AI: Introduction to artificial intelligence


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AI: Introduction to artificial intelligence

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AI: Introduction to artificial intelligence

  1. 1. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence<br />
  2. 2. Some Definitions of AI<br />“It is the exciting new effort to make computers think . . . machines with minds, in the full and literal sense”(Haugeland, 1985)<br />“A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes”(Schalkoff, 1990)<br />“The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better”(Rich and Knight, 1991 )<br />“The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act”(Winston, 1992)<br />
  3. 3. Categories of AI systems<br />Systems that think like humans. Systems that think rationally.<br />Systems that act like humans.<br />Systems that act rationally.<br />Acting humanly: The Turing Test approach<br />
  4. 4. Requirements of an Artificially intelligent computer<br />Natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in English (or some other human language);<br />Knowledge representation to store information provided before or during the interrogation;<br />Automated reasoning to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions;<br />Machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns.<br />
  5. 5. History of AI<br />1943 : The gestation of AI <br />1952 : Early enthusiasm and expectation<br />1966 : A dose of reality<br />1969 : Knowledge based system<br />1980 : AI become Industry<br />1986 …to now : Return of neural networks and recent events<br />
  6. 6. AI in real world<br />HITECH is the first computer program to defeat a grandmaster(Arnold Denker) in a game of chess<br />A speech understanding program named PEGASUS handles the whole transaction of ticket booking in an Airport<br />
  7. 7. What is an Intelligent Agents?<br />An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through effectors. An agent always acts rationally.<br />
  8. 8. Example of Car driver agent :<br />Agent type : Car driving<br />Percepts : Camera , GPS, mic etc<br />Action : Steer, Accelerate, Break, Report.<br />Goal : Safe, Fast, Profit.<br />Environment : Roads, Signals, Pedestrians. <br />
  9. 9. Different types of agent programs<br />Simple reflex agents<br /> Agents that keep track of the world<br />Goal-based agents<br /> Utility-based agents <br />
  10. 10. What are Simple reflex Agents?<br />Agents are designed to produce a specific response to a specific stimuli.<br />
  11. 11. What are Agents that keep track of the world?<br />The simple reflex agent described before will work only if the correct decision can be made on the basis of the current percept.<br /> If the car in front is a recent model, and has the centrally mounted brake system, then it is to be possible to tell if it is braking from a single image agent will have to maintain some sort of internal state in order to choose an action.<br />This is overcome in this kind of Agents.<br />
  12. 12. What are Goal-based agents?<br />These Kind of agents take decision based on how far they are currently from their goal.<br />Their every action is intended to reduce its distance from goal.<br />
  13. 13. What are Utility-based agents?<br />The agents which are developed having their end uses as their building blocks are called utility based agents.<br />
  14. 14. Classifications of Agent environment can be based on :<br />Accessible vs. Inaccessible.<br />Deterministic vs. Nondeterministic.<br />Episodic vs. Non episodic.<br />Static vs. Dynamic<br />Discrete vs. Continuous<br />
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