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Dry Bulk Handlng In Ports
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Dry Bulk Handlng In Ports

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Dry Bulk Handlng In Ports Dry Bulk Handlng In Ports Document Transcript

  • Generally, 4(four) different modes of transportation are used for carrying cargo/materials from one place to the other, from one country to the other country and from one part of the globe to the other part of the globe. They are 1 Transportation by Sea, 2 Transportation by Rail, 3 Transportation by Air & 4 Transportation by Road As per the economics of transportation, if a longer distance is to be covered, transportation by sea probably comes to be the cheapest mode of transportation. For transportation by sea, Ports & Harbours are the gateways for International and Coastal Trade and so their role is very vital for the countries economic, commercial and trade activities. In other words, countries’ economic progress and developments vastly depends on the ports & harbours. As we are now concerned with the port and port working, we will generally confine our discussion to the Sea Transportation. As wagons are used in the Rail Route, Air Freighter in Air Routes and Road Trucks are used in Road Routes, Sea going vessels, Bulk Carriers, Crafts, Tankers etc. are used for transportation of different types of cargoes in Sea Routes. As stated earlier, the transportation by Sea Route is the cheapest than any other mode of transportation, because of the fact that huge quantity of cargo can be carried in a single trip compared to any other mode transportations. Like Railway Station, Airports or Truck Terminal, we must have some terminal points where the Ocean going vessels can terminate their journey and have the loading or unloading of various types of cargoes safely. This terminating points for the Ocean going Vessels have emerged as Major Ports, Minor Ports, International or Coastal Ports etc. Port is a place where facilities are provided for the ships and other Sea going Crafts to take shelter, have facilities for unloading and loading, for fuelling, for taking fresh waters and such facilities as may be required by them. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • Various types of Export & Import cargoes are handled at each Port for International Trade as well as Coastal Trade. The Export Cargoes are those cargoes which are loaded in a ship and go out of the Port and or to the country. The Import Cargoes are the incoming cargo from outside the country and are generally unloaded at the Port. For handling various cargoes as well as for shipping movements and/or Marine Operation within and outside the Port, a no. of equipments are needed to support the services to be rendered to the Port Users. To go into the details of the Management System, one should know the types of cargoes being handled at the Port as well as the machineries needed to support the Port Operation, right from entry of the vessel at the port limit to the exit of the vessel from the port limit. The facilities required for the entry and exit of a vessel from a port are as follows : 1 Pilot Vessels/Launches 2 Despatch Vessels 3 Dredgers 4 Tugs 5 Survey Launches 6 Mooring Launches 7 General Purpose Cargo & Inspection Launches 8 Hopper Barges 9 Self Propelled Barges/Water Barges 10 Fire Floats 11 Good VHF/UHF Communication Facilities etc. 12 VTMS (Vessel Traffic Management System) There may be special type of Crafts, specifically maintained by certain Ports for their Captive Use. When a vessel is within a Port, various types of Cargoes are loaded and/or unloaded,on and off the Vessels. The equipment/ machineries required for handling the cargoes, the following inputs may given an idea : 1 Bulk Cargoes pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • a) Liquid Bulk – Off shore installations like P.O.L. Jetty, Liquid Chemical Chemical Handling Jetty etc. All the above jetties comprise of Pumping installations, Unloading Arm, Pipe Lines (Flexible & Fixed), Mooring Hook (Auto/Manual), Fire Fighting Facilities, Control & Monitoring System, Communication Facilities, Tank Wagons, Locomotives etc. b) Dry Bulk : Dry Bulk Cargoes generally come in Bulk Carriers in loose condition or in bagged condition. The bagged cargoes are unloaded or loaded in a ship by conventional methods. Recently, in a number of Foreign Ports, Bag Loaders/Unloaders, generally called `SPIRAMATIC’ are being used. The Dry Bulk Cargo in loose condition can be handled in the following manner : i) Conventional ii) Semi-Mechanised iii) Fully mechanized The conventional Dry Bulk Cargo handling can be carried in the following ways : a) By manual head-load and transportation by Truck and /or Railway Wagons (inward and outward) b) Hook and Net Sling and Carpet, loading / handling by Ship’s crane and the transportation by truck and or Railway Wagons (inward and outward) c) Hook Sling, loading/unloading by ship’s crane, flat bottom bucket and the transportation by truck and/or Railway Wagons (inward and outward). d) Hook Sling, Bottom Open Bucket, handling by Ship’s Crane and transportation by truck and/or Railway Wagons (inward and outward) e) Ship’s Crane with Grab attachment, discharge Hopper and the transportation by truck and/or Railway Wagons (inward and outward) pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • Semi Mechanised : Ship’s Crane with Grab attachment Discharge Hopper on Portable or fixed conveyor on Jetty, Removable to Stack Yard by Portable or Fixed Conveyor System and thereafter final transportation by Truck and / or Railway Wagons. Mechanised : The most important and the fastest Handling System for Dry Bulk Cargo is the mechanical bulk material handling system or mechanized system for Dry Bulk Cargo. In last 2 decades, the volume of Dry Bulk Cargo Traffic has increased worldwide to a remarkable extent. This becomes clear when one considers the increase in production figure for steel, aluminum, fertilizer and all forms of energy from basic fuel. The economical exploitation of overseas and coastal raw materials was made possible only by a far reaching rationalized means of transportation. Towards the end of the 50’s Ship builders suggested a bulk transport ship with a cargo carrying capacity of 60,000 DWT and this formed the basis for the Ports Planning Work. By the end of the 60’s new sites for Harbour with larger depths were being sought in order to take ships of cargo carrying capacity in excess of 1 lakh DWT,may be upto 2,50,000DWT presently, even at low water. Such Bulk Freight Ships can only achieve optimum efficiency of correspondingly short turn round times. As a result, to cope with this increasing and changing trend of Dry Bulk Cargo Handling, new methods had to be devised in order to make loading and unloading possible as fast as possible. Accordingly, the Ports had to adjust to this type of trend. The handling functions required for the transportation of Dry Bulk Cargo as elaborated above, consist from the mining stage to the receiver of Raw Material of the following stages : A. Mining of Raw Material : I. Stacking and reclaiming at the Mine Pit Head Stock Pile II. Loading of Railway Wagons B. Port of Despatch I Unloading of Wagons in the Port Wagon Tipplers – Rotaside/Rotary pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • Bottom Discharge II Transportation to Stock pile & Stacking and Reclaiming in the Port through Mechanised Conveyor System, Stackers/ Reclaimers etc. III Loading of Sea going Vessels through Mechanised Conveyor System, Shiploaders etc. C. Port of Destination I Unloading of Sea going Vessels by - Continuous type Ship Unloaders Screw/ Chain/ Bucket type Clamshell type Spiramatic II transportation to Stock Pile & Stacking & Reclaiming in the Port’s Stock Pile through mechanized Conveyor System, Trippers, Stackers / Reclaimers etc. III Loading of Inland Transport (Barge, Rail Wagons, Conveyor, Truck etc.) through mechanized Conveyor System, Barge Loaders, Stacker/ Reclaimers, Pay Loaders, Open Wagon Loading System, Hoppers/Bins & Bagging/Stitching Machines etc. Apart from the Mechanical Handling System of Dry Bulk Cargo in dry form, there is another method by which the Dry Bulk Cargo is converted into slurry by mixing the fines with water at the Pit Head (for Ore, Coal etc.) and subsequent transportation of the same in slurry form through a cross country Pipe Line to the nearest Port of loading. The cargo can be loaded on to the VSL either in slurry form or the slurry is once again converted into fines or pallets by (slurry pit, pumping machine, pipe lines etc.) some conversion arrangement installed adjacent to the unloading/loading port. This mode of transportation is very costly because of the reason that for laying the cross-country pile line, pumping installation and transportation from unloading point to the user point is required. When no other alternative method is possible or the road / rail connection from the Pit Head to the Loading Port or Unloading Port is not available or very difficult, then such mode of transportation may be used. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • The fast development of ship size had a strong influence on the layout and the selection of equipment of mechanized Dry Bulk Handling Port Terminal. The large size vessels require faster rate of loading/unloading.This require specialized equipment which means high investment and this can only be profitable, if there is enough work to be done so that there is enough coverage for this investment. Considering all the above, the following factor should be kept in mind while creating a Dry Bulk Cargo Terminal : 1 For a Port, adequate size of Entrance Channel, Tuning Basin, Approach Channel, Navigable Draft and draft at the handling berth to be maintained. 2 The handling berth should be sufficiently longer to accommodate large vessels and to negotiate all working hatches. 3 Must have Storage Space of adequate capacity to prevent possible interruption in shipping for dispatch. 4 Suitable equipment for unloading/loading the rolling stocks. 5 Suitable equipment for loading/unloading vessels. 6 Stacking & reclaiming equipment of suitable capacity to match the rates of unloading and loading. 7 Suitable mechanized Conveyor System to transport the cargo from Ship/rolling Stock to Stock Pile & Stock Pile to Ship / Rolling stock, matching with the rate of loading/unloading Stacking/reclaiming. 8 The layout should be simple & streamlined. 9 The selected equipment should be constructed with indigenous components as much as possible with service and spare parts availability locally and should be of sturdy and simple construction for trouble free maintenance. 10 The design should consider the local atmospheric and operating conditions. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 2 Break Bulk Cargo – Wharf Cranes, Mobile Cranes, Fork Lifts, Tractors, Trailers, Launches, Wagons Locomotives etc. and any other special equipment for specific use. 3 Containerised Cargo - Container Handling Quay Cranes and Yard Crane, Reach Stackers, Top Lift Fork Lift, Trucks, Fork Lift Trucks for staffing and destaffing. Transport Equipment like Heavy Duty Tractors & Trailers, Straddle Carriers, Reach Stackers, Heavy duty mobile cranes,AGVs etc. and any other special equipment for specific use and purpose. If one carefully looks at the types of professionals required in a Port, it will be observed that all the branches of engineering are associated with the Management System of a Port i.e. Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics, Hydraulic, Structural, Automobile, Telecommunication, Marine, Naval Architecture, Computer (Software & Hardware) and so on. Also, Project Engineers and Managers, Doctors, Chartered/Cost Accountants, MBAs, Secretaries, Traffic Managers, Railway Managers, Shipping Managers, Environmentalists, System Managers & Computer Professionals, Legal Experts, HRD Managers, Estate Managers, Public Relation Managers, Logistics Experts, Safety Managers, Administration & Business Managers, Fire & Safety Personnel etc. are required to run day to day function of a Port. Hence, Management Task in a Port is a very challenging as well as complex one and very careful management and monitoring of day to day activities is required with professional expertise and meticulous scrutiny. Since multiple activities are associated with Port Operations & Management, an executive must have the attitude and aptitude to develop himself in this changed scenario for taking up multidisciplinary tasks. For example, in a Manufacturing Organisation, the product line carries out repetitive nature of jobs as such, the persons employed generally have similar nature of demands which an HRD Manager has to face but due to the complex nature of operation in a Port a HRD Manager has to tackle diverse nature of IR problems quickly. Surprisingly, similar is the task for all the Managers of all of the departments in a Port. Fortunately,pdfMachine is still now a profitable sector but due to Port Sector A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • liberalization of economy, threats are coming from the Private Ports being emerged as challengers to existing Ports. For managing a Port, the primary corporate objective is to maximize availability and utilization of the installed capacity as well as the cargo prospect along with the types of cargo likely to be handled through the Port in next 5 (five) to 10 (ten) years. No capacity should remain idle/unutilized/under utilized and the possibility of obsoletion should also be considered. For planning a Port, the following points may be kept in mind : I. Capital Construction Costs II. Operation&Maintenance Costs III. Cargo type to be handled IV. No. of berths to be accommodated V. Type of vessels to be accommodated VI. Multiple use of the equipments selected VII. Scope for future expansion VIII. Location relative to adjacent Ports IX. Trend of the Trade and Prospect of future developments in Hinterland X. Nature of development activities in the adjacent ports. A number of important committees had been appointed by the Ministry of Surface Transport from time to time, some of the names are given below : 1 Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination, 1966 2 Committee on International Port Development, 1968 3 Major Ports Reforms Commission, 1968 4 National Transport Policy Committee, 1980 5 The Estimates Committee, 1982 6 Major Ports Reforms Committee, 1986 7 A number of consultants have been engaged by the Ministry as well as by various Ports with the approval of the Ministry like CES, RITES, CMPDIL, IPA, IMU, EIL, RPT, Frederick Harris, High Point Rendel, Hasconing JICA,HOWE,Mott Mcdonald,Scott-Wilson,WAPCOS,SOROS,Moffit- Nichol,Berger-Abam,Deloitte etc. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • From the observations and recommendations the different committees on Ports, it would be evident that they cover almost the same points with more or less similar recommendations. In the organization and management structure of the Ports, all the committees have suggested restructuring of Boards and Departments, Management Accountability and Human Resource Development. On operational side, emphasis has been given by all for all round improvement of functions and services, utilization of full capacities, optimum use of all equipment, improvement of facilities like Ware Housing, Communication etc. Labours are getting higher wages and so, they must reciprocate by giving higher productivity or output. A projection of traffic made by M P R C 1986 (in million tones) Commodity 1994-95 1995-2000 POL 102 145 Iron Ore 43 50 Coal 22 39 FRM 17 23 Food Grains 03 03 General Cargo 43 67 TOTAL 234 327 Available capacity-Vs-Actual Traffic handled by Major Ports (in million tones) Available Capacity as on Actual Traffic Handled in %Capacity Unitization 31.03.07 1998-97 -------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------- 215.2 227.13 105.5% Suggested Projection of Traffic Profile (in million tones) Year Total Traffic Major Ports Minor Ports 2001-02 415.46 365.60 49.86 2006-07 612.67 520.77 91.90 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 2011-12 865.98 692.78 173.20 2016-17 1129.49 903.59 225.90 2019-20 1273.15 954.86 318.29 From the above projection/ suggested projection, one can easily understand the enormous task ahead for Management Group in a Port. For handling the projected cargo, quite a good amount of fund has to be invested for replacement of old equipment and obsolete equipment, upgradation of existing facilities by addition of high speed efficient and modern equipment of the state of the art technology. This can be partly done by the Ports itself and partly by privatization. Presently, a no. of facilities are being created through BOT process with private investments. Some one should know the nature of documentation carried out in a Port Operations. For any type of Cargo Handling Operation in a Port, Import and Export or Coastal & International Trade, there are standard procedures which are recorded in writing or documented properly in approved formats and kept in record for future references. This is essentially required because of the fact that a number of contracts, transactions, clearance of Port Trust, clearance of Statutory Authorities etc. are required. Hence, the documentation. In this process, a number of agencies are involved according to the type of trade but the following are the main agencies : 1 Port Trust 2 Despatcher 3 Receiver 4 Shipper 5 Customs 6 Charterer 7 Agents of Despatcher 8 Clearing & Forwarding Agency 9 Handling Agency 10 Logistics Agency 11 Stevedors 12 Agents of Charterer pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 13 Agents of Receiver 14 Agents of Shippers 15 Insurance Agency 16 Surveyors etc. The above agencies carry out their respective functions and record their endorsements on the documents which are very valuable records since for loss or damage or less receipt, representation is to be made at the appropriate forum for settlement of claims, dispute etc. Also, a number of agencies, as stated above, work on behalf of their principals with proper authorization, since it is not possible always for the dispatcher, receiver or shipper to deal the matters directly and so they take the help of specialized services of various agents, who take part in the transaction process. For any cargo, whether it is bulk, break-bulk, containerized or general cargo etc. or Import or Export (Foreign Trade) or Coastal Trade, the method of documentation is more or less similar. For example, for any Bulk Cargo Import (Foreign Trade), the main documents involved are as follows : 1 Planning Meeting Minutes 2 Survey Report – Initial, Interim, Final 3 Discharge Guarantee by the Receivers/Importer to customs 4 Bill of Entry 5 Bill of Lading 6 Import General Manifest 7 Jetty Challan 8 Delivery Order 9 Rent Bill 10 Invoice 11 Packing List 12 Insurance Policy etc. The materials can be unloaded at the berth on receipt of customs passout/ clearance by the Appraiser of customs, clearance of Port Finance Division regarding payment of Handling Charges over Board and on Shore, Gate Delivery Charges etc. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • For Export (Foreign Trade), the main documents involved are as follows : 1 Planning Meeting Minutes 2 Survey Report – Initial, Interim, Final 3 Shipping Bill 4 Dock Challan 5 Stowage Plan 6 Mate’s Certificate 7 Rent Bill 8 Invoice 9 Packing List 10 Insurance Policy etc. Here also Port Finance Division Clearance regarding payment of On-Board Charges, Rent Bill, if any, Customs Clearance etc. will be required for loading on the vessel. However, with more and more use of computers, the number of papers and the time will come down for speedier disposal of the documents. The Major Ports are generally governed by the following Acts,duly amended from time to time : 1 Major Port Trust Act, 1963 2 Indian Ports Act, 1908 3 Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1980 4 Factories’ Act 5 Minimum Wages Act, 1948 6 Industrial Disputes Act 7 Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 8 Indian Contracts Act, 1872 9 Arbitration & Conciliation Act, 1996 10 Sale of Goods Act, 1930 11 Company’s Act, 1958 (where applicable) 12 Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970 13 Prevention of Corruption Act 14 Customs Act 15 FERA/FEMA 16 Merchant Shipping Act 17 IMCO Convention 18 MARPOL (73/78/95) 19 Various Admiralty Acts 20 India Trade Union Act 21 Various Laws of Land within the domain of work & the New Acts & Amendments thereof. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • BASIC FUNCTION HRD  Fulfilling the Organizational Objectives  Maintaining & Increasing the level of effectiveness of the employees  Controlling Labour Costs  Facilitating Technological Progress  Management of Industrial Relations  Manpower Planning  Recruitment & Selection  Personnel Utilisation & Maintenance  Welfare  Remuneration  Training & Development  Performance Evaluation & Control  Research & Records  Communication Safety  Competent Persons  Inspection Procedure, Notice to Employer & Compliance  Accidents and Enquiry  Safety Committee & Duties & Responsibilities thereof  Safety Officer  Condition of Working Place  Life Saving Appliances  Protective Gears  Level of Illumination  Fire Protection  Level of Noise  Accessibility to all places of work  Lifting Appliances & Gears and Safety Check and Periodic Testing  Transport Equipment & Operations  Handling of Cargo & Dangerous Goods  Railing & Fencing  Marking of Safe Working Load Health  Cleanliness  Drinking Water  Spittoons  Latrines & Urinals  Temperature & Ventilation at Work Place  Washing Facilities  First Aid Boxes  Ambulance & Stretchers  Rest Shelters & Canteens  Medical Examination – Prior to Service & Periodic pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  •  Hospital with all facilities like Gynae, Orthopedic, Surgery, Medicine, Pediatric, Cardiology with ICU & Pathological Laboratory and X-Ray Facility  Occupational Health Services etc. ENVIRONMENT Protection of the environment is specifically highlighted in the Indian Constitution and directly expressed in Environmental Protection Laws, a number of which have a direct bearing upon developments in the Port Sector. National Environmental Legislation includes laws and rules covering the prevention and control of the pollution of water and air, the use and storage of hazardous chemicals and wastes, and the setting of environmental standards. Regulations also outline the procedures for the preparations of environmental statements and for obtaining environmental clearance for development schemes. In addition, the Environmental (Protection) Act and Rules of 1986 define Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ)in which certain activities are prohibited and provide for the preparation of Coastal Zone Management Plans. In addition to National Regulation, the Govt. of India is a signatory to the MARPOL (73/78/95) which is an International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and this has implications for Port Developments and Operations. The main Government Agency for the implementation of National Environmental Policies and for the granting of environmental clearances is the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF). Attached to the Ministry is the Central Pollution Control Board which is primarily concerned with the enforcement and promotion of pollution control measures and regulations. These authorities are also represented at state level. Under the Environmental Protection Act and Rules, Environmental Clearance is required for the expansion of existing ports and the creation of new ports. Environmental problems at existing ports can be seen to arise from within the ports themselves and from their interaction with their surroundings. These problems include. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  •  Ports Handling Cargoes for which they were not designed, with the result that working and storage areas are often inadequate and different activities are insufficiently segregated.  Lack of modern handling equipment or use of equipment not specifically designed or sized for the cargo handled, lack of covered conveyors etc. can cause a considerable dust problem.  Poor maintenance of Plant & Equipment, with the result that it is not as effective as the Design Specification. This often appears to affect the environmental protection elements of equipment such as the covering of conveyor belts, which may perhaps be considered less essential than other elements or may be less sturdy then the rest of the equipment. Nevertheless such coverings and other equipment are essential in the suppression of dust.  Outdated working practices which do not foster good environmental procedures. Environmental protection measures need to be accepted by workers and management alike, particularly since many of the measures will benefit workers in terms of their health and safety.  Lack of regular monitoring of important environmental criteria, such as incidents and magnitudes of oil spills. Improving the environment in ports requires accurate information as to existing conditions and the recording and measurement of any pollution incidents is essential component of this data base. Outside the Port boundary, Ports can cause environmental problems through traffic congestion, and air, water and noise pollution can arise even from well managed bulk handling facilities. Furthermore, the Port Environment itself often suffers from water and air pollution caused by adjoining industrial and urban land use outside the direct control of the Port Authorities pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • Current development schemes provide the opportunity to make significant improvement at a number of existing ports, primarily through the concentration of Bulk Handling Operations at strategic ports which are able to offer sophisticated handling equipment capable of significantly reducing air, water and noise pollution. It will not possible to concentrate all Dry Bulk Handling Operations at specialist ports, however, since smaller quantities of cargoes often need to be delivered to ports serving a local hinterland that is not well connected to the larger bulk port. There is still need, therefore, for good working practices to be adopted at all ports regardless of their size. A major concern at present within the industry are the delays being encountered in obtaining environmental clearances for new port related developments. It is important to note that this experience is not confined to the Port Sector alone and is currently affecting many major infrastructure, developments projects in the country, such as, roads,new power plants and pipelines. There is a substantial amount of information and evaluation that needs to be prepared and presented in order to obtain environmental clearance and many of the technical issues, if not well presented or evaluated, can give rise to debate and differences of opinion. SUGGESTIONS o Undertaking environmental auditing at existing ports and preparation of costed and phased implementation programmes o Compliance with MARPOL regulations with regard to the collection and disposal of ships waste at existing ports and inclusion of such facilities in new ports. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • o Mapping of environmental constraints in the vicinity of all green field port sites and those ports earmarked for substantial new developments o Integration of port planning with land use planning and coastal zone management o Improved guidance on the preparation of EIA’s for port and harbor developments. o Introduction of short training courses for all members of audit committees evaluating EIA’s of port development schemes. Now that, due to liberalized Govt. policies, action has already been initiated to invite capitals from outside sources including FDI leading to corporatisation of major ports as well as for setting up of Private Ports and / or leasing handling facilities and berths to Private Operators on B.O.T/B.O.O.T/Joint Ventures etc. These actions necessitated the modification of existing age old practices, rules, acts, regulations, bye-laws etc. as well as change in the attitude of the Corporate Managers/ Executives. In the changing scenario of the fierce competitive market conditions,professional approach to face the emerging changes in the scenario will be right direction. Accordingly, the Managers must have the adaptability to the modern techniques like TQM, ISO, Computers, EDI, ECS & above all involvement of all employees and sincere dedication for total and effective CUSTOMER SATISFACTION by way of extending QUALITY SERVICE. Some of the tools and techniques that may be used will include : a) Vision Workshop b) HRD Policy c) Performance Appraisal System d) Performance Reward System e) Job Responsibilities f) Consensus decision making g) Behavioural science to improve attitudes h) Trust Building Exercises i) Team Spirit Building Exercise j) KAIZEN Principle pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • k) Time Management l) Value Engineering & Organisational Values Practicing m) Success & Failure Stories – Real Life Case Studies n) Skill Building Exercise o) Quality Circles p) Suggestion Schemes q) Self Appraisal r) Cross Functional Groups s) Incentives t) Welfare Schemes u) Trade Union relationship v) SWOT Analysis etc. This list can be extended since this is not exhaustive and any activity towards development of productive approach to human sensibility will give excellent results. Now, a case study of Haldia is followed by which it will be easier to understand things. This Mechanised Dry Bulk Cargo Handling System consists of following : Berth Length Width Max. Size of Major cargo handled No. ship 3 337M 16.8M 240M Iron ore,Thermal coal, Coking Coal, POL Products with Stack Yard Capacity of 100000MT. This is a loading berth. 4 284M 16.8M 240M Thermal Coal only with Stack Yard capacity of 1,00,000MT. This is a Loading Berth. 5 242M 19.8M 194M Finished Fertilizer, Coking Coal, Food Grains, Sulphur, Rock Phosphate, Soda Ash etc. with an underground Shed, Storage capacity of 30, 000 MT and Open Storage Capacity of 10,000 MT with a provision to extend upto 15,000 MT. This is an Unloading Berth. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • Out of the above, Berth No. 3 was originally designed to handle Iron Ore (sized lump and fine), but as the cargo did not mature properly due to River Draft Restriction, this Berth has been converted to handle Thermal Coal by the mechanized system and coking coal & other bulk cargo by conventional methods and the POL Products through the Pipe lines laid by the adjacent IOC Refinery. Berth No.4 is a dedicated berth for handling Thermal Coal for Power Generating Stations and Cement Companies etc. situated at the Southern part of India. Berth No. 5 was originally constructed for handling Fertilizer and Fertilizer raw material for the adjacent HFC & Unilever Factory. But since the cargo prospect did not mature due to the reason that the HFC Factory did not start functioning due to reasons best known to them, this berth with its original installations have been operated for unloading finished fertilizer and raw materials, coking coal, rock phosphate, sulphur, food grains, soda ash etc. successfully. However, due to Govt. of India’s new policy of privatization in Ports, this Berth has been handed over to M/s. SAIL on lease basis for a committed cargo throughput per annum for 5 years. The installation in Berth Nos. 3 & 4 are more or less similar in nature except that the Wagon Tippler is slightly different in form & there was no Grizzly, Apron feeder and the Crushing arrangement at berth 3, because Iron Ore is normally supplied in sized lump and in fines. All other machineries are more or less identical that of Berth No.4. However, a number of modifications have been carried out to modify the tippling, stacking/reclaiming and loading arrangement suitable for handling Thermal Coal. Both Berth 3 & 4 are having Marshalling Yard with Railway Tracks for inward movement of Wagons to Tippler and Post-Tippling Railway Tracks for holding and clearing the empty wagons. The basic difference between Berth 3 & 4 combined and the Berth No. 5 is that Berth No. 3 & 4 are loading berths with Wagon Tipplers, various Conveyor Systems, Crusher, Apron Feeder, Vibro Feeder, Open Stack Yard, Stacker cum-Reclaimers, various Transfer Towers and the Ship loaders while Berth No. 5 is having Ship Unloaders with Grab attachments (Clamshell), various Conveyors and Transfer Towers, covered storage for finished fertilizer, food grains, soda ash etc. and pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • open Storage Yard for Sulphur, Rock Phosphate etc. Vibro Feeders, Open Wagon Loading System, Tripper Car for Stacking, Hoppers and Bins associated with Bagging & Stitching Machines and Platform with suitable Railway Tracks adjacent to Bagging Platform for final dispatch of Bagged Cargo. Since, basically the working of all the 3 berths are more ore less similar in nature, except that the process is reverse, the deliberation will generally concentrate now on the Coal Handling Plant (Berth No.4) only due to paucity of time. The Coal loading facility at Berth No.4 Haldia was planned as an important component of the Dock for loading of coal originating from Bengal, Bihar Coal Fields and Orissa Coal Fields. The facility was meant for export and transportation of coal as stated earlier. M/a. MAMC Durgapur was the main contractor for construction of the Coal Loading Plant alongwith the erstwhile ore Handling Plant. The Ore Handling Plant was sub- contracted by M/s.MAMC to M/s.TRF Ltd., Jamshedpur. The plant was commissioned in 1977 and commercial operation commenced from 28.02.1977. The Coal Plant, made of twin identical circuits, essentially comprises of : a) An unloading arrangement of loaded wagons b) Stockpiling and reclaiming facilities c) Loading arrangement to Bulk Carriers by Shiploaders either directly from Wagons or from the Stock Pile or from both. Rakes carrying coal are brought by the Marshalling Beetles & Charging beetles the Tippler House and are tippled one by one by 2 Rotaside tipplers over the fixed grizzly, fall on Apron Feeder which carries them to the Crusher & then the same is reduced to size by the Crusher and mixed with the sized stream of coal and is taken out of the Tippler Pit by the underground inclined conveyors and transported to the Stock Pile area. 2 Long Yard Conveyors carrying coal over the entire length of the Stock Piles, Extend upto the nearest Transfer Towers of the Intermediate Conveyors & upto the loading area of the Plant. Stacker-cum-Reclaimers, the combined units, are mounted on pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • each of the 2 Yard Conveyors. During direct ship loading from tippling, the coal is straight away carried to the Shiploader by the Yard Conveyor, when receiving and loading coal matches. Otherwise or in case of ships being not available, the material is stacked with the help of the Stacker-Reclaimer. Again in the absence of loaded wagons, the Stacker Reclaimer reclaims the material from the Stock Pile and the Yard Conveyor and subsequent Intermediate Conveyors carry it to the Berth for ship loading. Coal reaching the loading zone is received by 2 parallel Tripper Conveyor, extending the entire length of the Coal Jetty and coupled individually with 2 track mounted Shiploaders. The Shiploaders with retractable booms and belt driven trimmers at the discharge ends fill the hatches with throw of coal at the farthest corners in the hatches. During the hatch change, the boom of the Shiploader is retracted and raised to clear the ships structure and during this period, the loading is temporarily suspended but with a change-over arrangement, the stacking is continued through Stacker-cum- Reclaimer at the Stock Pile. The particular equipments and their capacities are listed below : Equipment Total No. Capacity 1 Wagon Tippler 2 Nos. 1500 Tonnes per hour each of 30 cycles per hour each 2 Tippler House & Tunnel 5 Nos. 1500 Tonnes per hour each Conveyors 3 Yard Conveyors 2 Nos. 1500 Tonnes per hour each 4 Stacker Reclaimer 2 Nos. 1500/1000 Tonnes (old) per hour 2 Nos. 1500/1500 Tonnes (New) per hour stacking / reclaiming 5 Shiploader 2 Nos. 1500 Tonnes per hour each Apart from this, various other equipments like Mobile Crane, Pay Loaders, Dumpers, Tractor Trailers, Bulldozers etc. are deployed for day-to-day work. The adjacent erstwhile Ore Berth also have similar equipments except Crusher, Grizzly and Apron Feeder, as already stated earlier. Factors responsible for Low throughput : The factors responsible for low throughput can be grouped given below : a) Variation is assumed parameters pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • b) Operational factors a.i) Size of Ships : The Vessels, that call at the Coal Berth, can carry coal around 28,000 to 35,000 Tonnes but due to Draft restriction in the Navigation Channel, they load between 19,000 to 28,000 Tonnes only. This, in effect, results to under-utilisation of loading side. a ii) Size of Coal : The incidence of high percentage of lumps and stones in the coal has been found to have detrimental effect in the operation of the Plant which is also responsible for frequent jamming of grizzly and the chutes and hoppers all round the plant. Also at times during rainy season, coal from some Collieries become very sticky which causes chute jamming and interrupt the operation. However, after installation of a heavy duty Crusher & apron feeder, the lumps/stones have been successfully tackled. b. i) Operational Factors : Inadequate Stock – If sufficient stock is not maintained in the Stock Pile, the reclaimed loading is hampered. This, in turn, causes delay in turn-round time of VSL, vis-à-vis lower throughput. However, presently for a couple of years, there is no problem in stock pile. ii) In-adequate Supply – If the incoming wagons is less, it is not possible to build up stock and as a result ship loading may hamper. However, when the in-flow of wagons is quite high, the average tippling per day rose upto 225-240. but for high stock pile, the spontaneous fire takes place which is also detrimental for the plant. iii) Loading by single Loader and the Loading sequence Often it has been observed that after 15% cargo is loaded in a Vessel, the Vessel takes single loader for trimming. This delays the loading and hamper the output. Also due to de-ballasting problem, the Vessel loading is hampered. If a good sequence of loading is not given by the Vessel, faster loading can not be achieved, resulting low throughput. The ideal loading sequence as has been experienced should be as follows : 1st sequence : 70-75% of the total cargo 2nd sequence : 20-25% cargo and the pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 3rd and final sequence, balance 5-10% for final trimming. Also due to frequent draft checking, the loading is interrupted, off and on, resulting to low throughput. Also due to improper loading sequence by Vessel, frequent hatch changing has to be carried out which also results to low throughput. iv) Empty collection and placement of wagons for Tipplers If the placement of inward wagons are not done in line with the tippling performance, the tippler starve and the plant performance suffers. Also if the post tippling empty wagons are not cleared in time, matching with the tippling performance, the empty holding line is blocked and tippling performance suffers. v) Preparation time for starting up the plant In terms of mobilisation of manpower, spillage cleaning, no load inter-lock test etc. also add to the idle time, affecting the performance of the plant. Factors which can improve throughput 1 Continuous co-ordination with Shippers, agents, users etc. for nomination of good Nos. of ships as well as high capacity bulk carriers. 2 Continuous coordination with Collieries & Railways, agents users etc. for good inflow of wagons and for good quality of Cargo. 3 Continuous coordination with Vessel for getting good sequence for faster loading & better turn round of the Vessel. 4 Better coordination with Port Railway Division for timely placement of loaded wagons for unloading & truck removal of empty wagons. 5 Better coordination with Port Marine Division for immediate calling of the Vessel at the port & placement at the berth & also immediate sailing or the Vessel on completion of work at the berth. 6. Better Communication System (Portable & Fixed VHF Sets) at various machines & various operation & maintenance points within the plant as well as with Railway, Marine & Control. 7. Good Transportation System within the plant for faster movement of operation & maintenance personnel. 8. Good personnel relation & interaction between management & staff. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 9. Good dust suppression arrangement at various Transfer Points to arrest generation of dust. 10. Good & proper Fire Fighting System in the plant to tackle spontaneous fire in the Stack Yard. 11. Suitable remunerative incentive scheme for better motivation. 12. Proper First Aid Centre at the Plant with standby Ambulance for immediate removal of injured persons to Hospital. 13. Good Time Management. 14. Proper Planned Maintenance Programme. 15. Stock of Proper inventory of running & insurance spare & proper planning & timely procurement of maintenance spares. 16. Proper planning for timely repair & replacement of various major structures & equipments & budgetary provisions thereof. 17. Regular proper training & refresher courses for workmen, supervisors & officers for updating their knowledge regarding new technological developments in methods & procedures related to the plant. 18. To build up Awareness for use of protective gears during working hours in the plant. 19. To introduce proper safety & interlock systems for Mechanical & Electrical installations. 20. Regular checking & testing of all lifting gears & tools & tackles to prevent accident. 21. Adequate maintenance tools & tackles. 22. Proper cleanliness throughput the plant. 23. Suggestions Box of Register to be kept at ¾ prime locations for inviting suggestions from employees regarding improvement of the plant. 24. Performance Reward System. 25. Declaration of “Best Workman” of the year. 26. Selective promotion of good workmen to higher post by relaxing recruitment standards. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 27. Use of Computer for Statistical work & maintenance programmes, spare parts management etc. 28. Aggressive Marketing & Publicity. MAINTENANCE Though we are basically discussing in terms of operation, it is considered necessary to deal with the maintenance aspects of the plant because of its paramount importance in trouble free operation of the Plant. The Plant is more than 32 years old. The level of maintenance, as it require presently, is going to increase manifold in the years to come because of the inevitable ageing effect of the equipments and its components. The basic task of maintenance is to keep a machine doing its duty, over the intended periods of operation, with a minimum loss of time on the working schedule. If the machine can only be kept running by continuous attention, necessitating stoppages, then the availability of the machine will be low, giving a poor return on the capital invested unit. Otherwise, a machine might be coaxed into a very long non-stop run but, when stopped, might require an unusually long time to get ready for its next run. This could be unprofitable, except in special cases where the machine must be kept running. Efficient maintenance, therefore becomes a question of minimum of cost to give the greatest availability of the machine. Maintenance of any sort is a cost to management which ever a way person looks at it. Apart from anything else good maintenance will not only keep the machine of the system working effieicntly, but will preserve the capital investment as long as possible. Maintenance primarily consists of i) Physical aspects & ii) The management tools for maintaining the system. Principal objectives of maintenance can be expressed as – i) To extend useful life of assets, ii) To ensure the optimum availability of installed capacity for production or service & obtain the maximum possible return on investment. iii) To ensure operational readiness of all equipments required for emergency pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • use at all times. iv) To ensure safety of personnel operating or using facilities. In the context, one more thing definitely comes in the picture which is very much associated with maintenance i.e. “Break down”. Let us list out the possible effects of sudden & frequent break down which affect the normal functions of an organization. i) Loss of Production, i.e. total output ii) Repair costs (Unforeseen) iii) Idle labour iv) Disturbs Planning & Scheduling v) Induces dis-satisfaction to the customers. The basic forms of maintenance are : a) Breakdown Maintenance This is valid when – i) Breakdown has very little effect on the total system ii) Cost of repair is less than cost of maintenance iii) Replacement cost is relatively lower than maintenance cost. b) Planned Maintenance Using experience & manufacturer’s recommendations with Feedback evaluation, Schedules for maintenance can be prepared. This system has advantages of planning workload of maintenance to ensure best use of resource & enable work to be carried out in off periods. The benefits of planned maintenance may be listed as follows : i) Reduction in emergency maintenance. ii) Reduction in down time. iii) Increase in plant hour availability. iv) Improvement in labour utilization on maintenance production. v) Extension of duration between overhauls. vi) Reduction in cost of spares replacement, assist inventory control. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • vii) Improvement in machine efficiency. viii) Reliable cost & budgetary control. ix) Provides information for considering machine replacement. Most of the maintenance management plans aim to reduce the cost of maintenance without lowering maintenance standards, affecting the safety of personnel or interfering with the production an essential operations. The plans vary widely from one industry to the other. Three distinct types of set-ups are observed:- i) The operation& maintenance is carried out from a single control which is sometimes harmful from the maintenance point of view. ii) Separately, groups are controlled for operation and maintenance. This system is better than the previous one but it has dark sides also. iii) Maintenance is carried out by selected renowned contractor. This system is normally not adopted in the country(slowly being adopted) but its wide application can be seen in other parts of globe. In this system, day to day running maintenance is carried out by a skeleton staff of the organization but the break-downs & planned overhauls are carried out by the contractors on call. In general, the efficient and effective maintenance management programme follows some simple rules which are stated as follows 1 A separate maintenance control group is to be set up with overall responsibility for control of procedures, inspections and analysis of costs. 2 Evaluation of performance by comparison with standard times & actual work times. 3 Mandatory use of standard maintenance request forms. This ensures accurate records availability for job analysis, work scheduling and work measurements. 4 Accurate inventory for equipments & permanent maintenance records are to be maintained. 5 Every maintenance request & repair order is to be analysed. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • 6 Regular preventive maintenance schedules are to be strictly followed & forecasting for a week or fortnight is to be made. 7 Assignment sheets for daily schedule are to be prepared at least one day in advance so that the man hours are not lost in each morning in distributing the maintenance jobs. 8 A man power control group is to be set up so that for a job, the number of persons deployed is not too small or too large. 9 Suitable preventive maintenance programme is to be set up so that the maintenance persons are always busy and production is not hampered without advance planning. 10 Maintenance budget is to be prepared on annual basis, distributed suitably monthwise. 11 Maximum and minimum amounts & reorder points for all store items, spares & other allied consumables are to be established properly. 12 Plant shut-downs are to be properly planned, after considering the expected life of each part of the equipment. 13 Major overhaul procedures are to be set up for each equipment, consisting of manpower, details of spares, tools & tackles etc. required. 14 Standard practices are to be developed for minor repetitive types of jobs. 15. Standardisation of design for materials, parts, consumables are to be made. 16. Training of supervisors are essential for motivation to work in maintenance jobs. 17 Training of personnels, newly recruited, is also essential. This will increase efficiency of the maintenance group as a whole. 18 Analysis, evaluation & self criticism will show the ways of improvement. In this Coal Handling Plant, certain standard practices have been established in regard to the maintenance of the Plant & Equipments. Everyday from 1.30 PM to 4.30 PM the Plant used to be kept shut-down for general maintenance and cleaning work. This has given a tremendous result in productivity. Also by planning a pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!
  • proper “Productive and Predictive Maintenace System” the idle time (when there is no Vessel in the loading zone or no wagon in the Tippler Zone) is utilized fully for carrying out the maintenance programmes. Also proper cleaning of spillage materials is done in time reducing the interruption loading or tippling performance. By timely planning, the replacement programme of various machineries and its components as well as spares planning the maintenance programmes are being carried out, though still there is scope of improvement. Periodical shut-down for a week or 10 days are arranged every year for major overhauling, replacement etc. also various Training Schemes have been planned and the training is being imparted on a regular basis to the Supervisors, Officers as well as the Technicians by the concerned departments& IIPM(IMU). All these has improved the plant performance remarkably. Last but not the least, this is to point out that the safety aspects are always to be kept in mind while working in such a Plant which handles Dry Bulk Cargo by mechanical means. The use of Helmets, Safety Boots, use of Hand Gloves for mechanical and electrical work, use of proper Hooks and Slings for lifting and loading purpose etc. would reduce the chances of accident in the plant and thereby the resultant effect will be a good and all round performance will improve. &*&*&*&*& pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, simply open the document you want to convert, click “print”, select the “Broadgun pdfMachine printer” and that’s it! Get yours now!