Passive thermal comfort from the most advanced phase change technology Datum Phase Change
FABRIC ENERGY STORAGEThe F.E.S-Board® panel is ideal for theconstruction of internal partitions toimprove the comfort levels of the occupantsthrough the temperature managementperformance of the phase changetechnology as well as stabilizing themoisture content within the room throughthe natural hygroscopic properties of thepanel.
How Phase Change Materials (PCMs) WorkPhase change materials store energy in a latent form, undergoing an endothermicprocess to store heat energy when ambient temperature rises and an exothermicprocess to release this energy when the temperature drops. In building applications,these processes occur within a narrow temperature range close to the humancomfort temperature with large amounts of heat being absorbed and released. Solid Liquid Solid As the internal room temperature As the internal room temperature increases, the PCM core goes from a cools, the PCM core goes from a solid to liquid state and in doing so liquid to solid state , releasing the absorbs and stores latent heat. stored latent heat.During the transition phases, the core of the microcapsule will melt as the roomtemperature reaches the transition temperature and in doing so will absorb latentheat where it will be stored until such time that the room temperature cools. Phase Change Material encapsulated in F.E.S-Board®
Thermal Comfort and Well BeingF.E.S-Board® panels incorporate the latest phase change material to provide acomplete construction board for lightweight wall and ceiling systems that enhancesboth the thermal comfort and indoor air quality of a room.Manufactured from abundant natural minerals, F.E.S-Board® is a breathableconstruction board that does not harvest the growth of mold and mildew and due toits hygroscopic performance, will absorb and release moisture from the surroundingenvironment to improve the occupants well being.- Thermal Comfort Range: between 24 – 27°C- Acoustic Performance: Up to 61 RwdB- Enhanced Indoor Air Quality – Mold and Mildew Resistant- pH Value: 7 - 10
Thermal Mass in Lightweight StructuresA thermal mass is a material that absorbsheat from a heat source, and then releasesit slowly. In buildings, thermal mass isprovided by the structure of the building,the level of which is determined by thematerial the building is constructed from.Buildings constructed of lightweightmaterials such as steel or timber are notconsidered to have good thermal massproperties compared to concrete, brick andstone for the reasons that they either havelow thermal conductivity performancetherefore a low ability to absorb heat, orcan absorb large amounts of heat but therate of heat release is also high. Concrete,brick and stone are all materials that areable to absorb and store heat until thesurface of the material is exposed to coolerconditions and its temperature begins todrop. When this happens, the stored heattransfers to the cooler surface and isreleased back into the building.Stabilising effect of thermal mass on internal temperature – Source: The Concrete Centre
The ability to absorb and release heat in this way enablesbuildings with thermal mass to respond naturally to changingweather conditions, helping to stabilise the internaltemperature and provide a largely self-regulatingenvironment.The role of a buildings thermal mass can be of benefit throughout the year. Duringthe warm weather in summer, heat will be absorbed by the thermal mass in order toprevent overheating in the building, providing a more comfortable living or workingenvironment in naturally ventilated building or in air-conditioned building, reducesthe cooling demand on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Allowing cool air toventilate the building at night allows heat that has been stored throughout the dayto be removed.This daily heating and cooling cycle works particularly well in countries such as theUK where night time temperatures are typically around 10 degrees less than peakdaytime temperatures, making it an effective way of drawing heat from the structureof the building. The benefits of thermal mass during winter when heating demandsare at their greatest, can help to reduce fuel consumption when used in a passivesolar design. In doing so, solar gains in winter, along with heat produced fromappliances, cooking, people and lighting, uses the thermal mass to absorb gainswhich is then slowly released overnight as temperatures fall, helping to keep thebuilding warm and reducing the need for additional heating.
However most buildings constructed past and present do not utilise the thermalmass properties of the structure due to a number of reasons such as:• The requirement to internally insulate buildings from heat loss and improve air tightness, preventing heat conductivity into the buildings structure.• Secondary linings to the internal surface of the buildings structure for aesthetical reasons, reducing the heat conductivity rate or removing any thermal mass performance where insulated panels are used.• The structure of the building is of lightweight construction and has little or no thermal mass qualities.F.E.S-Board® 169Wh/m²25mm x 600mm x 1200mm 1094 kJ/m²KWeight: 19.5kg/m²F.E.S-Board® 85Wh/m²25mm x 600mm x 1200mm 783 kJ/m²KWeight: 19.5kg/m²
F.E.S-Board® wall and ceiling systemsincorporating bio-based phase changematerials, allow thermal mass to beincorporated into new build and retrofitprojects faster and more economicallycompared to alternative constructionmethods such as concrete, both from aproject cost and environmentalperspective.
F.E.S-Board® ApplicationsSchoolsAdopting an economic approach to the construction of schoolbuildings often results in the construction of lightweight structureswith very low thermal mass. This approach does not allow any highheat gains to be absorbed by the thermal mass parameters of thebuilding.In comparison to a typical office environment, classrooms have a higher density ofoccupation which along with heat output from PCs, contributes to higher heat gain loads.Thermal Mass can be improved using F.E.S-Board® as an internal wall or ceiling system,without the loss of internal floor space.Natural Ventilation is becoming increasingly popular in school design as a substitute formechanical ventilation systems but this only provides between 30 – 40W/m² . CombiningF.E.S-Board® with natural ventilation system provides additional thermal comfort of up to169Wh/m² utilising a passive systemCommercialThe demand for air conditioning in buildings worldwide is growingrapidly in response to increased building use and demands forcomfort cooling by occupants. As such the energy consumed by airconditioning systems is expected to double from current levels by2020 and already accounts for over 30% of a buildings total energyuse.This increase conflicts with the Governments goals to reduce the UK’s total CO2 emissionsand makes it increasingly difficult for companies to meet its carbon reduction targets underthe Carbon Reduction Commitment.A typical air conditioned building has double the energy costs and associated CO2 emissionsof a natural ventilated building as well as increased capital and maintenance costs. In the UKthere are relatively few days where the temperatures are very high, however using comfortcooling for just this short period of time can cost as much as a whole years heating.Incorporating F.E.S-Board into commercial buildings not only add thermal mass to lightweightstructures but will reduce the energy demand of existing air conditioning systems byabsorbing excess latent heat gains.
F.E.S-Board® ApplicationsResidentialIn October 2010, the revised Part L regulations came into force thatreflect the requirement of thermal mass to become part of thesolution for low and zero-carbon buildings. Thermal mass cancontribute to fabric energy efficiency by storing and releasing freeheat gains from the sun and internal appliances in the winter and sohelp reduce heating energy requirements.During the summer the same process is used to cool buildings. Daytime heat gains are storedin the fabric of the building thereby reducing the need for air-conditioning. The heat is thenreleased as the building is cooled by night-time air.Most modern buildings are lightweight steel or timber structures with large expanses ofglazing. Whilst this method of construction is deemed more cost efficient and improvesconstruction times, the use of these materials provides the building with little, if any, thermalmass and high exposure to solar heat gains.F.E.S-Board® provides a highly effective means of avoiding or reducing the risk of overheatingin the summer. Overheating is a growing problem linked to climate change. Lightweighthomes with minimal thermal mass will be experiencing particularly acute problems in as littleas 20 years because of high levels of insulation and airtightness in modern dwellings, whichduring the summer can prevent heat from escaping, increasing the risk of overheating. Thepresence of thermal mass / F.E.S-Board® can help to alleviate the problem. Summer overheating in a S&W facing top floor apartment and semi-detached house, FEES. Source: Zero Carbon Hub modelling
F.E.S-Board® -Internal Wall lining SystemsIn the UK, one third of CO2 emissions are currently caused by the domestic sector andtwo thirds of this value is due to space heating in homes. There are approximately 25million houses in the UK that are currently below the building regulation standards forthermal insulation, and one third is classified as hard to treat (HTT) due to numerousreasons (owner preference, planning restrictions, etc.).Internal wall insulation (IWI) appears afavourable option as many HTT houses inthe UK are highly aesthetical andencapsulate a degree of culturalheritage. However, this solution iscoupled with one major disadvantage ofsummer overheating because of lowthermal mass of insulation. Use of PhaseChange Materials (PCMs) has been wellrecognised as an effective way to resolveor mitigate the overheating issue.F.E.S-Board® panels incorporating bio-based phase change technology can beused in combination with phenolic andpolyisocyanurate (PIR) insulations andwith timber, metal or thermal compositestud systems.Buildings retrofitted in EWI do not overheat to the same degree as those done in IWI.Logically this is because EWI encapsulates the existing thermal mass. This propertycontrols rapid increase of internal temperature as the walls act as a heat sink, aphenomenon favourable in the summer. However, its presence will lead to higherenergy bills in the winter as more energy is required to heat the building to offset thethermal mass. PCMs could be a solution to this as they have high thermal mass, albeitat specific melting temperatures.
In a study, a series of simulations were undertaken, on a simple HTT property,insulated with IWI incorporating PCMs with the melting temperatures of: 18°C, 23°C,and 26°C. Internal temperature was monitored during extreme conditions experiencein summer periods. In addition to this the same building was also simulated whenencapsulating: no insulation, EWI, and ordinary IWI.This investigation has shown in theory they can be used as a solution to reduction ofoverheating in IWI systems. Due to the current global economic crisis prices of energycan only rise and the UK still has its target of 80% reduction of CO2 emissions to reachby 2050. Approximately 20% of energy consumption in the UK comes from its energyinefficient housing stock and current solutions to this problem cannot be used forevery property. This will lead to the requirement of innovative solutions and it is likelyPCMs will be one of these. European Design Number: 001911298-0001References:EnergyPlus simulation analysis of incorporating microencapsulated PCMs (Phase ChangeMaterials) with internal wall insulation (IWI) for hard-to-treat (HTT) houses in the UK(Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, University of Nottingham)
F.E.S-Board® Construction Details forWalls Construction: 26mm x 80mm MF Channel on block / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² Acoustic Performance 43 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) Construction: 50mm C-Stud / 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² per board Acoustic Performance 37 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) Construction: 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 50mm C-Stud / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² per board Acoustic Performance 41 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) Construction: 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 50mm C-Stud / 40mm Rockwool (Density 40kg/m³) / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² per board Acoustic Performance 45 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) * L.H.C = Latent Heat Storage Capacity ** Fire test on F.E.S-Board® panel only
Construction: 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 70mm C-Stud / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² Acoustic Performance 45 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) Construction: 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 70mm C-Stud / 60mm Rockwool (Density 60kg/m³) / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² per board Acoustic Performance 57 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) Construction: 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 50mm C-Stud / 50mm Rockwool (Density 40kg/m³) / 50mm C-Stud / 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² per board Acoustic Performance 55 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1) Construction: 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 50mm C-Stud / 40mm Rockwool (Density 60kg/m³) / 25mm F.E.S-Board® / 50mm C-Stud / 40mm Rockwool (Density 60kg/m³ 25mm F.E.S-Board® F.E.S-Board® L.H.C* 85Wh/m² or 169Wh/m² per board Acoustic Performance 60 RwdB Fire Performance** Euroclass B (EN 13501-1)* L.H.C = Latent Heat Storage Capacity ** Fire test on F.E.S-Board® panel only
Typical Wall Height ConstructionFor Ceiling Applications Direct lining onto timber joists Lining on MF Ceiling System
F.E.S-Board® Datasheet Dimensions (mm) Standard (white) 25 x 600 x 1200 25 x 700 x 1200 Moisture Resistant (pale blue) 25 x 600 x 1200 25 x 700 x 1200 Weight (kg / m²) 19.5 Peak Melting Temperature of PCM 24°C Latent Heat Storage Capacity (Wh/m²) 85 169 Total Heat Storage Capacity (kJ/m²) 783 (10 – 30°C) 1094 Fire Resistance (EN 13501-1) Euroclass B Thermal Conductivity λ 0,35 W /m²K Factor of Water Vapour Diffusion μ 5,6/4,5 Impact Resistance Test norm UNI 8201 – soft body at 50kg
ADHESIVE & FINISHING F.E.S-Board® Adhesive, 25kg Coverage: 25m² per bag* F.E.S-Board® Finish, 25Kg Coverage: 83m² per bag* * Coverage rates are approximate only.METAL COMPONENTS 52mm U-Channel Galvanised lightweight steel for use in non load bearing partition and wall lining systems. 50mm C-Stud Galvanised lightweight steel for use in non load bearing partition and wall lining systems. 72mm U-Channel Galvanised lightweight steel for use in non load bearing partition and wall lining systems. 70mm C-Stud Galvanised lightweight steel for use in non load bearing partition and wall lining systems.ANCILLARIES Isolation Strip A self adhesive strip to isolate the C-Stud or U-Channel from substrate for acoustic performance. Single Sided Single Sided Double Sided 20mm x 2mm 50mm x 2mm 50mm x 2mm
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