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behaviorist theories.........

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T&D   Ppt T&D Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Behaviourist Theories
    Group 2
    Jaspreet Singh Nandre (20)
    PoojaSenapati (30)
    Surjya Das (55)
  • What is Behaviourism
    Behaviours are acquired as a result of conditioning
    Behaviour can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental state
    Association or reinforcement – Primary pre requisites of Behaviourism
    Only overt observable behaviours are studied and inner state of mind is not taken into account.
    Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic.
  • Purpose of Behaviourism
    Behaviors should be observed in a more objective manner
    To promote desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors
    To treat hordes of mental problems present in adults and children
  • What is Behaviorist Theory
    “Behaviorist theories of learning are scientific and demonstrable explanations for simple behaviors”
    -Lefrancois (1988)
  • Different Behaviorist Theories
    Ivan Pavlov (Classical Conditioning)
    Edward Thorndike
    B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning)
    John B. Watson
  • Classical Conditioning - Pavlov
    Operant Conditioning - Skinner
    Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned response
    (food) (salivation)
    Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned response
    (food) (salivation)
    Conditioned Stimulus
    (bell)
    Conditioned Stimulus  Conditioned response
    (bell) (salivation)
    Response  Stimulus
    (press lever)(reward and food)
    TIME
    Conditioned response  Conditioned stimulus
    (press lever) (reward and food)
  • Pavlov (1849-1936)
    The Russian physiologist is best known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution.
    Pavlov’s most famous experiment involved food, a dog and a bell.
  • Stimulus and Response Items ofPavlov's Experiment
    Food Unconditioned Stimulus
    Salivation Unconditioned Response
    Bell Conditioned Stimulus
    Salivation Conditioned Response
  • Other Observations Made by Pavlov
    • Stimulus Generalization.
    • Extinction.
    • Spontaneous Recovery.
    • Discrimination.
    • Higher-Order Conditioning.
  • Thorndike(1874-1949)
    • Thorndike believed that a neural bond would be established between the stimulus and response when the response was positive.
    • His theory, connectionism, stated that “learning was the formation of a connection between stimulus and response.”
  • Connectionism
    The “law of effect”:
    When a connection between a stimulus and a response is positively or negatively rewarded it will be strengthened.
  • The "law of exercise" :
    The more an S-R(stimulus-response) bond is practiced the stronger it will become.
    This law had to be updated when Thorndike found that practice without feedback does not necessarily enhance performance.