GHCN-Daily <ul><li>Global Daily Data Set derived from multiple sources (10+) </li></ul><ul><li>~20,000 temperature station...
Temperature Stations
Precipitation Stations
Updates <ul><li>All sources are “refreshed” daily or weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Dataset is reassembled each week from origin...
 
 
GCOS Surface Network Data <ul><li>GSN Archive available from:  ftp:// ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ghcn/daily/gsn </li></ul>...
 
Flag Rates <ul><li>No check has a false-positive rate of more than 20% (most <10%)—false positive rate for overall system ...
Undocumented Changepoint Example Version 1 Version 2 Pine River Dam  Maximum Temperature Series minus Regional Average
USHCN V.1 Temperature series near Milan, MN
USHCN V.2 Temperature series near Milan, MN
All Coop Series surrounding Waynesville, NC
All Coop Series surrounding Waynesville, NC
Summary of shifts in HCN mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature series.  A negative shift indicates that the inhomog...
Summary of shifts in HCN mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature series.  A negative shift indicates that the inhomog...
The Time of Observation Bias
The Time of Observation Bias 1950s 1960s 1980s 2000- 2006 1970s 1990s <ul><li>Since the 1950s, observation times have shif...
Impact of Time of Observation Changes Average year by year difference over the conterminous United States between  the Tim...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Menne_pairwise.briefing.COST_part2.ppt

  1. 1. GHCN-Daily <ul><li>Global Daily Data Set derived from multiple sources (10+) </li></ul><ul><li>~20,000 temperature stations (Tmax and Tmin) </li></ul><ul><li>~43,000 precipitation stations (Precip) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently > 1 450 000 000 daily observations (Tmax, Tmin, Prcp, Snowfall/Snowdepth) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Temperature Stations
  3. 3. Precipitation Stations
  4. 4. Updates <ul><li>All sources are “refreshed” daily or weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Dataset is reassembled each week from original source data </li></ul><ul><li>QC checks are applied to full period of record </li></ul>
  5. 7. GCOS Surface Network Data <ul><li>GSN Archive available from: ftp:// ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ghcn/daily/gsn </li></ul><ul><li>The GSN Archive is also integrated from a number of sources via the GHCN-Daily processing system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QC’d as part of GHCN Daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated daily using GTS synoptic data and country specific sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still to be done: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add “un-quarantined” data from RA I-Africa </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Flag Rates <ul><li>No check has a false-positive rate of more than 20% (most <10%)—false positive rate for overall system 10% or less </li></ul><ul><li>Total flag rate equal to 0.06% for all temperature values and 0.15% for all precipitation values </li></ul>
  7. 10. Undocumented Changepoint Example Version 1 Version 2 Pine River Dam Maximum Temperature Series minus Regional Average
  8. 11. USHCN V.1 Temperature series near Milan, MN
  9. 12. USHCN V.2 Temperature series near Milan, MN
  10. 13. All Coop Series surrounding Waynesville, NC
  11. 14. All Coop Series surrounding Waynesville, NC
  12. 15. Summary of shifts in HCN mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature series. A negative shift indicates that the inhomogeneity led to a decrease in the mean level of the temperature series relative to preceding values.
  13. 16. Summary of shifts in HCN mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature series. A negative shift indicates that the inhomogeneity led to a decrease in the mean level of the temperature series relative to preceding values.
  14. 17. The Time of Observation Bias
  15. 18. The Time of Observation Bias 1950s 1960s 1980s 2000- 2006 1970s 1990s <ul><li>Since the 1950s, observation times have shifted from afternoon/ evening to morning </li></ul>Hour of observation histograms at bottom of each U.S. decadal map (Figure courtesy of Xioamoa Lin, University of Nebraska)
  16. 19. Impact of Time of Observation Changes Average year by year difference over the conterminous United States between the Time of Observation Bias (TOB)-adjusted data and the unadjusted (raw) data.
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