></ul>But, change has been…
<ul><li>There is still plenty of room for improvement. </li></ul>
<ul><li>? </li></ul>What do you think is still going wrong?
BetterProjects.net <ul><li>Title page pic care of jpellqen & CC @ Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>http://flickr.com/photos/jpellg...
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  • Changes to organization’s mission and strategy Project managers must respond to changes with appropriate decisions about future projects and adjustments to current projects Project managers who understand their organization’s strategy can become effective advocates of projects aligned with the firm’s mission Strategic Management Overview Involves determining long-term objectives, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services Provides the theme and focus of the future direction for the firm respond to change allocating scarce resources Requires strong links among mission, goals, objectives, strategy, and implementation SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • Strategic Management Overview Involves determining long-term objectives, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services Provides the theme and focus of the future direction for the firm respond to change allocating scarce resources Requires strong links among mission, goals, objectives, strategy, and implementation
  • Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats
  • SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats
  • SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats
  • SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats
  • SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats
  • SWOT analysis S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats
  • Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • Doran’s characteristics of objectives S Specific Be specific in targeting an objective M Measurable Establish a measurable indicator(s) of progress A Assignable Make the objective assignable to one person for completion R Realistic State what can realistically be done with available resources T Time related
  • Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • Strategic planning process should Review and define the organizational mission Set goals and objectives (see Doran’s SMART) Analyse and formulate strategies to reach objectives Implement strategies through projects
  • Many organizations support an emerging business strategy of project portfolio management Organizations group and manage projects as a portfolio of investments that contribute to organizations success Managing the Portfolio Senior management input Priority team responsibilities
  • Sample Approaches for Creating a Project Portfolio One approach is adopting a large portfolio for the entire organization. Sections of the portfolio are broken down into groups IT projects are broken down into three categories: Venture: Projects that help transform the business Growth: Projects that help increase revenues Core: Projects that help run the business
  • Sample Approaches for Creating a Project Portfolio One approach is adopting a large portfolio for the entire organization. Sections of the portfolio are broken down into groups IT projects are broken down into three categories: Venture: Projects that help transform the business Growth: Projects that help increase revenues Core: Projects that help run the business
  • Sample Approaches for Creating a Project Portfolio One approach is adopting a large portfolio for the entire organization. Sections of the portfolio are broken down into groups IT projects are broken down into three categories: Venture: Projects that help transform the business Growth: Projects that help increase revenues Core: Projects that help run the business
  • Implementation Gap lack of understanding and consensus on strategy among top management and middle-level (functional) managers who independently implement the strategy
  • Resource Conflicts and Multitasking Multi-project environment creates interdependency relationships of shared resources which results in the starting, stopping, and restarting projects
  • Changes to organization’s mission and strategy Project managers must respond to changes with appropriate decisions about future projects and adjustments to current projects Project managers who understand their organization’s strategy can become effective advocates of projects aligned with the firm’s mission
  • Solicitation of Project Proposals Within the organization Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources (contractors and vendors) Ranking Proposals Discipline Accountability Responsibility Constraints Reduced flexibility Loss of power
  • Solicitation of Project Proposals Within the organization Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources (contractors and vendors) Ranking Proposals Discipline Accountability Responsibility Constraints Reduced flexibility Loss of power
  • Solicitation of Project Proposals Within the organization Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources (contractors and vendors) Ranking Proposals Discipline Accountability Responsibility Constraints Reduced flexibility Loss of power
  • Solicitation of Project Proposals Within the organization Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources (contractors and vendors) Ranking Proposals Discipline Accountability Responsibility Constraints Reduced flexibility Loss of power
  • Solicitation of Project Proposals Within the organization Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources (contractors and vendors) Ranking Proposals Discipline Accountability Responsibility Constraints Reduced flexibility Loss of power
  • There are a variety of methods to assess whether a project is a good idea. Strategic alignment is one of them But there are several ways to address strategic plans, so a more detailed assessment process is needed.
  • Methods for selecting projects include: Focusing on broad organizational needs Categorizing IT projects Financial analysis Using a weighted scoring model Implementing a balanced scorecard Focusing on Broad Organizational Needs It is often difficult to provide strong justification for many IT projects, but everyone agrees they have a high value Three important criteria for projects: need for the project funds available for the project will to make the project succeed Categorizing IT Projects One categorization assesses if the project provides a response to: a problem an opportunity a directive Another categorization is based on the time and date of expected completion Another categorization is the overall priority of the project
  • Successful organizations initiate projects to meet business needs, and a common business need is to spend money wisely A business case is a document that provides justification for investment It is a good idea to have one of the company’s financial managers review the information for accuracy – not formally part of the project management plan Attributes of a Good Business Case Details all possible impacts, costs, benefits Clearly compares alternatives Objectively includes all pertinent information Systematic in terms of summarizing findings
  • Successful organizations initiate projects to meet business needs, and a common business need is to spend money wisely A business case is a document that provides justification for investment It is a good idea to have one of the company’s financial managers review the information for accuracy – not formally part of the project management plan Attributes of a Good Business Case Details all possible impacts, costs, benefits Clearly compares alternatives Objectively includes all pertinent information Systematic in terms of summarizing findings
  • Source: CHAOS Report 1995 by the Standish Group Access it here: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/NCP08083B.pdf Since 1995 several subsequent versions have been published. Project performance has improved… incrementally.. Over the subsequent decade. There is still significant improvement opportunities for the IT projects industry. What do you think is going wrong at your workplace? What can be done to improve things? The 1995 Standish (CHAOS) report found the following factors common to successful projects1. User Involvement 15.9% 2. Executive Management Support 13.9% 3. Clear Statement of Requirements 13.0% 4. Proper Planning 9.6% 5. Realistic Expectations 8.2% 6. Smaller Project Milestones 7.7% 7. Competent Staff 7.2% 8. Ownership 5.3% 9. Clear Vision &amp; Objectives 2.9% 10. Hard-Working, Focused Staff 2.4% Other 13.9%
  • Improved Project Performance Standish Group’s CHAOS studies show improvements in IT projects in the past decade
  • Transcript of "Week 2 1218025656801810 9"

    1. 1. Project Management 2. Portfolio Management
    2. 2. Week 2
    3. 3. Project selection and portfolio management
    4. 4. Project selection and portfolio management
    5. 5. Project selection and portfolio management What are the inputs that cause the project process to begin?
    6. 6. Unit Objectives <ul><li>Implement IT project planning and selection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the importance of project portfolio management </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying IT Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Project Proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Project Selection Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Applying a Selection Model </li></ul><ul><li>Project Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Project Success </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying IT Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Project Proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Project Selection Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Applying a Selection Model </li></ul><ul><li>Project Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Project Success </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>But first </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Assignment 1 </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Assignment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Write a project plan” </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Assignment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Write a project plan” </li></ul><ul><li>Topic: Week 3 </li></ul>
    13. 13. http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/Dalton.htm
    14. 14. <ul><li>Back to the programme… </li></ul>
    15. 15. Strategic Planning
    16. 16. Strategic Planning <ul><li>What is strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>How do projects relate to strategy? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability
    18. 18. 5 Forces analysis Supplier power Customer power Threat of New Entrants Substitutes Intensity of competition Michael Porter’s ‘5 Forces’ – 1980’s
    19. 19. business model template VALUE PROPOSITION COST STRUCTURE CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP TARGET CUSTOMER DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL VALUE CONFIGURATION CORE CAPABILITIES PARTNER NETWORK REVENUE STREAMS INFRASTRUCTURE CUSTOMER OFFER FINANCE Osterwalder’s Business Model framework 2006 http://business-model-design.blogspot.com
    20. 20. Process efficiency Scorecard Customer satisfaction Financial Learning and innovation Balanced Scorecard Kaplan & Norton (1994?) HBR
    21. 21. Kaplan & Norton (1998?) HBR http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/pix/strategy-bsc-map.png Strategy Map
    22. 22. Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability
    23. 23. <ul><li>Strategic Management Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves determining long-term objectives, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides the theme and focus of the future direction for the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respond to change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allocating scarce resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires strong links among mission, goals, objectives, strategy, and implementation </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
    25. 25. Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
    26. 26. SWOT Analysis
    27. 27. <ul><li>SWOT = SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we now? </li></ul>
    28. 28. S T W O
    29. 29. S T W O Positive Negative
    30. 30. S T W O Internal External
    31. 31. S T W O Internal External Positive Negative
    32. 32. S T W O Internal External Positive Negative
    33. 33. Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
    34. 34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_(project_management) S Specific M Measurable A Achievable R Relevant T Time-bound
    35. 35. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_(project_management) Letter Major Term Minor Terms S Specific Significant [3] , Stretching [3] , Simple M Measurable Meaningful [3] , Motivational [3] , Manageable A Achievable Agreed, Attainable [6] , Assignable [2] , Appropriate, Actionable, Action-oriented [3] R Relevant Realistic [2] , Results/Results-focused/Results-oriented [6] , Resourced [7] , Rewarding [3] T Time-bound Time framed [2] , Timed, Time-based, Timeboxed, Timely [6] [5] , Timebound, Time-Specific, Timetabled, Trackable E [1] Exciting, Evaluated, Ethical R [1] Recorded, Rewarding, Reviewed [8]
    36. 36. <ul><li>Examples of “not smart” goals? </li></ul>
    37. 37. Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
    38. 39. Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
    39. 40. Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4
    40. 41. Set (SMART) Goals Review Mission Develop Strategies Implement Strategies through projects Align Strategies to goals
    41. 42. Organisation Mission Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability projects projects projects projects Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4
    42. 43. <ul><li>What are the goals of the projects? </li></ul>
    43. 44. Figure 2.1 Strategic Management Process (Gray & Larson, 2006, p25)
    44. 45. projects
    45. 46. projects projects projects projects
    46. 47. projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects
    47. 48. <ul><li>PPPM </li></ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul><ul><li>Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘O’ is for </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul>OPM3
    48. 49. Programme OPM3 Portfolio Projects
    49. 50. Projects Programme Portfolio Project Programme Project Project Projects Project Project Projects Project Project Projects
    50. 51. One Portfolio or Several? Categories Approaches to project portfolio management
    51. 52. One Portfolio or Several?
    52. 53. Categories Venture: Projects that transform the business Growth: Projects that grow revenue or market share Core: Projects that help run the business
    53. 54. <ul><li>What are the benefits of Project Portfolio Management? </li></ul>
    54. 55. <ul><li>Builds discipline into project selection process </li></ul><ul><li>Links project selection to strategic metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritizes project proposals across a common set of criteria, rather than on politics or emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Allocates resources to projects that align with strategic direction </li></ul><ul><li>Balances risk across all projects </li></ul>Benefits of Project Portfolio Management
    55. 56. <ul><li>Problems with Project Portfolio Management </li></ul>
    56. 57. Different views from senior management on what (and how) should be done
    57. 58. Competition (& effective utilisation) for resources
    58. 59. How to <ul><li>Senior Management Input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide guidance in selecting criteria that are aligned with the organization’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decide how to balance available resources among current projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Priority Team Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>publish the priority of every project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure selection process is transparent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>re-assess the organization’s goals / priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate the progress of current projects </li></ul></ul>
    59. 60. Figure 2.8 Sample project portfolio approach (Schwalbe, 2005, p51)
    60. 61. Figure 1.5 Project management compared to project portfolio management (Schwalbe, 2005, p15)
    61. 62. Money Customers Efficiency and Effectiveness Adaptability projects projects projects projects projects programme projects projects projects projects programme projects Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission Programme projects projects programme
    62. 63. Short term Mid term Long term projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission projects projects projects projects
    63. 64. http://www.betterprojects.net/search?q=strategy
    64. 65. projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects projects Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Strategy 3 Strategy 4 Organisation Mission projects projects projects projects
    65. 66. Identifying IT Projects
    66. 67. Identifying IT Projects <ul><li>Many organizations follow a planning process for selecting IT projects which is aligned with business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting business objectives is the number one reason for investing in IT projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of IT standards lowers development costs by 41 percent per user (Cosgrove Ware, 2002) </li></ul></ul>
    67. 68. Figure 2.1 Pyramid for the Project Selection Process (Schwalbe, 2005, p35)
    68. 69. Project Proposals
    69. 71. Most business units have a strategic plan
    70. 72. Which SHOULD align with the organisation’s strategic plan Which SHOULD align with the organisation’s strategic plan
    71. 73. Solicitation of Project Proposals <ul><ul><li>Within the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources (contractors and vendors) </li></ul></ul>
    72. 74. <ul><li>When ranking proposals, consider; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of power </li></ul></ul>
    73. 75. Project Initiation forms Figure 2.4B Risk Analysis (Gray & Larson, 2006, p39) Figure 2.4A Major Project Proposal (Gray & Larson, 2006, p38)
    74. 76. Project Initiation forms Figure 2.4B Risk Analysis (Gray & Larson, 2006, p39) Figure 2.4A Major Project Proposal (Gray & Larson, 2006, p38)
    75. 77. Project Selection Methods
    76. 78. Not all project proposals make it to initiation
    77. 79. <ul><li>Every project idea isn’t progressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    78. 80. <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul>
    79. 81. <ul><li>Methods for selecting projects include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on broad organizational needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorizing IT projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a weighted scoring model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>balanced scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy mapping </li></ul></ul>
    80. 82. <ul><li>Focusing on Broad Organizational Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Non-financial, but important benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three important criteria: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need for the project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>funds available for the project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will to make the project succeed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    81. 83. <ul><li>Categorizing IT Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the project provides a response to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an opportunity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a directive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The time and date of expected completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The overall priority of the project </li></ul></ul>
    82. 84. Financial Analysis $$$ Net Present Value Payback model Return on Investment (there are more)
    83. 85. Financial Analysis $$$ Net Present Value Payback model Return on Investment (there are more)
    84. 86. Net Present Value <ul><li>Net Present Value (NPV) Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses management’s minimum desired rate-of-return (discount rate) to compute the present value of all net cash inflows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>positive NPV: the project meets the minimum desired rate of return and is eligible for further consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>negative NPV: project is rejected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Net Present Value (NPV) Model cont’d… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NPV Calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determine estimated costs / benefits for the life of the project and products it produces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determine discount rate (ask organization) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calculate the NPV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some organizations consider the investment year as year 0, others consider it year 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some organizations enter costs as negative numbers, others do not (ask organization) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: CP829_Lecture_Week2_NPV.xls </li></ul>Time to Stop and turn to a new presentation pack
    85. 87. Payback model Figure 4.1 Charting the Payback Period (Schwalbe, 2006, p129) <ul><li>Measures the time it will take to recover the project investment </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter paybacks are more desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Payback occurs when cumulative discounted benefits and costs are greater than zero </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of payback: </li></ul><ul><li>ignores the time value of money </li></ul><ul><li>assumes cash inflows for investment period only </li></ul><ul><li>does not consider profitability </li></ul>
    86. 88. Return on Investment <ul><li>Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated by subtracting project costs from the benefits and then dividing by the costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formula: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROI = (total discounted benefits – total discounted costs) / discounted costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher the ROI, the better. Many organizations have a set or minimum rate of return on investment projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: CP829_Lecture_Week2_ROI.xls </li></ul></ul>(total discounted benefits – total discounted costs) discounted costs
    87. 89. Non-financial Analysis $$$ Weighted scoring model Balanced Scorecard
    88. 90. <ul><li>A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in identifying a weighted scoring model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify criteria for project selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assign weights (%) to criteria add up to (100%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assign scores to each criteria for each project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>multiply scores by weights to get total scores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the weighted score, the better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: CP829_Lecture_Week2_WeightedScore.xls </li></ul></ul>$$$ Weighted scoring model $$$
    89. 91. <ul><li>Balanced Scorecard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Kaplan and David Norton developed this approach to help select and manage projects that align with business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology that converts an organization’s value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See http://www.balancedscorecard.org for more information </li></ul></ul>$$$ Balanced Scorecard $$$
    90. 92. Applying a selection model
    91. 93. Applying a Selection Model <ul><li>Project Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding how well a strategic or operations project fits the organization’s strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting a Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on competitive strategy and broad organizational needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform net present value analysis or other financial projections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a weighted scoring model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement a balanced scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address problems, opportunities, and directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider project time frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider project priority </li></ul></ul>
    92. 94. Project Selection
    93. 95. The Business Case <ul><li>Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Costs & Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly compares alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul>
    94. 96. The Business Case <ul><li>Elevator pitches? </li></ul>
    95. 97. Table 3.4 Sample business case (Schwalbe, 2005, pp74-76) Example business case
    96. 98. Contents of a Business Case <ul><li>Introduction/Background </li></ul><ul><li>Business Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Current Situation and Problem/Opportunity Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Assumptions and Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Options and Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Project Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Budget Estimate and Financial Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule Estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits </li></ul>
    97. 99. Figure 2.3 The Process for Developing a Business Case (Marchewka, 2003, p34)
    98. 100. Project Success
    99. 101. <ul><li>By the way, </li></ul><ul><li>Things are getting better </li></ul>
    100. 102. <ul><li>Source: CHAOS Report 1995 by the Standish Group </li></ul><ul><li>Access it here: h ttp://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/NCP08083B.pdf </li></ul>Not even completed Typically 189% over budget OTOBOS 53% Challenged 16% Success 31% Critical Failures 1994
    101. 103. <ul><li>Source: CHAOS Report 2002 by the Standish Group </li></ul><ul><li>Access it here: http://www.standishgroup.com/quarterly_reports/index.php </li></ul>Not even completed Still way over budget OTOBOS 51% Challenged 34% Success 15% Critical Failures 2002
    102. 104. 53% Challenged 16% Success 31% Critical Failures 1994 51% Challenged 34% Success 15% Critical Failures 2002
    103. 105. 1994 2005 Wasted money as a share of total project spend Billions of dollars
    104. 106. What happened?
    105. 107. <ul><li>“ The reasons for the increase in successful projects vary. First, the average cost of a project has been more than cut in half. Better tools have been created to monitor and control progress and better skilled project managers with better management processes are being used. The fact that there are processes is significant in itself.” (Standish Group cited in Schwalbe, 2004, p13) </li></ul>
    106. 108. <ul><li>“ The reasons for the increase in successful projects vary. First, the average cost of a project has been more than cut in half. Better tools have been created to monitor and control progress and better skilled project managers with better management processes are being used. The fact that there are processes is significant in itself.” (Standish Group cited in Schwalbe, 2004, p13) </li></ul>Smaller projects Better tools Better training
    107. 109. Better Selection Portfolio Mgt Strategic Alignment More recently
    108. 110. Things you should have (if you want to succeed) <ul><li>Executive support </li></ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Clear business objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Minimized scope </li></ul><ul><li>Standard software infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Firm basic requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Formal methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staff, and ownership </li></ul>
    109. 111. <ul><li>inc rem en tal </li></ul>But, change has been…
    110. 112. <ul><li>There is still plenty of room for improvement. </li></ul>
    111. 113. <ul><li>? </li></ul>What do you think is still going wrong?
    112. 114. BetterProjects.net <ul><li>Title page pic care of jpellqen & CC @ Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>http://flickr.com/photos/jpellgen/444946201/ </li></ul>
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