Passive thermal comfort fromthe most advanced phasechange technology Datum Phase Change
REDUCING AIR CONDITIONINGUNITS & SYSTEMSRACUS® ceiling tiles are installed into new orexisting suspended ceiling grids as a like forlike replacement tile that are common placein old and modern commercial buildings.Incorporating the latest bio-based phasechange technology, the passive RACUS® tilegives instant energy savings over HVACsystems without on going maintenance orreplacement costs.
How Phase Change Materials (PCMs) WorkPhase change materials store energy in a latent form, undergoing an endothermicprocess to store heat energy when ambient temperature rises and an exothermicprocess to release this energy when the temperature drops. In building applications,these processes occur within a narrow temperature range close to the humancomfort temperature with large amounts of heat being absorbed and released. Solid Liquid Solid As the internal room temperature As the internal room temperature increases, the PCM core goes from a cools, the PCM core goes from a solid to liquid state and in doing so liquid to solid state , releasing the absorbs and stores latent heat. stored latent heat.During the transition phases, the core of the microcapsule will melt as the roomtemperature reaches the transition temperature and in doing so will absorb latentheat where it will be stored until such time that the room temperature cools. Phase Change Material encapsulated in RACUS®
RACUS® Ceiling SystemThe RACUS® ceiling tile is designed to be incorporated into either an existingsuspended grid system as part of a commercial retrofit or new build project. The tilescan be easily installed over a short period or out of hours so as to reduce the impacton the building users and provides an instant solution to reduce the energy andcarbon footprint of the building.As the tiles are not permanent fixtureswithin the ceiling grid, the tiles can bemanoeuvred around the building to captureareas of significant heat gains. This can bearound high glazed areas that suffer fromsolar gain, above refrigeration units wherehigh heat gains are generated from themotor to cool the unit or localised areassuch as meeting rooms with highoccupancy within offices.It is often the case that the use of thebuilding changes, particularly regarding thenumber of occupants. The result of whichwould place a significant higher demand onconventional HVAC systems. With theRACUS® system, additional tiles can beincorporated into the existing grid orreplaced with tiles with higher heat storagecapacities at a fraction of the cost ofupgrading or replacing HVAC systems • Passive system with no energy or long term maintenance and life cycle costs • Reduces the carbon footprint of the building through reduced energy costs. • High heat storage capacity. • Flexible • Non invasive to building users or equipment • Quick-fit solution
RACUS® Preformed Natural Mineral TileThe RACUS® Preformed Natural Mineral Tile incorporates bio-based phase changematerial to increase the thermal mass and latent heat storage capacity overtraditional mineral fibre tiles. The RACUS® Preformed Mineral tile are used either as a replacement tile for existing suspended ceilings as part of a retrofit project or as a complete system for new build construction. In addition to the heat storage capabilities, they have excellent hygroscopic characteristics, absorbing the excess humidity in the atmosphere, and then gradually restoring the balance in dry and hot periods and as such improving the atmospheric microclimate in the rooms. The tiles are supplied with the option of two latent heat storage capacities - 30Wh/m² and 65Wh/m² with a return of investment around five years. Also in a choice of surface textures and edge details including square or tegular. Our bio-based phase change material has been tested to over 45,000 thermal cycles which is equivalent to a lifetime performance of over 122 years without loss of performance and biodegradability testing of within 12 months compared to over 100 years for alternative paraffin wax based PCMs. The RACUS® Preformed Tiles are 100% Recyclable
RACUS® Metal Ceiling TileCombining the performance of a metal ceiling tile with the ability to reduce theenergy and carbon footprint of a building through the incorporation of the RACUS®PCM material, the RACUS® Metal Ceiling system is a passive solution that offers aquality finish to new or existing suspended ceiling systems with a latent heat storagecapacity option of 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m².Through testing in thermal chamber testing and live exemplar projects, the RACUS®metal ceiling tile has achieved up to 97% energy savings over existing HVAC systemsand a reduced room temperature of up to 7°C under zero ventilation conditions.The RACUS® metal ceiling system is available as either a standardplain metal ceiling tile or as a perforated tile where there is anacoustic performance requirement. In both formats there is a choiceof latent heat storage capacities to meet the requirements of thebuilding. Passive Product of the Year 2012
RACUS® ceiling tiles incorporating bio-based phase change materials, allowthermal mass to be incorporated into newbuild and retrofit projects faster and moreeconomically compared to alternativeconstruction methods such as concrete,both from a project cost andenvironmental perspective.
Thermal Mass in Lightweight StructuresA thermal mass is a material that absorbsheat from a heat source, and then releasesit slowly. In buildings, thermal mass isprovided by the structure of the building,the level of which is determined by thematerial the building is constructed from.Buildings constructed of lightweightmaterials such as steel or timber are notconsidered to have good thermal massproperties compared to concrete, brick andstone for the reasons that they either havelow thermal conductivity performancetherefore a low ability to absorb heat, orcan absorb large amounts of heat but therate of heat release is also high. Concrete,brick and stone are all materials that areable to absorb and store heat until thesurface of the material is exposed to coolerconditions and its temperature begins todrop. When this happens, the stored heattransfers to the cooler surface and isreleased back into the building.Stabilising effect of thermal mass on internal temperature – Source: The Concrete Centre
The ability to absorb and release heat in this way enablesbuildings with thermal mass to respond naturally to changingweather conditions, helping to stabilise the internaltemperature and provide a largely self-regulatingenvironment.The role of a buildings thermal mass can be of benefit throughout the year. Duringthe warm weather in summer, heat will be absorbed by the thermal mass in order toprevent overheating in the building, providing a more comfortable living or workingenvironment in naturally ventilated building or in air-conditioned building, reducesthe cooling demand on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Allowing cool air toventilate the building at night allows heat that has been stored throughout the dayto be removed.This daily heating and cooling cycle works particularly well in countries such as theUK where night time temperatures are typically around 10 degrees less than peakdaytime temperatures, making it an effective way of drawing heat from the structureof the building. The benefits of thermal mass during winter when heating demandsare at their greatest, can help to reduce fuel consumption when used in a passivesolar design. In doing so, solar gains in winter, along with heat produced fromappliances, cooking, people and lighting, uses the thermal mass to absorb gainswhich is then slowly released overnight as temperatures fall, helping to keep thebuilding warm and reducing the need for additional heating.
RACUS® Ceiling Tile ApplicationsSchoolsAdopting an economic approach to the construction of schoolbuildings often results in the construction of lightweight structureswith very low thermal mass. This approach does not allow any highheat gains to be absorbed by the thermal mass parameters of thebuilding.In comparison to a typical office environment, classrooms have a higher density ofoccupation which along with heat output from PCs, contributes to higher heat gain loads.Thermal Mass can be improved using RACUS® ceiling tiles without the loss of internal floorspace.Natural Ventilation is becoming increasingly popular in school design as a substitute formechanical ventilation systems but this only provides between 30 – 40W/m² . Combiningthe RACUS® ceiling tile with natural ventilation system provides additional thermal comfortof up to 169Wh/m² utilising a passive systemCommercialThe demand for air conditioning in buildings worldwide is growingrapidly in response to increased building use and demands forcomfort cooling by occupants. As such the energy consumed by airconditioning systems is expected to double from current levels by2020 and already accounts for over 30% of a buildings total energyuse.This increase conflicts with the Governments goals to reduce the UK’s total CO2 emissionsand makes it increasingly difficult for companies to meet its carbon reduction targets underthe Carbon Reduction Commitment.A typical air conditioned building has double the energy costs and associated CO2 emissionsof a natural ventilated building as well as increased capital and maintenance costs. In the UKthere are relatively few days where the temperatures are very high, however using comfortcooling for just this short period of time can cost as much as a whole years heating.Incorporating the RACUS® ceiling tile into commercial buildings not only add thermal mass tolightweight structures but will reduce the energy demand of existing air conditioning systemsby absorbing excess latent heat gains.
RACUS® Ceiling Tile ProjectsOfcom Head OfficeAs part of a project for facility management companyMITIE, the RACUS® ceiling tile was installed into one of themeeting rooms at Ofcom’s London Head Office.The performance of RACUS® was monitored and compared to an adjacent meeting room thatwas both identical in size and layout and that used conventional fan coil units to manage theroom temperature.In both meeting rooms, MITIE installed room three temperature loggers. One was to monitorroom temperature and two were installed on each of the FCU outlet grilles. These wouldmonitor when the FCU was providing heating or cooling to the room. The number ofoccupants of each room and period of use was also monitored.Monitoring was carried out over a 45 day period, the results of which concluded a 97%reduction in the use of the fan coil unit in the room with RACUS®. 27 26 25 Temperature (°C) 24 23 22 Temperature 21 Difference of 20 4.33°C 19 Time (hh:mm:ss) Room without Room with RACUS® RACUS®
With Without Time RACUS® RACUS® 09:00:00 22.67 23 09:30:00 22.67 23 10:00:00 22.67 23 10:30:00 22.67 23.33 11:00:00 22.67 24.67 11:30:00 22.67 25.67 Room Room with 12:00:00 22.67 25.67 without 12:30:00 22.33 25.33 RACUS® RACUS® 13:00:00 22.33 25 13:30:00 22.33 25 FCU Use (hours) 257.67 7.01 14:00:00 22.33 24.67 14:30:00 22 25.33 Total kWh Use 3092.04 84.12 15:00:00 22 25.33 KgCO2 1304.84 35.50 15:30:00 22 25.67 15:45:00 21.67 26 16:00:00 22 26 16:30:00 22 25 Estimated Savings £ KgCO2 17:00:00 22 24.67 Per Month (20 days) 121.79 564.15Example of Monitored Data showingtemperature (°C) differences Per Annum (250 days) 1,522.34 7051.90 Payback Period 2.92 Years MITIE Summary Report “MITIE has now trialled the RACUS® PCM products on a number of its client’s buildings and the results have been very positive. We are always looking for innovative new technologies and solutions, and are pleased to add this product to our tool kit as part of the MITIE CarbonCare approach which supports our clients to make financial savings and reduce carbon emissions.” Paddy Stanley, Technical Solutions Manager at MITIE
RACUS® Ceiling Tile ProjectsDepartment of Energy & Climate ChangeThe RACUS® ceiling tile was installed into the Departmentof Energy & Climate Change (DECC) building as part of theTSB Energy Efficient Whitehall initiative.From a Dynamic Computer Simulated Model of the buildingwhich was completed by the Institute of Energy andSustainable Development at De Montfort University,projected energy and carbon savings of over 55% werecalculated. Zone Annual Normalised Zone Annual Normalised Cooling Annual Cooling Carbon Carbon Ceiling Type Energy Energy Emissions Emissions (kWh) (kWh/m2) (kgCO2) (kgCO2/m2) Conventional Tile 3177 128.6 1706 69.1 RACUS® 1441 58.4 774 32.35 Carbon Savings 932 37.7 Percentage 55% Saving Scaled across the total floor area of the building this would equate to an electrical energy saving of over 811,000kWh and carbon saving of 256 tonnes per annum. These figures are based using Defra 2008 CO2 conversion factor of 0.537kgCO2 per kWh of electricity and show a carbon saving (visual 14) of 37kgCO2 per m2.
RACUS® Ceiling Tile ProjectsGreat Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH)In August 2010, the RACUS® ceiling tile was installed intoone of Great Ormond Street Hospital’s consultation roomsdue to a serious problem of overheating.The room, which is located on the lower ground level, is not serviced by any HVAC systemsand relies on only natural ventilation from the window and partial protection from solar gainsby a window canopy. Roller blinds have also been installed. Despite these measures, theinternal room temperatures have been reported between 30°C - 36°C. Prior to the installation of the RACUS® ceiling tiles, Facilities Management company MITIE installed room temperature monitors in both the consultation room in which RACUS® was to be installed and also an adjacent and identical size consultation room, in order to capture baseline temperatures against which the performance of the RACUS® tiles will be compared. The existing suspended ceiling within the consultation room amounted to 64% of the total ceiling area. Of the total area, 32% of the existing tiles were replaced with RACUS® ceiling tiles.The 600mm x 600mm, RACUS® ceiling tiles were pre-treated with an anti-microbial finishand additional suspension hangers were also installed. 30 28 26 Temperature (°C) 24 22 20 3.67°C 18 Difference 16 14 Time (hh:mm:ss) Room A Room B Outside (without RACUS®) (with RACUS®) Temperature
RACUS® Ceiling Tile ProjectsBRE (Building Research Establishment) Victorian TerraceLocated within Building Research Establishment’s (BRE) site Projectin Watford, a disused Victorian terrace has beenrefurbished into three energy efficient spaces to fit 21stcentury living. The project aims to inform and provideguidance to the industry on how to contribute to theGovernment’s target to reduce CO2 emissions.Part of the development incorporates an information andtraining centre where visitors can learn best practice forrefurbishment and about new and innovative materials.Within the presentation theatre, the RACUS® ceiling tile hasbeen installed along with acoustic mineral tiles. “BRE recognise the significant impact that Phase Change Materials will have on the future design of our homes, both of new build and refurbishment. The use of the RACUS® product in our Victorian Terrace exemplar project here at BRE, will allow us to monitor the benefits in passive cooling, and the advantages of building thermal mass into existing structures to address climate change and reduced energy use.” John O’Brien, Principal Consultant, Refurbishment & Regeneration, BRE
Datum Phase Change Ltdwww.firstname.lastname@example.org