Marry Me, Later: Ending Child Marriage in India
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Marry Me, Later: Ending Child Marriage in India

on

  • 625 views

India accounts for the highest share of the world's 60 million child marriages. 61% of women in India aged 25-49 are married before the age of 18! ...

India accounts for the highest share of the world's 60 million child marriages. 61% of women in India aged 25-49 are married before the age of 18!
Child marriage is a human rights violation with multiple consequences, such as the end of her education, health risks to her and her children, limited chances of financial independence and ultimately a cycle of poverty and disempowerment.

Ending Child Marriage and investing in girls until they are physically and psychologically ready for marriage will mean healthier families, stronger societies and more vibrant economies. The Marry Me, Later report aims to take action and end child marriage in India by highlighting areas of focus and innovative interventions by some of India's top nonprofits that are ready to scale.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
625
Views on SlideShare
625
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Marry Me, Later: Ending Child Marriage in India Marry Me, Later: Ending Child Marriage in India Document Transcript

    • USAID Kiawah TrustFROM THEAMERICAN PEOPLE Preventing Child Marriage and Early Pregnancy in India g
    • Photo credit:Bachpan BachaoAndoIan
    • Foreword Child marriage caughtmy attention in 2010. It was myfirst trip to India sinceI had become a parent and so I began to see the worldthrough a mother's eyes. During that visit, I spent a memorable hourin the home of a young Indian mother, who lived in the slums of Mumbai. We commiserated over our lack of sleep, laughedover our babies' antics,and sharedsmiles of pride, as I looked at heryoung son and showed her pictures of my daughter. This woman was far younger thanI - perhaps not yet20. From what I learned of her life, I surmised that she would not be able to continueher education, pursue paid work of her choice,or discoverwho she could be, in addition to being the caring mother she clearly had become. It was this trip thatgot the Kendeda Fund thinkingabout the issue andwhether or not we should enter this space. Wedid. Last year the Kendeda Fund sanctioned a multi-million dollargrant focused on ending child marriagein India. Since then I have been askedmany times, "Why child marriage? Why India?"The answer for me is relatively simple. Ending child marriage- if done with the full partnershipof the Indian people- will represent nothing shortof a revolution for India's girlstoday and in generationsto come. Atthe Kendeda Fund we felt India wasa good place to focus given its enormous potential forleadership on this issue, not onlywithin the South Asia region, but around the world. I would like to offera few humble thoughts,based onour experience, to the growing numberof donors and activists from aroundthe world whoare stepping into this relativelynew sector: 1. It is critical that we work withlocal communities to definenot just whatpractices weare against but what are we for. Itis not enoughfor us to envision a world without child marriage. Our challengeis to definea positive visionfor adolescentgirls. 2. Efforts to tackle child marriage shouldaim to tackle broader genderissues within which this practice exits. As one woman asked me,"Why will it matter if my daughter is married at 18 instead of 16, if she still has no economic opportunities, no reproductive control,and livesin fear of violence daily?" 3. We needto focus on empowering the millions ofgirls across Indiawho are already child brides, in addition toa focus on prevention. They deserve everyopportunity to live a full and rewarding life. Child marriage may seemlike too complex and macro a problem for us to solve. Yet we have seen examples at the community level of enduring, positivechange, for and by India's girls. Various non-profits such as the ones profiled in this report are doing valuablework on the ground to prevent child marriageand build strongalternatives forgirls. Yet, they suffer froma lack of capacity to documenttheir work, evaluatetheir progress, structure their systems, seekmore funding, and ultimately toscale. Allfunders - corporations, foundations, international development agencies, andindividual philanthropistshave a role to play in filling this gap and supporting these non-profit organizations. I truly believe no work is more rewarding than this.Please join withus. It would be our honor to learn with and from you. Dena Kimball Executive Director of the Kendeda Fund (A private foundation and currently the largest donor to thechild marriagesector in India)
    • Photo credit: www!redhot Acknyledgements
    • Acknowledgements Marry Me Later providesan analysis of the seemingly intractable problemof child marriagein India, with the principalaim of identifyinghigh potential non-profit organizations that funders should lookto supportand scale. First andforemost, we would like to thank ourdonors - USAID, Kiawah Trust and Omidyar Network- for their vision, passion andcommitment to addressing child marriageas a fundamental developmentconcern that hinders millions of adolescent girls in India from achieving their potential. Dasra's advisory research team would especiallylike to thank- Dena Kimball, Dipa Nag Chowdhury, Dr. Suni[ Mehra, Jaya Sharma, K. G. Santhya, Lakshmi Sundaram,Priya Das, Priya Nanda, Rema Nanda, Shobhana Boyle, Sushmita Mukherjee, and Vanita Mukherjee - for taking time out fromtheir busy schedules and allowing us to borrowtheir expertise on this issue. Dasra would also liketo thank the teamat Copal Partners for their timelyand invaluable support in editing the report. Dasra would like to express its gratitude toall the non-profit organizations we spoketo and visited, whoare working hard, against all odds, to address the issue of child marriagein India. We thank themfor giving us their precious time, sharing their thoughts and experiences, and helping us understand what is really happening on the ground.These perspectives have enabled Dasra to make this publication current,practical and action-oriented. In the course of this research, Dasra's team metwith girls with innumerablestories of resilience, courage and hope evenin the face of daunting challenges. Dasra would like to thankthese girls and their families for not only sharingtheir stories butalso inspiring us. Finally, thank you for joining us on this journey and for your interestin this report.We look to you to further the directionset by this report, by using your influence,skills, andfunding to support effective non-profit organizations scale uptheir response, and enable millions of adolescent girls and existing child bridesin India, realizetheir potential. / 1/4 ,X /. ,/,X //S //S. ,/ / / / ` 1/4 1/4 ,X X X ,% x X X 1/4 I /1/4 X % /1/4 I / .... "s , .., I / - s. .... I / ...., .... % / -' , ... s. .... /- ... . .... s. s. s. / . s. s./ s / s s. s S. / s / // s ...,, s s. s.... . . ... , .... ' ,. ' ..... .... .... . ' .... ' ..... .0. .0. .0 /.... ...0 .0 I ..0 / ' .0 I/ , / / e / e I / ,.0 , I .0... ... ' , ' ... ./ -' ..0 .... ... .. .. I ' ... . .i - ..... -- ... .. .... Acknowledgements 411
    • Biggest Challenges At 40%, India accounts for the world's largest share ofchild marriages globally 47% of Indian girlsare married beforeage 18 and 22% of Indiangirls have already given birth before theythemselves turn18 Girls under 15 are 5x as likely to die in child birth than womenin their early 20s The cost oflost productivity due to adolescent pregnancies in India is $7.7 billion a year
    • Biggest Opportunities Girls that pursue secondary schoolingare 70% less likely to marry as children In just four years, a program providing life skills to adolescent girls increasedthe median age of marriage from 16 to 17 years An adolescent health program provid health assessmentand education to young girls increased theage of first conception from 15.8 to 18 years between 2003 and 2012 At least 30 non-profit organizations in India are concertedly focused on addressing child marriage as a core issue
    • r 4 4' #'wg '^111 04_4.4110 e' Fpf, l %,., 0, , '" g4. % 44% Executive Summary Close to half of India's girlsare married before theage of 18, and one in five is married even before she turns 15. But child marriageis more thanjust a statistical problem. It is a harmful traditional practice that denies children, especiallygirls, basic rights to a healthy life, protection from abuse andexploitation and equal opportunities for development.Years of research shows that child marriagecontributes to virtuallyevery social problem that affects India - poverty, high birth rates, malnutrition, infant mortality,illiteracy, unemployment and low life expectancy. The burden of child marriage For a child who becomes a bride, life changes completely without as much as a warning. She is uprooted and separated from her family,friends and everything that is familiar toher, and sent to live with her husbandand his family - strangers, essentially.Besides an education and childhood being curtailed, she is also more likely to become a victim of domestic violence;child bridesare twice as likely to be beaten and thrice as likely to experience forcedsex than girls marriedlater. Traumatic initiation into sexual relationships coupled with the social pressure to reproduceplaces their young bodies undersevere stress;adolescent girls aged 15-19 are twice as likely to die in child birth as women in their twenties, and those under15 years of age are five times more likely to die. For those that survive, the chances of experiencing a still birth or newborndeath is 50% higher than itis for women aged 20to 29. Unfortunately, deep-rooted patriarchalbeliefs about therole and value of a girl, primarily as caretaker of her household and children, and alsoas paraya dhan (wealthof another), combined with the intractable problemof poverty, sustainsthe problemof child marriage over generations. Studies showthat daughters ofwomen who were child bridesare atgreater risk of being married as children themselves. What progress has India made? In the past decade orso, a few leading international private foundations - notably Ford, MacArthur and PackardFoundation, and multilateral agencies such as UNFPA and UNICEF have played a key role in bringing this previously neglectedissue to the forefront.In doing so, they have also encouraged thegovernmentto view child marriageas a stand-alone issue which impedesthe Millennium DevelopmentGoals. Most recently, another private foundation, theKendeda Fund has committed over $15 million to this newly formed sectorin India. Furthermore, the government has become moreaction-oriented in the last two decades, moving away from purely legislative reforms focusedon increasing age of marriage, to introducingand strengthening practical initiatives on the groundsuch as conditional cash transfer schemes. As a result of all these efforts, thereis an increasing recognitionthat while delaying age of marriage is critical, adolescentgirls also needto be empowered duringthese crucialyears, to enable better decision makingeven after they turn18. Programs aimed at educating and empowering girls are beginning to bear fruit, giving girlsthe confidence tosay no to early marriage, whichfor many, would once have been a foregone conclusion. Illustration credit: UrmulTrust ;;:fe> 4,44-1 I ......reec 4 41 Pi "'I...0o ,% I Ire 41' "I (;ZZe:IIke, a.% I C %.4 % drit. S....4ft I F 0 Executive Summary
    • 11 40% .1 ' r,..a." Roo+ ,. 1--rva Th--,:=1:e.tr.P.. 6- eit% drr VI. 4,0 eve. '9+.0., Where can efforts be better directed? Based on Indian and international evidence, consultations with experts and views of Dasra's advisory committee which comprisedDipa NagChowdhury, K.G Santhya, Priya Nanda, Shobhana Boyle, Dr. Sunil Mehra, SushmitaMukherjee, and VanitaMukherjee, Dasra hasidentified four key priority areas where collectiveaction shouldbe focused: 1. Creating alternate life options for girls. Providing girlswith the 'education toemployment continuum' provides them withan enabling solution, allowingthem toexplore alternative life choices to early marriage. 2. Identifying and sensitizing gatekeepers.It is critical to engage gatekeepers who significantly influence a girl's life choices - fathers and brothers, older womenin the family, religiousand community leaders. Evidence showsthat most cases of positive change involvea gatekeeper, whose sheerconviction to stand-their-groundenables the girl to delay her marriage. 3. Promoting birth and marriage registration.59% of all births remain unregisteredin India. Birth registration is a proof ofage and so plays a significant role in preventing thepractice as well as ensuring that the girl childand her family can accessnumerous welfareschemes. 4. Addressing the needs of adolescent brides. Along with preventing child marriage, itis crucial to address the uniqueneeds of child bridesso as to mitigate the negative impactsof child marriage and improve their health and well-being. What is most effectiveon-the-ground? Two interventions stand out as the most impactfuland scalable - a) facilitating access to education, which entails activitiessuch as awareness generation of its significance and bridge courses for drop-out students; and b) the provision ofvocational training,life skills and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information. These interventions give girlsalternatives toearly marriage and equip them withskills to make informed decisions about their future.Other important and effective interventions include thosethat cultivate role models as peer leaders; mobilize communities torecognize the ill-effectsof child marriage;train government functionaries and frontline workers; and build the capacityof otherorganizations working on issues suchas adolescent health, education,child rights,and livelihoods to considerchild marriage prevention as a critical outcome. Following an extensive mappingof over 300 organizations, Dasra identified 30 non-profit organizations in India that are focused on addressing the issue of child marriage.Ten of these organizations have been highlighted as those which deliver the mostimpactful and scalable child marriage programs, representinghigh potential investment options for fundersand sector supporters. % V_ Z". 1,1% %:P. 0% %V V.. S'} O i 1' Do rob V V. .., re, %I V* 'S . % I Da of #If% % V. 0, , 111 ..O fO 11, %VV.. Po% .0. , ...` " .1.11:*"1 4.+7"-1. +.?,.....:,t.twoitta,,,....*_:."-1-.._"% 0 . ..., ..a... % . 4 d ..4r. 41b .. 0 e 30. ,......00 ....- 0P. -. P li".5..... ,0II% .-,P o 0 '..1 1 ..aP 0 i di......4 4S%.. da'.... " )p...1-;:---..0"-7 ..., Executive Summary1 0
    • rarr % $'' I % 0 1 I I . er. I 1 of' ''I L 5, I $ J -:trtZ 4 ;elb , % ei 1 , i %.1r... -;:+f ..i, f, 11 11 r 1, ,; ZA. VIZ fi / , f I 44 1 .4 I 1. ; t i I # , i; l°4 fo I : 4 0 0 0O00
    • t .. 31r,' , -% 111:lb I RR wed,. r do , , / ," , , / % ' ,. . , . / / i/ X N. X X I' / % /S , , ,I... ..,// //,,, // ,/ , N. S - / % / S 1 / /i ,/ // / /% / /,I / I % /% / % / / / , % 1 ' ,Ittlhiere Can you makea dif=fer,en , ee?,- .... -. , ....., Despite the'fac1-latx4-111a,,m-a-rrNe as a practice directly hinders-the.achiem.e.nt o'fsic of eight Milleryrri'um,DevOdp-naefii Goals, as`a.n issue it remainsgros5ky under-funZce.ds. $-QaZer,resbQrces- both'finarici41,5ncl,otherwise - are needed to scale inter/entionsthat work aid PsioteGt, mflkons ,edgirZfrqm'bec'oming child brides.For i . Nance, if pr,esent trends continue, ofthe gitcl. bare juV, between Z005 and 2010,28 million would become(childbrides overthe next appN3>,iri-a.tel745 ',....... - ..- -- - ,.. ... -.... -....: .yers*.sra urges private donorsto supportnon-profit organizations such a2..c-t1,-)0,e,-.:. ".2.-., .... ..., -- - - ....- , recoml-perided in Marry Me Laterto build a stronmomentum tostamp out a culIdral,prractrte . . . , ,'with tic) relevance to thisday and age.' . , ,' /. / ' s s s s / / / .../' re , While`someorosgics's'oyer thepasytivo decades has beertoade, therQ,IS , , a,nee91,t'o taOle the problerril're,ad-Zyxlb'y'i.a-shpi-ng,patriarchal attitudes,facilitating-edUcati.6naj-oT3po,rtunities for girls, deliveringaftective..s_upsp-ceservicesto child bridesand enrtip%9A7v-seri.pg.young,grrts to challenge the status quo. We'ryTust...oetiNtAto preventyet another geoeVatiOqi@f-y-o-Ung girls from falling victim to harmfultradiOn'i u'rdterthe guise of celebration.,,Dafrais )iii,on is that in the not too distant future, adoles6nt girlsxacconsthe country will have'garnaredsuffiCient support, strength ' ' ` >, and resilience to say "Marry xne,xlatqr,, , ,' / . , , , / .x . ,. e , / / % / I , ,, / / ,' % / - 1 ' / // ... , . / , , / ' % / , , / , /' ,/ / / V / / / / %,/ -k / 't / V ,,, PIP. -.-7....07.- 8107. 20 - r .0. d )1i P Executive Summary 0
    • o L
    • 47% of Indian girlsare married before the age of 18. .10 Too Soon: An overview ofchild marriagein India In Hindu mythology, Saraswatiis the Goddess of knowledge. However, for nine year oldSaraswati who livedin a small village in Rajasthan andwas oneoffive daughters in the family, the completion of hereducation was a distant dream. As a primary school student, she wasdiligent at her studies, and wanted to grow up tobecome a teacher. Buther parents worried about herfuture. In April 2004, on the auspicious dayof Akha Teej, Saraswati's eldestsister; Asha,aged 17, was to be married to a boy from a neighboring village. Invitation cards had been sent to both families and other acquaintances. All five sisters had spentthe entire week helping with the dec mehndi and rangoli.They were all excited becausetheir motherand auntsdressed them in fine clothes and jewelry on the dayof the wedding.By late evening, theprocession from the groom's side had arrived, half drunk, at their village. Allfive sisters weretold to sit on the stageduring the wedding, with the youngest, onlyfive years old, fast asleep on herfather's shoulder. They were all married thatday to boysrelated to the groom'sfamily. At the ageof13, after the start of herfirst menstrual cycle, Saraswati was sent off to her 22 year old husband's house. On her departure, hermother tearfully toldher to "bea good girl". But no one, neither her ownparents norher in-laws, talkedto her about sex or pregnancy. By the ageof 15, Saraswati was pregnant for the second time.A year ago, her first child, conceived at the age of 14 had miscarried. She had not realized thenthat she was pregnant and her miscarriage had confused her. Her mother-in-law hadfound her cryingin a pool ofblood behindtheir butand had had to explain thesituation to her. Seven months into hersecond pregnancy,she developed complications and hadto be rushed to the nearest health facility, two hoursaway. Saraswati and herchild eventually never madeit back home. Under international law, the term'child marriage'is used to describe a legal or customary union between twopeople, when one orboth parties are below the age of 18 years. In India, the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA), 2006 defines a child as 'aperson who,if a male, has not completed 21 years ofage, andif a female, has not completed 18 years of age'. Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India le
    • , . I.... .... , I '/ e I / I I I ,I/ II ,,I..0 . / .... , "" ... % . ` , ',. // 's. '"'" ....... / ... e 1. ,/ % / , / ,/ , / , , I , , , Saraswati's story is one of lost childhood, unfulfilled potentialand viol ionof basic human rights It is the cumulative resultof multiple factors, key among whichwas,l-fer marriage as a child. In the . ` minute orso it has taken you to read Saraswati's story,11 more els like her became child brides` % in India. . . . . . ` ` India accounts for 40% of the world'schild marriages,a harmful traditional practice that denies children - both boys andgirls - their basic rights to a healthy life, to equal opportunities for development, and to protection fromabuse andexploitation. It places children in the adult institution ofmarriage, often without prior intimationor consent,forcibly depriving themof their childhood and imposing on them responsibilities that are beyond their age or due.' Although boys enter intoearly marriageas well, the practice affects girlsin greater numbersand with grave consequences for their health, education and livelihood prospects. While nearly halfof all Indian girls are married beforetheir 18th birthday, what is worse is that 22% bear children when they themselves are children.' Ending child marriagein India: A work-in-progress While child marriagein India is still extremely prevalent,some progresshas been madeoverthe last two decades: Child marriage rates havedecreased from the timeof the first NationalFamily Health Survey (1992-93) when 54% of women aged 20-24 years were marriedas children to47% as per the last National Family Health Survey(2005-06). The median age at which girls are married has increased marginallyfrom 16.1 yearsto 16.8 years in the same period. Girls married beforethe age of 18 60% co 17 54% 50% - 16- 47% 40% 15 1992-93 Source: National Family Health Survey 2005-06 Median age of marriage for girls 16.8 1992-93 2005-06 Nevertheless, the practice remainswidespread. While child marriageis prevalent throughout India, in at least seven states- Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, MadhyaPradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, andWest Bengal - more than halfof girls are married whilelegally stillchildren. Girls aremost vulnerable in the state of Bihar with nearly 70% of women in their early twenties reportedly married before thelegal age.2 The practice of child marriageis also more commonin rural areas - around 48% of women currently marriedand aged20-24 were marriedwhile aged under 18, compared to 29% in urban areas.3 elToo Soon: An overview ofchild marriagein India
    • ... ... / .... ... / % % % %%/ % % % % N % / N % S. ... .... .. ..... ..._ ...._ .............................___..._ .... .......... e ,.. . I , Ie I I I I I e /. .. / .0 I / I e% - -- -.... .. ".."........ .... " , - . ....../ -/ '- '-' ... / 1 ... .- / -// I , , / / ,I % / / // s / / // % . I / , . .e / 1 / ' 1 / I / 1 ir ' / /1 . /I ,/ / / I1 1 ' ' Percentage ofwomen 20-24years old who were married orin union by age 18 Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Punjab Uttaranchal Arunachal Pradesh aryana NCT of Delhi Sikkim Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujrat Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Chhattisgarh Dadar & Nagar Havel Orrisa Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Goa Karnataka Tamil Nadu Kerala Source: UNFPA database using DLHS and other household surveys Meghalaya 4,Tripura Mizoram Percentage (%) Nagaland Manipur O 11.7-19.9 O 20.0-29.9 O 30.0-39.9 O 40.0 & above O Data not available Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India le
    • The Big Picture: The journey ofa child bridein India The girl childis accorded low value, considered"paraya dhan"(another's wealth), a burden that needs to be transferred to anotherfamily. Deep-rooted patriarchalbeliefs view the role of a girl as a caretaker of childrenand the household. Marginalized Womenfrom the lowesteconomic quintile households getmarried five years earlier thangirls in the highest quintile households. V Lack of Education Girls with no education are six times more likelytoget married as minors than thosewith 10 years or more of education. V Rural Girls in rural areas arealmost twice as likely to be child brides,than those living in urban areas. Typically, a girl is promised in marriage by her family,either when she is a young childor teenager to 'secure' her future. Sometimes, her marriage may bearranged even before she is born. 47% of girls in Indiaare married before theage of18; one in five girls is married before the ageof15. Weddings are often held secretly or in conjunction with anotherevent such as a funeral. Younger daughters, someaged 5-10, tend tobe included discreetlyin the ceremony. AIt is difficult for thepolice toidentify child marriagesas they happen secretly. ASince the practice enjoyssocial sanction, childmarriagesare under-reported. AChild marriage can beannulled onlyby the parents of the couple or the couple itself. If the girl has been married as a child, traditionally, she is expected tolive ather parents' home until puberty, after whichshe is sent to her husband's home to commence her marriedlife. The transition from wife to motherusually occurswithin a year ortwo of marriage. 22% ofIndian girlshave already given birth by the ageof 18. Twice as likely to report being beaten, thrice as likely to report being subjected to forced sex 4 Infants of adolescent mothersare 50% more likely toresult intostillbirths and newborn deaths Twice as likely to die in childbirth as women in theirtwenties Lack of agency due toloss of peer networks and discontinued education Prone to post-traumatic stress suchas hopelessness and severe depression Daughters of women whowerechild bridesare at greater risk of being marriedas children themselves The lifetime opportunity cost of adolescentpregnancy of thosecurrently aged 15-19 will total12% of India's annual GDP 0 Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India
    • Tracing the journey of a child bride The drivers that encourage the existence of child marriageare multiple and layered. They reflect a combination ofpoverty, lack of education, continuedperpetration ofpatriarchal relationsthat facilitate gender inequalities,and cultural perspectives that enable the institution topersist. The practice of child marriageis driven by deep-rooted patriarchalbeliefs about therole and value of girls, both within the familyand in society. From an early age, a girl is conditioned toview her father, brother and future husband as a breadwinner, decisionmaker and headofthe household. Conversely she is taught toundertake household responsibilities,support her husband unconditionally and bear sons to continue the family'slineage. In Northern India, IKhap Panchayatsl, informal but all-powerful village councils that often govern ruralareas, havedecreed that girls shouldbe married as soon as they reach puberty to prevent social corruption and the influx of 'western values'. Source: www.huffingtonpost.com/siddharth-chatterjee/married-young-the-scourge_b_4550523.html In addition tobeing molded in her stereotypical role, the girl childis often regarded as an economic burden.Families areforced to select whichof their children they willinvest in, due to lack of resources. Most often, theychoose their sons, as they believe they will continueto live with themand support themin their old age. The daughter on the other hand is considered to be "paraya dhan" (i.e. the "wealthof another") and is expected to move to her marital homeafter she is married. Marryingher atan early age is a strategy for economic survival, as it ensuresthere is one less person to feed, clothe and educate.' The patriarchal mindset coupledwith theburden of poverty results in parents placingscant valueon their daughters and disregarding government laws andregulations to marry their daughters earlier than permissible. Even when parentsare prepared todelay their daughter's marriage, the lack of secondary schools in rural areas, the high riskof sexual exploitation while travelling to far-offschools, andthe absence of employmentopportunities foreducated girls in these areas, all deter parents from investing time and money in their daughters. Equally, a girl livingat home, alone,while her parents are out at work is also atrisk of sexual assault.Finding themselves unable to safeguard their daughter's honor, which also determines that ofthe family, parentsare eager to pass on her responsibility to someone else, not fully understandingthe impact of thismove on their daughter. Betrothal Finding a suitable groomfor their daughter as early as possible not onlyensures the family's own survival butin their mind also secures herfuture. Betrothals occurat different stages depending on the customs of the state and community. They may take placebefore a child is born, as infants, youngchildren or as teenagers. For example, itis quite commonin Rajasthan for girls as young as five to be promised to boys their age or a few years older,while remaining completely unaware of what is happening to them. Sometimes, thegirl is promised in marriage even before she is born, whentwo families agree to marrytheir yet unborn children ifthey turn out tobe of different sexes. Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India le
    • Girls with no education are six times more likely to get married than thosewith 10 years or more of education. Source: www hetv org/indhainfhsinfhs3/ NFRS-3-India-Ful I-Report-Volume-1 pdf 0 Too Soooverview ofchild niorriagein India
    • Marriage As the practiceis illegal, childmarriage typically takes place atnight or in the earlyhours of the morning. Younger sisters, irrespective of theirage are often marriedat the same ceremony as their elder sisters, to save money. Sometimes, other ceremonies such as funerals are used to formalize marriages, eliminating the cost of re-inviting and entertaining the same guests.Another method commonly applied toreduce expensesis the practice knownas atta-satta, wherea daughter is exchanged for a daughter-in-law, irrespectiveof her age.' Accordingto the mausar ceremony, which mainly occursin Rajasthan, uponthe deathof a family member, a marriage must be solemnized by the familywithin 13 days to transform theoccasion from one of sorrow toone of joy, evenif no family members are of marriageable age.'Families are only too eager to use such practices to marry a daughter early, as the youngershe is, the less dowry or brideprice they will be required to pay to the groom'sfamily. Dressed in finery, laden with jewelry and hennadecorated hands, some child bridesare too young to remain awake, insteadfalling asleep in their father's lap, clutching their toys while the ceremony takes place.Even when the girlis older, she generally remains unawareof the factand significance of her marriage until the ceremonyis over. Only when she is instructed toleave for her newmarital homedoes she realize that she is married. Even then, her age and lackof agency provide little opportunity for her toquestion her parents' decision. Gauna (Send-off) Traditionally in the northern states of India, when a girl is married as a young child she staysin her natal hometill she reaches puberty. At that point, she is considered to be anadult, and therefore old enough to consummateher marriage and fulfill her marital duties.The gauna ceremony involves the physical transfer of the girl from her natalto her marital home and typically occurs soon after she begins menstruating. In most rural communities preserving thevirginity ofthe girl until she begins living with her husbandis sacrosanct, and is closely associatedwith her family's honor. A girl's sexualityis considered moreas family property, than thegirl's independent choice or right, tobe protected and passed onto her marital family.In order tosafeguard their daughter from pre-maritalsex, consensual orforced - the family will thusseek to arrange her marriage early and move herto her marital homeas soon as she attains puberty. Loss of Innocence: Life after marriage For a child who becomes a bride, life changescompletely without as much as a warning. One day she may be at homehelping her mother withhousehold chores. The nextday she is told she must leave to live with her husbandand his family - strangers, essentially.She is not allowed to go to school. She is separated from her friends, familyand everything that is familiar toher. Along with an education and childhood being cut short,she is more likely to become a victim of domestic violenceand suffer severe stressand depression. Sexual activity begins soonafter marriage. Traumaticinitiation into sexual relationships coupledwith the social pressure on their young bodies to reproduce, particularly toproduce male offspring, puts them and their children at grave riskof life-long ill health oreven death. On average, a woman whohas her first child before the age of 18 will go onto have sevenchildren by the timeshe completes childbearing.' Having manychildren increases the likelihoodof poor maternal, infantand child health.' In addition, large families are more difficult to feed, which reinforces thecycle of poverty, child marriage and early pregnancy. In India onein five of all 20-24 year old women have given birth by the age of 18.9 Motherhood in childhood occurs for several reasons:exposure to frequent, often forcedsex; the pressure on a woman to 'prove'her fertility as soon as possible; poor awareness of familyplanning measures; ignorance of the effects of early pregnancyon a woman's health;and the inability to negotiate contraceptionuse. Early pregnancies have significant consequences bothfor the mother - as her body is insufficiently mature tobear the physical burden of carrying a baby - and herdependent children. Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India
    • "Child marriage is not only wrong,it is dangerous. It exposes a young girl to profound healthrisks from earlypregnancy and difficult childbirth, and it exposes her babyto complications of premature birth." - Anthony Lake, Executive Directorof UNICEF Maternal mortalityand morbidity: Possibly one of the worst effectsof child marriageis that it results in early pregnancyand increased maternal mortality.Girls under 15 are 5 times as likely and girls aged 15-19 are twice as likely to die in child birth as women in their early 20s due to their emotional and physicalimmaturity.' High levels of anemia and malnutrition among adolescent girls in India, combined with the inabilityto seek anduse adequate healthcare further compound the risk to their wellbeing.11'According tothe United Nations,complications frompregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15-19 in developing countries.' Girls under 15 are 5x aslikely and girls aged 15-19 are 2x as likely to die in child birthas women in their early 20s dueto their emotional and physical immaturity. If the girl survives,she will probablyexperience somephysical damage dueto an obstructed labor. As a doctor at the MahatmaGandhi Hospitalin Hyderabad said, "This15 year old offers a classic example of what can gowrong ifyou havea baby too young.She has high blood pressure, and because her body is not yet fully developed, herpelvic passage is too small andthe baby will getstuck. We shall have to carry out a caesarean."' Girls unable to access medical facilitiesthat conduct caesarian operationswill often experience obstetric fistula,a debilitating conditionthat renders a woman incontinent,and in most cases, results in a stillbirth or thedeath of the baby within the first weekof life.' In addition to these pregnancy related healthissues, young married girlsare at greater risk of infection fromsexually transmitted diseases suchas HIV/AIDS than boys, as they are forced to give into sex with an older husband, governed by values that prohibit resistance, and are unableto access information and services that could helpthem protectthemselves. 16 Child mortality and morbidity: Stillbirths and newborn deathsare 50%higher among infantsof adolescent mothers than amongthoseof mothers between theages of 20 and29.17 If the child survives, itwill generallyhave a lower birth weight and exhibit growth retardation,due to the mother's physical immaturity, and the factthat she is probably under-nourished.' This perpetuates a vicious cycle of malnutrition throughout adulthood and transmits physical, social and economic disadvantages from one generation to another.To make matters worse, their low household status meansmarried girlscannot demand adequatenutrition for either the daughters or themselves.The riskof malnutrition is higher for children under theage of five years born to mothers under theage of 18, than for childrenborn to women married after the legal age." Violence and abuse: Many parentsbelieve that marriage willprotect their daughters from sexual violence. This is an ironic expectationgiven that young, married girls are at greater risk of sexual and physicalviolence in their marital home.' A young, married girl has very low statusand negotiating power, leaving her morevulnerable toabuse by her husbandand other family members.' Husbands often initiatechild bridesinto sex byforce or coercion.Such children typically continue to experiencefrequent, non-consensualsex throughout their marriage.'A survey in Bihar and Jharkhand found that girls married before theage of 18 were three timesas likely as those married laterto reportbeing forced to have sex without their consent in the preceding six months. Further, childbrides weretwice as likely to reportbeing beaten, slappedor threatened by their husbands, than girls who marriedlater.' Too Soon:An overview ofchild marriagein India
    • kalT4 cgia oT,F4t c61 (435v Photo credit: UrmulTrust - . Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India le
    • Trafficked childbrides: Rampant sex selection in certain areas of the country has ledto a shortage of women of marriageable age. As a result, girlsare being married at evenlower ages. Unfortunately, thehigh demand for girls in affluent states such as Haryana, where sex selection is particularly common,has resulted in girls beingtrafficked for marriage from poorerstates like Assam. This more recentdevelopment has exacerbated an already serious problem,as it not only involves thetrafficking ofgirls for marriage but tendsto affect youngergirls who attract higher bridal prices. Trafficked child brides,usually unableto speak the language of thearea to which they have been transported, can often neither escape nor report their situation to authorities. As a result, they become easy targets for wife sharing among family member reselling in marriage to another, orfor being further trafficked intoprostitution. Psychological trauma: Not surprisingly,child brides often showsigns of child sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress, including feelingsof hopelessness, helplessnessand severe depression.' After marriage they leave their family and everything that is familiar to them.They lose their peer networks because they drop out of school, andare not allowed toleave their new homesto meet new peers or old friends. They are alsodenied any decision-making powers orindependence and often have a low sense of self-worth. Withmarriage they also lose their childhood, and sometimes in a matter of months make the transition frombeing a child to being a married mother with adultresponsibilities underthe authority ofa new husbandand family. For most of these young brides, psychologicaltrauma is inevitable. Inter-generational consequences: Unfortunately the consequencesofchild marriageare not just felt over the courseof a single life-time, as they are inter-generational.' Child marriage is a driver for early, multiple and complicated births. With more mouths tofeed, andhigh medical expenses linked to early pregnancy,the financialburden on a married girl and her family increases, pushing her deeper intopoverty. This increases the likelihoodof a premature marriage for their daughters.' Indeed, studiesshow that daughters of women who werechild bridesare atgreater risk of being married as children themselves, perpetuating cycles of povertyand disempowerment.27 "Child marriage continuesto be immersed in a vicious cycle of poverty, low educational attainment,high incidences ofdisease, poorsex ratios, the subordination of women,and most significantly the inter-generational cycles of all ofthese." Source: cis.uchicago.edu/sites/cis.uchicago.eddfiles/resources/081118-Shulman_India-BackgroundReading.pdf The costof inaction 'According to decades of research, child marriagescontribute to virtually every social problem that keeps India behindin women's rights. The problems include soaring birthrates, grinding poverty andmalnutrition, high illiteracy and infant mortality, and lowlife expectancy, especially among rural women."" The evidence is clear: for girls, early marriage and pregnancy adversely affecttheir rights to education and health, to life opportunities and indeed, to life itself.It is time toend child marriage, simply for the sake of those who are subjected to it. Yet, the costs of inaction extend farbeyond the price paid by girls themselves. Negative consequences of early marriageimpact families, communities,and the entire nation.In India alone, the costof lost productivity due to adolescentpregnancies is $7.7 billion a year.' The 0 Too Soon:An overview ofchild marriagein India
    • 28 million girls in India would become child brides in the nexttwo decades. The cost of lostproductivity due to adolescent pregnancies in India is $7.7 billion a year. Source: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-10-30/news/43528697_1_adolescent-girls-pregnancy-young-girls lifetime opportunity cost of adolescent pregnancy ofthosecurrently aged 15-19 will total 12% of India's annual GDP.'What is worse is that these adverse effectsare not confinedto the mother; instead these extendto her children, continuing thecycle of poverty, deprivation and violation of basic human rights. We know that the costs of inaction, in terms of unrealized rights, lostpotential and development opportunities, far outweigh theexpense of intervention.We alsoknow theextent of the problem: as example, 28 million of the girls in India, born between2005 and 2010,will become child bridesby 2030.31 Unless immediate measures aretaken to address earlymarriage, it will continue tobe the epicenter of numerous issues Indiais grappling with - sex selection, domestic violence, maternal and infant mortality,and disempowerment ofwomen. As a nation we cannot afford to overlook the well-beingand potential ofthese at-risk girls or the millionswho are already married today. We needto act now. Key takeaways Child marriage is an extremely widespread problemfacing India today. 47%of girls aged 20-24 - amounting to26 million girls -were married under theage of 18.32 Further, 18% of women aged 20-24 were married before theage of 15 years.' Child marriage is driven by deep-rooted beliefs about therole andvalue of a girl's life. Gendered mindsets resultin parents placinglittle value on educating their daughters, who drop out ofschool with limited livelihoodprospects and noalternatives toearly marriage. This allows stereotypical beliefs of a girl's potential to continueunchallenged in rural areas. Child brides are at greater risk of sexual and physicalviolence in their marital home, and vulnerable todebilitating sexual andreproductive infectionssuch as HIV.Girls under 15 are 5x as likely and girls aged 15-19 are 2x as likely to die in child birth thanwomenin their early 20s. 22% of womenin India aged20-24 give birth before theage of 18 - infants of adolescent mothers are likelyto be still born, remainmalnourished and in case of a daughter, be married as a child thereby perpetuating povertyand disempowerment. Cost of inaction is significant - the lifetimeopportunity cost of adolescent pregnancyof those currently aged 15-19 will total12% of India's annualGDP. Too Soon: Anoverview ofchild marriagein India
    • My name is Selvi... and I am a driver!! Photo credit: Eliso Poloschi 0 1 Stories OfChange
    • / At the age of 14, Selviwas forcefully married off. Repeatedly abusedby her husband,she ranaway to her natalhome for shelter. But hermother and family were unwilling.They beather, taunted her andrepeatedly asked her to return toher husband.All this forcedSelvi to run awaya second time; this time toend herlife. She saw a bus speeding down herway, and wished to come under it; but just in the nick of time, she changed her mindand climbed thebus instead! Selvi was helped by strangers, dissuadedfrom pursuing houseworkto earn a livelihood, and referred to theOdanadi shelter for girls. At Odanadi,Selvi was encouraged to move on from her past and trained tobecome a car driver. Since then, she has never lookedback. Fromsleeping in hercar to carrying chilli powderfor protection,Selvi learned to manage in a male dominated field, as she drove strangers around,within and out of thecity. She also married again; this time ofherown choice. She calls it: my lovemarriage. 111If% --"-.5ervi,erroasf61'hilanthropy Week, 2014 , ss s s, ,' ss s ss, ,,' ,, ., ' ' 0 % 0 0 /' . / v/ Stories Of Changele
    • Photo credit: Educate Girls AI1 Key Players: St h ers involved in tackling child m age
    • Cases of Rukhmabai and Phulmoneedrew the government's attention to the issue ofchild marraigein the 1880's Key Players: Stakeholders involved in tackling child marriage The issue of child marriage entered public discoursein India in the 19th century throughtwo landmark cases that highlighted issues ofwomen's choice and consent in marriage. These werethe cases of Rukhmabai in Maharashtra and Phulmonee in Bengal. In 1884, 22year oldRukhmabairefused to consummate her marriage with herhusband, to whom she wasmarried atthe ageof 11. Retained in her natal house tocomplete her education, Rukhmabai soon realized the questionablecharacter of her husband and didnot wish toproceed with the marriage. He on the other handwanted restitution of his conjugal rights, andfiled a case against her demandingthem. Rukhmabai defied the court'sorder to return to her husband, arguing that she would much rather go tojail than remainin an unwanted marriagethat was solemnized at an age whenshe wasincapable of giving consent. While thecase ended in anout of court settlement, it brought to the fore previouslyunheard issues of women's rights and choice in marriage. Rukhmabai's powerful demandfor her rights was in stark contrast to the case of Phulmonee, who died of marital rape at the ageof 11. Thisaction was brought posthumously byhermother. In 1890, she filed a case against herson-in-law, HariMaiti, demanding justicefor the marital rape and deathof her daughter.In arguing her case, she- asked thecourt to consider the imageof her daughter lying in blood succumbingto theinjuries of forced intercourse. Since colonial laws penalized marital rape onlyfor child brides of up to 10 years old,Hari Maiti was acquitted of marital rape and murder, and chargedonly with "rash acts". However, thecase paved the wayfor the argument againstthe "normal" and religiously sanctioned practiceof allowing intercourse with child brides, oncethey attained puberty. Boththese cases exerted pressureon the government, which raisedthe legal age for marriage andconsent to marry from 10 to12, inthe last decade of the century. Source: http://sonhaticom/excerpted/2207/ The role of government Public discussionon the cases of Rukhmabai and Phulmonee first drew the government's attention to theissue of child marriage. Subsequently,and particularly since the 1970s, the government's response to child marriagehas generally involvedlegal reforms mainly focusedon raising the age of consent and marriage. In 1994 it became a signatory to the UnitedNation's `International Conference on Population and Development' Program of Action.' Subsequently, the governmenthas made concerted efforts to introduce initiativessuch as conditional cash transfers, and strengthen existing programs tohelp adolescent girls and their families delay marriage and pregnancies. Key Players: Stakeholders involved in tackling child marriage 0.
    • 0 Keygovernmentmilestonesintheefforttoaddresschildmarriage GOIlaunchesKishoriShakbYojna fornutritionaldevelopmentand empowermentofadolescentgirls GOIlaunchestheRashtriyaKishor SwasthyaKaryakram(RKSK),a programtoaddressthehealth& developmentalneedsofthe243 millionadolescentsinIndia,based onacontinuumofcareapproach MinimumlegalageLegalageforGOIlaunchesApniBei7ApnaDhan,aconditionalGOIlaunchestheSABLAschemeto formarriageraisedmarriageofgirlscashtransferthatcanbeclaimedonlyifthegirlimprovethehealth,nutritionand from10to12yearsraisedto15remainsunmarriedtilltheageof18developmentstatusofadolescentgirls 18911929195019781994199720002006201120132014 Agenda ChildMarriageRestraintAct(CMRA) broughtintoforce,raisesminimumage formarriageofgirlsto14 0Raisingtheageofmarriage 0Empoweringthegirl Minimumlegalagefor marriageofgirlsraisedto18, thatstillstandstoday GOIlaunchesBalikaSamridhiYojna,a conditionalcashtransferaimedat enrollingandretaininggirlsinschool GOIdraftstheNationalStrategyFor PreventionOfChildMarriage,a guidingdocumentforstatestotackle childmarriage Adolescenthealthbecomesa keyobjectiveintheNational RuralHealthMission GOIlaunchestheRMNCH+Astrategy thatpromotesadolescenthealthcare andacknowledgesearlymarriageasa healthrisknotonlytoyounggirlsbut alsototheirchildren. CMRAreplacedbythemore progressiveProhibitionofChild MarriageAct(PCMA)
    • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA) The ChildMarriage Restraint Act(CMRA) of 1929 was framed and campaigned for by women's organizations throughout India. Thesegroups not onlydemanded that the legal agefor marriage be raised, but also the impositionof punishments on those who break the law.'At the time,civil society played an important role in helping thegovernment to betterunderstand this complex issue, andto frameits own thinking and actions in the absence of any international dialogue. The CMRA wasamended twice,in 1950 and 1978,increasing the minimumlegal ageof marriage for girls to 15 years andthen finally to18 years. Finally,in 2005 it was replaced by the more progressive Prohibition ofChild Marriage Act (PCMA) 2006.36 Snapshot: The Prohibition of Child MarriageAct (PCMA), 2006 The PCMAdeclares child marriagea serious and non-bailable offence. Girls below 18 years of age and boysbelow 21 years areconsidered childrenunder the Act. To implement the law, each district is required toappoint a Child Marriage Prohibition Officer (CMPO). CMPOs areempowered to "interveneand file petitions" before and after a child marriage takes place. They areresponsible for taking the requiredsteps to prevent theoccurrence of child marriagesin their district, and to ensure that those who break the laware prosecuted. Courts havepower to issue injunctions to prohibitchild marriages from takingplace. Ifa marriage goes aheadit is considered null andvoid, as it is when a child is taken from his or her parents through illegal means,deceit, force or is sold or trafficked for marriage. The lawenables both groomsand brides to seek the annulment ofa marriage conductedin childhood within twoyears of becoming adults, orearlier, with thehelp of their guardians. Once a child marriageis annulled, theAct requiresthe provision of maintenance and accommodation for thegirl by her husbandand/or in-laws untilshe remarries. Children bornof an annulled child marriage are deemed legal and their custody is decided based on the children'sbest interests. The lawdecrees imprisonment ofup totwo years and/or a fine of up to INR 100,000 ($1,660) for performing, conducting, abetting, promotingor permitting a child marriage.Those punishable includean adult male marrying a child, as well as parents and guardians, and any other person or organization (example, the police)that allows or facilitatesa child marriage. Female offenders may be fined but cannotbe imprisoned. Any personcan report a child marriage before orafter it has occurred, and anyperson with personal or reliableinformation of an impending child marriagecan file a complaint. Source: http://www.uniceforg/india/Child Marriage handbook.pdf The new law on child marriage clearly representsa crucial milestone in the government's response to thepractice, not onlydue to its greater emphasis on prevention and prosecution but more importantly because of its focus on child protection. However, severaloperational problems exist that must be addressed if the Act is to protectchildren properly: Over-reliance on community.' Currently, thelaw relieson the community to notify authorities of impending child marriages. However,community members are often strongly discouragedfrom taking actiongiven the importanceattached to marriage in most Indiancommunities, and the legal and financial repercussionsfor the girl's family.The thought of subjectinga girl to the stigma of a broken marriagefurther reduces the motivation for communitymembers to report an impending marriage."' Lack of CMPOs: Only 15 out of 28 states have appointed CMPOs. Most often, the responsibility for enforcing theAct becomesthat ofthe district collector, who does not regard its implementation as a major priority."' Key Players: Stakeholders involvedin tackling child marriage
    • Police under community pressure.' Police andother officials are bribable and more commonly are subject to pressure from thecommunity to turna blind eye onchild marriage.Where officials report a child marriage,communities have been known to retaliate with violence, intimidating those who mightotherwise have notified theauthorities.' In 2005, Shakuntala Varma, a supervisor under theIntegrated Child Development Services (ICDS), intervened to stopa child marriage,and was consequently threatened and attacked by various people resultingin her hands beingseverely injured. Source: http://www.unicef.org/india/ Child_Marriage_handbook.pdf Misplaced responsibilities.' The Act places responsibility on the minors concernedto seek the annulment ofa wedding within twoyears of theirreaching maturity,either in person or through their guardians-the very people who sanctioned their marriages in the firstplace. Although the firstchild marriageannulment in India occurred in 2012, it willbe a long and difficult task to ensure that all minors are sufficiently empowered todemand the annulments of their own child marriagesifthey so wish.' Photo credit: Sahayog India 111 Key Players: Stakeholders involvedin tackling child marriage
    • Deconstructing the government's effortsto tackle child marriage Central Government Policy 0 The draft NationalStrategy For Prevention OfChild Marriage recognizes child marriageas a key obstacle to achieving Millenium DevelopmentGoals (MDGs);promotes local action, partnershipsand evidence building; the recently launchedRMNCH+A strategy provides comprehensiveand integrated healthservices which serve as a strong framework under which early marriageand pregnancy can beaddressed A India declined to co-sponsortheglobal resolution against child, earlyand forced marriages,led bythe UN Human Rights Council Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA) Ministry ofLaw and Justice Declares child marriageas a serious and non-bailable offence,places greater emphasis on prevention, prosecution and childrights Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT) Ministry ofWomen and Child Development Kishori Shakti Yojana: health, nutrition, development Balika Samriddhi: enrollment and retention ofgirls in schools 00Programs Ministry ofWomen and ChildDevelopment Ministry ofHealth and FamilyWelfare Ministry ofHuman Resource Development SABLA: health, nutrition, life skills,education Adolescent Reproductiveand SexualHealth (ARSH) hasbeen madea key objective in the National Rural Health Mission RKSK addresses the health and developmental needs of the243 million adolescents in India based ona continuum ofcare approach KasturbaGandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV): residential schoolsfor upper primarygirls from marginalized backgrounds State Government Prohibition ofChild Marriage Act(PCMA) State governments are required to appoint Child Marriage Prohibition Officers (CMPOs) and to frame rules. So far 21 States haveframed their rules and 15 haveappointed ProhibitionOfficer- no information is available on whether these are newly appointed or additional responsibilities given to existingofficers coConditional Cash Transfers State governments have put in placetheir own directand indirect conditionalcash transfer schemes for girls Direct: cash incentive ifthe girl marriesat or after 18 (Sahayog, in Rajasthan) Indirect: cash incentive for various milestones suchas birth registration, enrollment in school, delayed marriage Impact on the ground Under reporting ofchild marriage cases: In 2010 only111 caseswere reported of which 11 were convicted Onus is on the minors or guardians to annul the marriage Thefirst child marriage was annulled in 2012 Impact assessment ofthe earliestCCT Apni BetiApna Dhanis underway to studythe impacton the first cohort of beneficiaries, who turned 18 in2012 ,a1 While most programsare recent, experts `11F suggest thatthe SABLA scheme is having the desired impact, due to effectiveuse of existing government machineryand its emphasis on interdepartmental convergence Key Players: Stakeholders involved in tackling child marriage fa
    • Apart from updating thelaw to increase the legal ageof marriage as well as to protect therights of girls, the government has undertaken two separate initiatives to reinforceits commitment to girls' empowerment, education, reproductive rights, and gender equality: (a) Conditional cash transfer schemes (b) Health and development programs Conditional cash transfer schemes In the 1990s, the governmentlaunched variousconditional cash transfer schemes (CCTs) that sought to delay early marriages.Some were directly linked to child marriage.For example, in several stateswhere such marriages are widespread, parentsare offered a cash incentive to marry their daughters after thelegal ageis attained. The Sahyog Schemein Rajasthan provides familiesof backward castes with INR 5,000 ($ 84) if the girl marries betweenthe ages of 18-21, andINR 10,000 ($167)if she marries after the age of 21. The scheme covers up to two daughters in a family. Other CCTs such as the ApniBetiApna Dhan (ABAD) schemeand the Balika Samriddhi Yojna (BSY) seek to address child marriage moreindirectly. These seekto alter parents' behavior towardstheir daughters by incentivizing them toensure their welfare throughout theirentire childhood. Typically, in order to receive these cash incentives, parents must ensure birthsare registered, early immunization programs are completed, children are enrolled (and sometimes retained)in school, and that marriages takeplace only after the age of 18. Prerna In an attempt to encourage positivebehavior change, GOI launched the conditionalcash transfer scheme Prerna for BPL couples who have "broken the stereotypeof early marriage, ea childbirth and repeated childbirth and have helped changethe mindsets of the community".To avail itsincentive, thegirl shouldhave married after 19 and the boy after 21 years of age. Their first child shouldbe born only aftertwo years of marriage. On meeting this condition, the couple receives INR 10,000 for a boy and INR 12,000 for a girl child.An additional incentiveof INR 5,000 (boy child)and INR 7,000 (girl child) is provided if the couple ensuresa gap of three or moreyears between their first two children, and if either parent voluntarily accepts a permanent methodof family planning within a year of having their second child. The schemeis currently running in seven states of the countryand has spent about INR 72 lakhs (USD 120,000) between 2010and November 2013. Source: http://www.jsk.gov.in/PrernaStrategy.pdf Experts interviewed by Dasrareported that whileCCTs may have a role to play in the absence of other positive interventions, theyalone cannot address the problem.' Despite considerable political willsupporting this modelof intervention, the extentto which CCTs help delay marriage will only become apparentin the near future. An impact assessment is under way to study the first round of ApniBeti ApnaDhan schemebeneficiaries, who turned18 in 2012." Experts believe these measureswill be successful, atleast in the short-term, but willneed to be supported by further measures designedto change behavior ifthey are to have anylong-term impact.' 0 Key Players: Stakeholders involvedin tackling child marriage
    • Programs for health, education andempowerment of adolescent girls Most programsimplemented by the government toaddress child marriagehave focused on mitigating the negative health effectsof this practiceon young girls and their children. Whilesome adolescent girl health programslike the Kishori Shakti Yojna did include an empowerment component, minimalemphasis was placed onit untilthe launch of theRajiv Gandhi Schemefor Empowerment of Adolescent Girls, known as the SABLA scheme. Implemented through the Ministryof Health and FamilyWelfare's ICDS machinery, SABLA targets girls aged 11-18 in 200 districts ofIndia. It focuses on improving nutritionand empowering adolescent girls. It comprises a range of activities from promotingawareness of adolescent reproductive and sexualhealth, nutrition and child care, to enablinggirls to access opportunities for vocational trainingand support in returning to school. While theSABLA scheme is still fairly new, experts interviewed by Dasrafelt it had succeeded in drawing girls into safe spacesfor learning and exploring opportunities. In doing so, they had become more exposedto alternatives to marriage, and could access peer support necessary to stand up to theirparents. Experts suggest that effective use of existing government machinery, such as ICDS,and collaboration between government departments, partlyexplain the successful implementation of the program."' The government has a major role to play in addressing child marriage,given its sustainability, resources and ability to scale effective interventions.There is a growing consensus of opinion in the development sector that non-profitorganizations should work alongside thegovernment tohold it accountable,shape itsthinking, and helpit implement its lawsand programs more effectively. The role of private foundations So far, international private foundations have beenthe most important stakeholders in the child marriage sector. By funding non-profit organizations, they have enabled theincubation of new models of interventionto tackle child marriageand have sustained and scaled successful initiatives. The four key private foundations in the child marriagesector are: the MacArthur Foundation, which pioneeredsupport fromprivate foundations foragencies dealing with child marriage in India; the Ford Foundation; the Packard Foundation; and the KendedaFund. Between 2011 and 2013,these four committed$17.06 million to child marriageprogramming in India, andallocated a further $33.16 millionin multi-country grants, ofwhich India's exact share is unknown.43These funds were directed towardsa wide range of activities includingresearch, advocacy, capacity buildingand technical assistance, network-building, influencingpolicy, monitoring and evaluation, grant-making,and promoting education and livelihoods for girls. The Kendeda Fund Regarding funding devoted solely to Indian projects,the Kendeda Fund,the sector's most recent entrant, has committed USD 15.3 million, representing90% of total spending. It became involved in funding child marriageissues through its newly founded girls' rightsportfolio, in August 2013.4' Before committing funds to campaigning against childmarriage, the Kendeda Fundfinanced environment sustainabilityissues in the US. Having only recentlybegun to participatein the sector's concerns, the fundhas partnered with the internatnon-profit organization American Jewish World Service (AJWS) to provide grantsto India. Currently, AJWS funds 18 grassroots organizations across Indiathat work to empowergirls and "hasten theend of child marriage" by addressing underlying social andeconomic causes. Significantly, the Kendeda Fund is one of only a few funding organizationsthat make unrestricted grants to small non-profit organizations.' This fact alongwith the amount offunds it has available, makes the Kendeda Fund a significant entrant forIndia's childmarraige sector. Its entry not onlyholds potential for innovative interventionson the ground, butalso for promoting institutional development of grassroots organizations. Key Players: Stakeholders involvedin tackling child marriage0
    • 32 Key Players: Stakeholders involved in tackling child marriage While open to funding experimental intervenƟons to address child marriage, private foundaƟons also accord significant priority to their grantees’ monitoring and evaluaƟon (M&E) processes. This is oŌen a challenge for non profits dealing especially with longitudinal change. Realizing this characterisƟc of their work, private foundaƟons increasingly encourage their grantees to develop M&E systems well-suited to their pace of change, measuring progress rather than final impact. This is essenƟal for non profits to know how they could improve, as well as to beƩer represent their work in an increasingly compeƟƟve and growing non-profit sector.50 The role of mulƟlateral and bilateral donors To date, UNICEF and UNFPA have been the main parƟcipants in this category. UNICEF began to focus on child marriage with the passage of the United NaƟons Child Rights ConvenƟon in 1989, which mandated governments to accord a high priority to child protecƟon issues. As part of its efforts to address child marriage, UNICEF works very closely both with the government and grassroots organizaƟons. While providing financial support to organizaƟons, UNICEF’s biggest contribuƟon is the technical support it provides to governments and non-profit organizaƟons to facilitate “a change in social norms and behaviors while also promoƟng insƟtuƟonal capacity and law enforcement.” 51 Pivotal to UNICEF’s strategy for addressing child marriage is its engagement with grassroots stakeholders. It aƩaches considerable importance to engaging community and family decision-makers, promoƟng educaƟon for girls, and ensuring effecƟve behavior change communicaƟon. Girls Not Brides is a global partnership of more than 300 civil society organizaƟons from over 50 countries, commiƩed to ending child marriage. Formally iniƟated in 2011, Girls Not Brides empowers those seeking to end child marriage by encouraging them to learn from each other’s experiences and successes; mobilizing policy, financial and program support to end child marriage; raising awareness of the harmful impact of this pracƟce as well as of potenƟal soluƟons by encouraging open and informed discussion at the local, naƟonal and internaƟonal levels. DirecƟon-seƫng is a crucial role oŌen played by private sector funders. Among mulƟ-country grants menƟoned earlier, Ford FoundaƟon made the most recent and significant global commitment of USD 25 million to ensure greater "visibility, resources and grounded soluƟons" to the problem of child marriage, while also providing "real alternaƟves for girls and communiƟes". The FoundaƟon leverages its relaƟonships with the funder community, governments, and internaƟonal networks such as Girls Not Brides to increase commitments to address child marriage and to highlight the soluƟons that are being found. Its aim is to eliminate the pracƟce within a generaƟon. Girls Not Brides Photo credit : Sarathi Source: Personal CommunicaƟon with Lakshmi Sundaram, Girls Not Brides, 2014
    • USAID USAID focuses on early marriagein India, within its broader focus on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual health. On the one hand itfunds state level programs such as UDAAN in Uttarakhand and Saloni Swasth KishoriYojana in Uttar Pradesh, to address the issue through behavior change communication, in-school interventions, deliveryof health services for married and unmarried adolescents, as well as formation ofpeer networks.It also funds capacity building activitiesto ensure adequate execution oftheseprograms. On the other hand, USAID is investing in evidence building by funding the evaluationof the nationalscheme, Apni Beti ApnaDhan, that seeks to delay marriagefor girls across the country through conditionalcash transfers. USAID is likely to become a lot more influentialin the child marriagespace internationally given the recentpassing of the ViolenceAgainst Women ReauthorizationAct, 2013which mandates inclusionof child marriage in its focus on international development. Source: PersonalCommunication withUSAID, 2014 While UNFPA is relatively new to thechild marriagesector in India, ithas already become the agency responsible for managing efforts toaddress the problemof sex selection - yet another manifestation of the low value accordedto daughters in several parts of India. Leveragingits understanding of gender constructs,UNFPA addresses childmarriage indirectly by responding to the problem'scausal factors - high vulnerability and limited opportunities. In contrast to UNICEF's emphasis on community engagement, UNFPA is increasingly focusedon upstream policy work. There is a growing recognitionamong stakeholdersthat the underlyingcauses of child marriage are gendered normsand patriarchal mindsets,and that these need to be addressed if the issue is to be dealt with effectively. This has ledto an increasing consensusthat the community is central to change, andthat it mustbe involved in any response to child marriageif efforts totackle the issue areto have any lasting impact. The role of international and national non-profit organizations International non-profitorganizations, such as CARE, Action Aid and Savethe Children, play a variety ofroles in the fight against child marriage.Their most significantcontribution is their work in global level advocacy,to leverage long-standing networksand build new strategic alliances. Through their networks and campaigning, these organizations mobilize greatervisibility and support for theissue, helping to build a sector aroundchild marriagewhere responses are less fragmented and more complimentary. They also invest in research and evidence building, which in turn forms thebasis for their advocacy bothinternationally and in specific countries. Organizations such as Action Aid andAJWS contribute tothe field through sub-grants tolocal non-profit organizations, and by building their capacities. National non-profit organizations work effectively with the government todevelop policy frameworks, building capacityofgovernment officials and mobilizing community support through grassroots outreach work.For example, the Indian non-profit organization MAMTA was consulted Key Players: Stakeholders involved in tackling child marriage
    • 1°1u=lasY3 XP m=======m &Fel-0 IF 3-tri aPER 411F vq, 1=7 ftzt[ k-o-c-6trT4 it*Fr 1;knm * malt *AtVOKTIT670'Nr4 *slit] tM4 AdtlITTIERIF 1M¢ Amal 1=r errlmT 71 7sTibi grAi ok 1714174 4h<it 31*1 4143F4 3.1E1W WET f6kRzi vimr1 veggi kvrl, WIT 417 tlaz 41 ter A v4m wetm*Ilit'liwn :Tpz tri 40 *Air MA Arm vigi1 as 1 artZl 17g4 I'mtgt 474* ittfrTra arc &it lkrri %Alki- rtr odfa 7) mull 151 Ilia rag Toform fat-Fitig TI*1191w4fzaldirwreagrlirtrili tn Trmr qrqw7F7TE* =W17747E:7* 9114 411.4 woW ftritqT 71;rwFruTofwr* tipv7WIt*t fw[T fr4a.ati *maw tmn * 7 144Kr 9E1 val Rawz Tprzf*IituiT v4t *irmt adf az larm tre) 410.54 qvErrui PRA L FFILF 19 ate 4... a Ar*r7Er TRA lif-RITL irrivw Pm WlI I asr If ,"4-* .:474".16.0Ahlr gAZZ r) afr 44 716'' '90tr,*'4Prmfzr.?":* to help devisethe draft National Strategyfor Prevention of Child Marriage, due to its experience and expertise in addressing adolescent issues. It hasalso recently begun capacity building initiatives with districtand localgovernment officials to tackle child marriage.Breakthrough ran a pilot project tomobilize community supportagainst early marriagein three high prevalence districts of Bihar and Jharkhand. It convenes community members to discuss child marriage,and in particular, its adverse effects on their girls' rights, includingtheir education and health. The highlight of this campaign is its focus on engaging men andboys, particularly thelatter, so it can help them become agentsfor change and challenge traditional norms aboutthe role and valueof girls. In addition toits youth leadership program, Breakthroughalso uses national mass media and street theatre toengage communities on the issue.' The role of academic and research institutions Research is critical to solving any problem effectively.Policy makers andpractitioners need a rigorous understandingof the issue, its causes andimpact, and recommended action strategies.'' They also require an understanding of 'what works' in tackling child marriageand any gapsin implementation.' International institutionssuch as the International Center for Research onWomen (ICRW), CARE, Plan International and the Population Council all carry out research on child marriage. Theyuse it to strengthen the evidencebase andas an advocacy tool todelay marriage at national and international meetings. In addition to generatingresearch and evidence, academicand researchinstitutions also offer monitoring and evaluation support to non-profitorganizations and government programs that often lack the necessary in-house capacity. For example, ICRW is conducting a five-year impact analysis of the central government's ApniBeti ApnaDhan Scheme,which was the first touse conditional cash incentives to delay marriage in India. On the other hand, the PopulationCouncil is working withUN agencies to developa generic framework to monitorthe transformation and impact of child marriage programs.Given the multi-layered natureof the issue andthe challenges involved in assessing change, this framework represents a significant contribution to thechild marriage sector in India. Although monitoring and evaluation support is provided by some academic and research institutions in India, these are neither accessible nor affordable for most non-profit organizations operating in this sector. Expertsinterviewed by Dasrastress the need to build this skillset in more academic institutions so that even grassroots non-profits, withsmall budgets, can afford quality monitoring and evaluation support, to bringmore credibility to theirwork.' 0 Key Players: Stakeholders involvedin tackling child marriage
    • 11111111111 *az . gem 14 37D1271, 2013 1M5 qFM RZfr N-arg m-Tar4m-r Rtvr tr31T1f4 .q11 a Trigrft *14 Arr-e*r kre 4:d7a7ii f4arg-T6114*7T4*re*TFItftzrr#4ri at Fr Irrrq 3T#117r 'ClIrei* 4IF N-di-63-171c121I k.*71' #Z2419" wmr-qtir4 74 air4r-Aw wwfi--dr *r4wrr tzrff-11m7 74 37rt 31-<-4 trr *77q74 4rk-, 71p, wRil, kw a Nriur#11-e*rtivr*T.rqicfrk4*.r-e-w'srFart7rfi Ttz:E4T9*ilupprzaf 57;r zuqr 3td7uxtr lar ka77***N-or 9.43176*77rrwzr gam 7774q7117-er9rEzlIFarm ftr*7. mr-tr f rri 4-qur fpard 777*R1 fa-arm #v-4 *r 1774r r-ew ft4r #71 5 aiFtkiu aef The non-profit organization, Vikalp, organized the "our daughters'rights" campaign to advocate against child marriage and promote education forgirls, inover 40 villages ofJodhp.ur district. The campaign ensured 'buyin' of key government officials who launchedthe campaign in each visited.village..The campaign targeted students from multiple schools. The role of the media Child marriage is a grassroots problem, most prevalent among ruraland illiterate populations that often rely on verbal means to communicate knowledgeand entertainment. It is therefore incumbent on localmedia to highlight positive role models that challenge the norm of child marriage, rather than spreading sensational news involving the elopementor rape of young unmarried girls. Exceptionally, the primetime soap opera, Balika Vadhu, ran counter to the media's usual coverage by not onlyportraying the dire effectsof child marriageand the socio-economic factors that promote it, but more importantly, summarizingthe lesson learnt from each episode, to ensure the message wastransmitted clearly and effectively to its intended audience. Despite its strong social messaging,the soap has been a success. This clearly shows there is a huge market for positive messagingon child marriageand itsunderlying causes. Key takeaways The government's response to child marriage has predominantly involved legal reforms that have focused on increasing the age of marriage. Since the mid-1990s, it has made concerted efforts to introduce initiativessuch as conditional cash transfers, and to strengthen existing programsto supportadolescent girls and their families in delaying marriage and pregnancies. Private foundations such as Ford, MacArthur, and Packard haveplayed a vital role in promoting the issue of child marriageas a social ill,and funded non-profit organizations to address the problem on the ground. Most recently, theKendeda Fund has been the largest source of finance, having committed USD 15.3 million to theissue of child marriage in India during 2013. Academic and research institutions such as ICRW and Population Councilhave been instrumental in providing crucial evidence of the extent of the problemand how to tackle it. Thisis critical in helping understand 'what works, and can be usedas advocacy tools to influence policy and practice on the ground. The media is a powerful tool throughwhich norms and beliefs about child marriagecan be challenged. Local soap operas have done so byhighlighting the harmfuleffects of child marriage on girls and promoting positive girl role models. Key Players: Stakeholders involved in tacklingchild marriage le
    • S. / / / i S. / / /S. , / / / S. I // . /.. I /.. ... I I... ... 1 ... .. '''. .... i ... .... 0. .. ''' ... -I... .... "" / .., ... I / ... . / I .. ... .. '/ I / .../.. / / / .... . . S. S. S. N S. S. *.o. ... S., 4.S. .... Si. X x X Text and photo credit. www.urmutore?product=beyond-novella-memories-of-change COStories Of Change
    • 0 r Seizingeveryopportunity Amarriedgirlat6,ahouseholderat13,amotherat15andtoday,astudentofGeneralNurse MidwiferyinBikanercity.Maghineverattendedregularschoolalthoughsheattendedabalika shivir*whenshewas9.Belowtheeligibleageof12,Maghiinsistedonattendingtheshivirwith heroldersister;leadingtoarevisionoftheminimumeligibleageforthesecamps.Herexperience attheshivirnotonlysparkedherinterestinlearningbutalsoexposedhertothestoriesandstrife ofseveralothergirlslikeherself.Thisexposurebecameherbackbonethroughallthehardships shefacedduringherlife.Soonaftershewastakentoherhusband'shouse,Maghirealizedthat pursuinghereducationwouldbeastruggle.Thisrealizationmadeherillandshewassentbackto hernatalhometorecover.Maghiclinchedthisopportunitytotakeherclass10examinationand cleareditwithdistinction.Thiswastobeoneofthemanyopportunitiessheseizeddespite knowledgeoftheoppositionshewouldface.However,eachsuccessinfusedherwithmore confidencetoaddressthisoppositionandconverttohersideallthosewhoonceopposedher. Keyamongsttheseconvertsisherhusband.Heoncecametofetchherhomewhenshewasonly 13,tobearthedutiesofahouseholder.Today,heencourageshiswifetocompletehereducation eventhoughitmeanslivingaloneinthecity,awayfromtheresponsibilityoftheirhouseholdand eventheirson. *Balikashivir:Nonformalschoolsforgirls,previouslyrunbyUrmulTrusttoprovidebridgecoursestoschooldropouts. StoriesOfChange
    • Priorities For Action: Cornerstones for addressing child marriage In recent decades, the government,development agencies and non-profit organizations have made significant effortsto end the practice of child marriagein India. Decreasingchild marriage rates indicate that these combined measures have been effective. Increased and sustained investment will onlyhelp further drive downthe rates of child marriagein the country. Given the multi-faceted natureof the phenomenon,addressing child marriage requiresa comprehensive strategy targetingdifferent issues andstakeholders, throughout the life of a minor girl, whether or notshe is married. Moreover, considering the ramificationsof child marriage for many development sectors, multiple entrypoints can beaccessed to further efforts to eliminate the practice. Based onevidence sourcedfrom Indian and international literature,as well as through expert consultations, Dasra hasidentified fourkey priority ways of preventing child marriageand reducing its negative consequences: 1. Creating alternate life options forgirls 2. Identifying and sensitizing gatekeepers 3. Promoting birthand marriage registration 4. Addressing the needs of adolescent brides F 11. Pziorrtes For g,ton: Cornerstones for,addressing child marriage
    • Dasraanalysisbasedonexpertinterviewsandsecondaryresearch A Pre-marriageLowsocialvalueattachedtothegirl-child Urgencytomarrythedaughterassoonaspossible Beliefthatthegirlisparayadhanorwealthofherfuture maritalfamily Traditionalgenderroles:agirl'sroleistotakecareofchildren andhousehold Investingingirls'educationisthereforenotconsidered worthy Concernsaboutgirl'ssafetyandvirginity Dowryratesarelowerforyoungergirls Peerpressurefromthecommunity Poorparentalknowledgepertainingtonegativehealth consequencesofearlymarriageandchildbearing AtmarriageInabilitytostopchildmarriagesDifficulttodetermineageofcoupleintheabsenceofageproof Reluctanceofcommunitytoreportmarriage Religiousandcommunityleaderscondonechildmarriage Lawenforcementofficersarereluctanttotakeactionasthey arepartofthecommunity Mostmarriagestakeplaceinprivate Girllacksagencytostopmarriage Post-marriageEarlyandmultiplepregnancies Domesticviolence Educationdiscontinued Needtoprovefertility Lackofsexualandreproductiveknowledge Girllacksagencytomakechoices Cornerstonesforaddressing childmarriage Creatingalternate lifeoptions forgirls Identifying and sensitizing gatekeepers Promotingbirth andmarriage registrations Addressingthe needsof adolescent brides
    • "It is useless to talk about prevention of child marriageif the girlshave no alternative options for education and livelihood, and will continue to be seen as their parents' liability and burden." - Panchali Saha, Child Welfare Committee,WestBengal Creating alternate life options for girls 48% of girls aged 20-24 in rural areas and 29%of girls in urban India marry under theage of 18.57 While marriageremains pivotalto patriarchalcommunities across India, itis considered far more central to thelives of girls in rural communities. Limited exposure to alternativeways of thinking that challenge stereotypesand the lack ofopportunities in their immediate surroundings,provide rural communities with minimal impetus toconsider different alternatives fordaughters. Evidence from research and other programs suggests that exposureto the alternative potential of daughters, outside the household,often helps decision-makers to advocatefor change.'For example, if a girl is doing well in secondary school, a mother may seekto persuade the rest of her family that she should remainin the educationsystem, and pursue an alternative life for herself. Enabling aspirational thinking among girls and their families, as well as offering themsafe spaces to explore alternative options,is increasingly beingacknowledged by donors, non-profit organizations and government agencies as a powerful strategy to delay marriage.'' Beginning with education Both Sri Lanka and the state of Kerala in India have a relatively high age of marriage.' They also have something else in common that has contributed to this phenomenon: bothhave given high priority to education. Schooling, particularly at secondary level, remains the single most important predictorof age at marriage.According to a study by ICRW, girls engaged in secondary educationare 70%less likely than their uneducated counterparts to marry early.' They will also probably delay childbearing, space pregnancies, and raisehealthier and better- educated children.It is therefore critical to both enrolland retain girlsin school, especially post- puberty, and ensure that they are allowed to learn andgrow beyondtheir traditional roles. In developing countries,seven or more years of education delays a girl's marriage by four years. Moreover, each successiveyear of secondary schooling increases thegirl's likelihoodof being employed, boosting her earningpotential by 15-25%. Source: www.girlsnotbrides.org Schooling protects against marriagefor at leasttwo reasons. Simply beingin school helps ensure girls continue tobe regarded as children, and therefore not marriageable. Outsideof the home, schools can be seen as safe spacesfor girls. Consequently, as it becomes a socially acceptable alternative, school attendance helps change normsabout earlymarriage. Additionally, schooling helps girlsdevelop social networks and acquire skills andinformation. This not onlyexposes them to other optionsbeyond their own households butalso contributes to their ability to pursue those opportunities. Each successive year of secondary schooling increases the girl's chancesof being employed, boostingher earning potentialby 15-25%." School enrollment in Malawi reduces probability of early marriage andpregnancy In Malawi, a southeastern countryin Africa, the effects of a small cash transfer toparents on re-enrolment of their daughters, was significant. Not only did the enrollment increase by 2.5 times a year afterthe program's introduction, the probabilityof marriagedeclinedby over 40% andthat of pregnancy by 30%. Source: http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/1813-9450-5089 Priorities For Action: Cornerstonesfor addressing childmarriage 0
    • Leading to employment The empowering effecton women of engagement in paid work is well documented in several studies.' Therefore, toreduce the incidence ofchild marriage, socially valuedroles for women must expand beyond thoseof being a wife and mother. Broadeningopportunities for women to include employment also makesit meaningfulfor parents to invest in a girl's education. A study conducted by the non-profit organization MAMTA revealed that 97% of family members surveyed - elders, parents,brothers - considered 'employment opportunities' tobe the most promising strategyto delay marriagefor their daughters. In Bangladesh, youngwomen's entryinto theexport garment industryhas boosted their value in the eyes of their familiesand potential husbands. Despite long working hours, most garment workerscan negotiate some autonomy with theirown families as a result of earning. Later on, their experience of financial self-reliancegives them greater confidenceas wives. Source: www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/ digestle.pdf According to a South Asian study undertakenby ICRWand Plan Asiato understandsuccessful interventions in the child marriagesector, the promotion ofvocational and skill-based trainingfor women was thought likely to have a positive impact for both unmarried and married women.For the unmarried,it helpsto delay marriage.If the girl is engaged in paid work, her family tends to delay her marriage,either because they rely on her income or becausethey are willing to wait until they find a husband who is 'worthy' of their daughter. For the married,it acts to mitigate some of the negative effectsof child marriage, givingthe girl a stronger positionin the marital home, and reducing the likelihoodthat she will suffer domestic violence. 0 1 Priorities For Action: Cornerstones for addressingchild marriage
    • Clearly, the education toemployment continuumdoes not just offera corrective solution to preventing child marriage butan enabling one that opens many newwindows of opportunity for adolescent girls, allowing them toexplore and achieve their potential. While initiationof the process requires certainminimum levels of support from the community, transformation of girls through the continuumacts as a strong behaviorchange strategy, weakening resistance by increasing demandfor this alternative trajectory. Identifying and sensitizing gatekeepers Most cases of positive changein relation to marriage involve gatekeepers, whose s convictions and ability tostand their ground enables the girlto choose an alternative toearly marriage, despite householdand community norms." 65 Examples include a father who understands his role in protecting his daughter against the dangers of child marriage;a young man who decides to challenge his sister's marriage;a grandmother, whohas experienced the negative consequences herselfand decides not tolet her granddaughter encounter thesame; or a community leader that leads by example. It is therefore critical to identifyand engagethose gatekeepers who significantly influencea girl's life choices. Fathers and brothers:Fathers, or other men in the family, often initiatemarriage arrangements for theirdaughters, and take decisionsregarding when and whom the daughter willmarry. A recent needs assessmentcommissioned by World Vision in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, to inform the development of an intervention toengage fathers toend child marriage showedthat they play a key role in ending child marriage.'Girls reported that sensitizing fathers to the health implications of child marriageand the importanceof education is critical in helping them decide to delay their daughters' marriage. Moreover, accordingto agencies such as DFID, UNFPAand USAID, it is equally important to reach outto boys to encourage equitable gendernorms from a young age. Priorities For Action: Cornerstonesfor addressing childmarriage
    • "I get a lot of offers and pressureto marry off my daughter but I disagree, telling themthat my daughter doesn'thave the capability to understand what marriageis; moreover, she hasthe right to decide where tomarry so when she will become about 18 to 20 years thenwe will see." - Father, District Bikaner, Rajasthan Source: wwwicrw org/files/publicabons/Delaying-Marriage-for-Girls- in-India-UNICEF-ICRWpdf girls on average married at the age of 1 significant achievement." This conditioning should cause them tobecome agents of change within theircommunities as they grow intotheir decision-making roles as brothers, husbands and fathers. Older women.' Women mustbe recognized as more than victims or at-riskpersons. Since they are closest to the problem, theyare in a position to advance their daughters' and grand-daughters' rights and well-being. For example, in southern Senegal in West Africa,the openness of grandmothers to questioning the tra grew up with has been fundamental tothe World Vision project's success. When itbegan in 2008, 5.6 years.By late 2010,this had increased to 17.5 years,a Religious and community leaders.' Although a recent surveyby UNICEF, on violence against children, does not directly examine the role of religion in perpetuating child marriage, it show that the practice continues due to long standing culturalvalues and traditions. Religion often underlies and informs thisbehavior.' Existing laws arefrequently poorly enforcedor superseded by customary and religious laws in India. To ensure that these customsare not used as an excuse for early marriage,it is crucial to mobilize religious heads andcommunity leaders in panchayats to oppose the practice of child marriage.For example, non-profit organization Jan Jagran Santhan and Action Against Traffickingand Sexual Exploitation ofChildren (ATSEC) formed the Inter Religious Priest Forum(IRPF) inBihar that broughttogetherreligious leaders from multiplefaiths, to delivermessaging againsttrafficking and child marriageto their respective followers. Members of the forumalso act as catalysts of change, regularly meetingother leaders of theirrespective faiths to sensitize them and build a network for reporting potentialchild marriagesto the forum. Where sensitization has not reached or impacted, IRPF members act as a pressure group,denying ceremonial/ritualistic approval to child marriage and ensuring priestsdo the same. Having been acknowledged as a high potential strategy to promote behaviorchange within the communityby UN agencies and the government,it is being adapted by several non-profit organizations within the countryand the region. The impact of social sanctions againstchild marriageis best demonstrated by the panchayat of the Vattamuthampattivillage in Tamil Nadu. Efforts undertaken by panchayat leaders have included enforcing resolutions,engaging with parents, and empowering adolescents in schools. Their concerted effortshave ledto thevillage being declaredfree of child marriage,a year after it banned thepractice.' Panchayatsmove to end child marriage in Maharashtra 88 panchayats in the Vidarbha region of eastern Maharashtrahave resolved to ban child marriage in their villages. Theimpact has been immediate, with 18 families cancelling the weddingsof their minor daughters in the first month.The state government had launched a child rightsand protection movementin the area in association with UNICEF and localnon-profit organizations. The campaign to end childmarriage gainedmomentum withinthis larger movement. "The numberof girls married off at 15 or 16 years of age is too high. In some communities, it is a common practice even when thegirl is 13 or 14 years old," said a government officerattached to theChild and Welfare department. Milind Joshi, the sarpanch(head of the panchayat)of Tarnoli villagesaid hispanchayat has decided to take action if the resolutionwas not followed, adding, "We willbe following the community closely. Violators willbe booked under the provisionsof theAct." Source: www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/mumboi/88-panchayats-move-to-end-child-marriage-in-yavatmal /article1-1015458. aspx Priorities For Action: Cornerstonesfor addressingchild marriage
    • 59% of all births remain unregistered in India. Promoting birth and marriage registration Birth registration is a child's first fundamentalright. It ensures that the child is given an identity at birth and regarded as part ofsociety. Birthregistration is vital tosecure the recognitionof every person before the law, to safeguard the protection ofhis or her rights, and to ensure that any violation of those rights does not go unpunished. Indian law requires that all new-born childrenbe registered within 21 daysof birth. However, as per the Countdown to2015, 59% of Indian births remain unregistered.' In the contextof addressing the issue of child marriage,ensuring parents registerbirths is important in helping to preventthe practice and ensure the girl-childand her family can access various welfareschemes. Electronic birth registrationis regularly citedas an effective tool to prevent early main Bangladesh, Niger andSomaliland. Women repeatedly emphasized theimportance of proof of age as a means of delaying marriage, wherecivil law includes an age of consent. Source: www worldyision org/resources nsf/main/press-reports/$file/ Untying-the-Knot report pdf Birth registration provides proof of age. Using suchinformation, underage marriagescan be identified and halted and those abettingthem punished. In rural areas where birth certificatesare often non-existent or not properlyrecorded, many parents resort to falsifying girls'ages. In Bangladesh, for example, stakeholders rangingfrom religious leadersto parents and district officials emphasizethat the lack of birth registrationenables the age of girls and boysaboutto be married tobe falsified easily, while those tasked with enforcing thelaw can more readilyturn a blind eye.' Proof of a child's age is a prerequisite not onlyfor the effective enforcement oflegislation, butto establish its capacity to claim rights.While birthregistration does not by itself guarantee education, health,protection or participation, it can help marginalized girls qualify for and avail themselves ofthese fundamentalrights. For example, targeted government schemes require the presentation ofa birth certificateas proof of age to enroll a girl-child for resulting benefits.Such schemes, including Sarva ShikshaAbhiyan, guarantee free educationand conditional cash transfers such as the Ladli Yojana andApni Beti Apna Dhan, which are intended toincrease the social valueof the girl-child. Apart fromusing birth registrations,some countries are alsoresorting to creative methods including using marriage registrationsystems to provide young peoplewith reproductivehealth information. In Mexico a statement is required froma doctor or social worker indicating that a couple has discussed reproductive health mattersbefore a marriage license can beobtained. Meanwhile, in Indonesia marriage counselorsfrom the Islamic marriage registrysystem have themselves been trained as reproductive health educators.' While providinglegal status to a marriage, marriageregistration also helpsyoung bridesto enforce their marital rights, enabling them totake their husbands to courtshould they wanta divorce, orto obtaina court order to protect themfrom violence in their own home. Moreover, in the absence of proper birth registration,registering marriages providesanother opportunity for girls to enter thesystem andbe counted as eligible for services connected with child birth, family planningand other healthcare issues, and alsoaccess food and nutrition, employmentand other opportunities. Priorities For Action: Cornerstonesfor addressing childmarriage
    • 111 . s,, -, ', s %. ,, S, , , ,.. ...-- s/I - '1X x , X s s I.1 x X x ' s X ' X , % N, %s ,% , ss N % . ,X , % , %, , 1 s"s ' Mandated birthdates on wedding invitations helps to prevent child marriagesin Rajasthan Child marriages are still widespread in the state of Rajasthan in India. To prevent them, thestate government issued a directive in March 2013 requiring that the birthdates of the brideand groom be printed on the weddinginvitations. According to thegovernment directive, all printing press owners are required to view b certificates providedby the familiesof the brideand groom beforeprinting wedding invitations. If the owner finds that eitherthe brideor groom is not of legal agefor marriage, he must decline the print orderand report the proposed wedding to the respectivedistrict administration. Owners who disobey these orders willface arrest and six months imprisonment, and will also be fined INR 1,000 ($18). "Press owners have been askedto submit a copy of the invitation card for each wedding taking place in the respective district administration. These wedding cards will be scannedand checked," the officer of the welfaredepartmentfor women and children said. The project was launched on a pilot basis in the Bharatpurdistrict of the state in April 2013. According to theofficer, "The resultswere great.About 50 child marriages wereprevented in the past year. Now it has beenimplemented across the state." Source: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/world/birthclates-on-wedding-invitations-to-prevent-child-marriages-361500.html X ASHISH Gram RachnaTrust (AGRT), a non-profit organization based in Maharashtra, India provides health education andassessments to adolescent girls, including childbrides. Between 2003and2012 this program successfully delayed theage offirst conception from 15.8 to 18 yearsamongst this group ofyoung women. Source: Personalcommunication withASHISH Gram RachnaTrust, 2013 Addressing the needs of adolescent brides The median age of marriage in India has risen from 16.1 to only 16.8 yearsover thepast two decades.' At the same time, the adolescent populationhas been growing both in sheer numbers,and as a proportion ofthe total population. Cu adolescent population accounts for21% of India's total population.'Thesenumbers will onlyincrease as the country'slargest everyoung population is projected to grow rapidly overat leastthe next 10 years. As the numberof married adolescentgirls and boyscontinues toincrease, the need to reach them withrelevant services becomesall the more compelling. Child brides have been andcontinue tobe anunderserved populationin the fight to end child marriage. Whilethe importance of preventing thepractice cannot be underestimated, in countries such as India where it is culturally engrained, efforts seeking to end it often require considerable time togain political traction and socialacceptance. It is therefore crucial to simultaneously address the uniqueneeds of child bridesto mitigate thenegative effectsof child marriage, and to improveyoung women's healthand well-being. (11) Priorities For Action: Cornerstonesfor addressingchild marriage
    • A national survey in' India discovered that as many as 30% ofwomen aged 15-19 wanted to delay their next birth butwere not using contraception Source: http://www.popline.org/node/303551 It is a well-established factthat births to adolescentbrides are often unplanned.76A study in Ahmedabad, India found that most marriedadolescents reported that their firstpregnancy was unwanted.' Providing crucialinformation and contraceptive material targetedat married adolescents can fulfill this unmetneed for family planning services. Emphasison delaying child birth, child spacing,and fewer pregnancies can significantly mitigatenegative health consequences such as infant and maternal mortality.Delaying the first birth also results in fewer pregnancies. In developing countries,a woman whohas her first child beforethe age of 18 will have an average of seven children by the timeshe has completed childbearing.' Moreover, connectingchild bridesto multi-sectoralprograms such as formal or non-formal education, peer groups,and skillbuilding activitiescan enable them to develop greater autonomy. Such initiatives help married adolescentgirls to improve partner communicationand support, participatein household decision-making,become financialcontributors, and connect to other communitygroups, reducingtheir isolation and increasing their empowerment. Reaching married adolescentscan becost efficient, may be introduced at scale, and is sometimes less controversial thaninitiating Sexual Reproductive Health (SRH) programs for unmarried young people. PathfinderInternational's Prachar programin Bihar established that "culturally appropriate and community-based communicationprograms", that target youthand those that influence their decision-making, can significantly increase demand and use for contraception.' Key takeaways Dasra hasidentified fourkey priority areas through which child marriagein India can be addressed and itsnegative impact mitigated: 48% of girls aged 20-24 in rural areas and 29%of girls in urban India aremarried before the age of 18, mainly due to thelack of alternatives to early marriage, especiallyin rural areas. Providing girlswith the'education toemployment continuum' represents an enabling solution, allowing them to explorelife choices other than marriage. It is critical to engage gatekeepers who significantly influence a girl's life choices - fathers and brothers, older womenwithin the family, and religious and community leaders. Evidence shows that most cases of positive change regardingmarriage involve gatekeepers, whose sheer determination to stand their ground enables the girl to choose an alternative toearly marriage. 59% of all births in India remain unregistered. Birthregistration is not simplyproof of age. It also plays a significant role in preventing child marriages and ensures that the girl-child and her family can access welfare schemes. A study conducted in Ahmedabad, India, revealedthat most married adolescentsreported that theirfirst pregnancy was unwanted. In addition to preventingchild marriage,it is crucial to address the uniqueneeds of child bridesto mitigate thenegative effectsof child marriage and improve their health and well-being. Priorities For Action: Cornerstonesfor addressing childmarriage 0
    • - r Q A .......... ..". Saitie& ka#ege ./-........ 1. N1041111-?..t - . _ " Op I 11 Moi 410 10" 4. 4:0 StoriesOf Cha Photo &text credit:www.onlineyrc.blogspotin/2014/02/the-day-my-life-changed.html#more
    • Empowered Et empowering ...through education 13-year old Mousumi.Majumdar was married against her wishes.On the nightof her marriage, her husband camedrunk and begantugging at herclothes without sharing as much as a word. When she refused to sleep with him,.Mousumiwas sent back to her natal home,where she was beaten up byher own family,ridiculed by the community,and chasedout ofher homeand neighborhood. With nowhere togo, Mousumi kept returning home in search of food and shelter. After several attempts she was finally allowed to stay on the conditionthat she would earn to sustain herself. Forcedto become domestic help, Mousumi soon becameoverworked and so desperate for relief, that she consumed poisonto end her life.While theattempt was unsuccessful, it ledto the'community backing off. Mousumi took up work as a receptionist, where she met many people, oneof whomhelped her resume hereducation. She then joinedand became a regular member of a community youth group supportedby Thoughtshop Foundation, where she felt accepted and learned about her bodyand rights, as a result of which she wasable to interactmore openly with others.An improved sense of self also empowered her to make her own life choices. She began to conduct workshops for children todevelop their confidence and self-reliance through theuse of games anda strong support system. Mousumi is now in her first year of college and plansto study law so that she canprevent others fromgoing through the neglect and violationof rights that she suffered as a child. /11111,, StoriesOf Change
    • Painting The Picture: Key insights into sector trends Dasra interacted with a wide range of stakeholders - government, developmentagencies, impact assessment experts; academiaand non-profit organizations - during thecourse of its research. It also mapped over 300non-profit organizations toidentify those working to address childmarriage in India andbetter understand theinterventions being undertaken and practical issues faced on the ground.This section highlightskey characteristics of 30 non-profit organizations that are concertedly focused on addressing child marriage. Further, it provides insights into challengesand opportunities for non-profitorganizations and funders based onexpert interactionsand site visits. Painting The Picture:Key iesigilts intosecto.t.,tLends
    • Rajasthan 58% 11% Most non-profit programs operate in states where child marriageis most prevalent Fortunately states with the greatest prevalenceof child marriagealso record the highest incidence of non-profit programs. The mapbelow shows highest level of activity in states such as Rajasthan, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, WestBengal andAndhra Pradesh. Significantly however, very fewnon-profit programs deal directly with child marriagein Madhya Pradesh, a state with 54% prevalence of child marriage. Consequently,funders thinking ofestablishing new childmarriage programs should consider doingso in this state. BiharUttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh 54% 0 0 Painting The Picture:Key insightsinto sector trends 55% 13%68% 17% ' West Bengal 55% 15% Jharkhand Andhra Pradesh 0 Child marriage prevalence 0 %of mapped non-profit organizations addressingchild marraige Source: Based onsecondary research andDasra's site visits.
    • Non-profit organizations mustplace greater emphasis on secondary education Ending child marriageis a long-term objectivefor stakeholders. Dasra's sector mappingrevealed that non-profitorganizations are working toachieve this objectivethrough a range of approaches - health, educationand provision of livelihoods are key among these. 100% - 80% - 60% - 40% - 20% - 0 Source: Basedon Dasra site visits tonon-profit organisations Health Education Child marriage programsin India haveemerged largelyfrom a reproductive health framework, which has resulted in many non-profit organizations addressingthe problem froma health perspective. While educationis fast catchingup as a critical intervention, experts interviewed by Dasra stress the need for retaininggirls in secondary school to prevent child marriages.This is the stage when mostgirls drop outand aremarried off. Ifretained in school and provided quality education,secondary schooling could providegirls the space to exploreand the capacityto work towards their aspirations. 80% of non-profit organizations began child marriage programs after2000 Although theChild Marriage Restraint Act waspassed in 1929, the issue of child marriage has only recieved attention from theIndian development sector in the past 15 years. Dasra'ssector mapping, as shown in thefollowing chart, reveals that majorityof programs currently addressing child marriage have beeninitiated since 2000. Expertsinterviewed by Dasracite this fairly recentfocus on the issue as the main reasonfor smaller budgetsizes devoted to this issue. This is also why thereis only limited information regarding the impactof most child marriage programsin India today. 60% 50% - 40% - 30% - 20% - 10% - 0% Source: Basedon Dasra site visits tonon-profit organisations 27% 1990-99 2000-09Since 2010 Year non-profit program wasestablished Painting The Picture:Key insightsinto sector trendsle
    • Funders andnon-profit organizations must prioritize impactassessment to prove and improve While various approachesand interventions todelay marriage and pregnancy appearto be working, veryfewnon-profit organizations currently assess the impactof their own activities.It is therefore difficult to determinewhich activity or activitiesare most effectiveon the ground. Dasra's interactions with various practitioners, fundersand experts reveal a consensus regarding the need to move beyond anecdotal evidenceto more concreteindicators of progress and impact, in order tounderstand what works and where investmentsshould be made. As ending child marriageis a long-term goal, non-profit organizations mustagree to build monitoring and evaluation costs into their budgets right at the startand develop a framework that measures their progress through time.It also meansthat funders need to provide necessary financing forsuch activities. "Donors do not alwayswant to see randomized controlled trials as evidence. We may not want evidence necessarily of success but ofwhat was learnt." Dipa Nag Chaudhary, MacArthur Foundation, Dasra workshop 22-25 November, 2013 Still, many interventions are complex. Frequently, they targetseveral issues, the evaluationof which can beexpensive and time-consuming. In addition, non-profit staff membersare often unfamiliar with concepts such as the theory ofchange, log frames, and impact indicatorsused by international funders. It is therefore vitally important thatdonors use their expertise and knowledge to help non-profit organizations build capacityto do so byco-developing plans for monitoring and evaluation that are simple, cost-effective and relevant for the organization beyond specificfunding cycles. Funding cycles must be extended -individually and collectively Addressing theissue of child marriagerequires changesin deep-rooted attitudesand beliefs held by individuals and communities. Currently, donors investingto address the issue of child marriage in India arefunding non-profitorganizations for an average of 2-3 years. Considering the longitudinal natureof change, there is a growing realization among donorsand non-profit organizations that such a period is too short to effect behaviorchange. Also, the natureof intervention requires non-profit organizations to trackeach girl and her life choices through adolescence and beyond, to demonstrate effectiveness. Therefore,while a donor may fund a program organizedby a non-profit organization for three years, it willbe difficult forthatgroup to demonstrate concrete outcomeson marriage and delayed motherhood within thatperiod. "Changes in norms and behavior requiretime. But funding cycles tend to be short.Just as there is a need for non-profits to collaborate in orderto share best practices, funders needto collaborate to provide longerterm funding to be able to evaluate and achieve real impact." Priya Das, ICRW, Dasra workshop 22-25 November, 2013 Experts interviewed by Dasrarecommend that funders collaborate witheach other to coordinate their financing of commonreceipients, and in doing so extend funding cycles to a combined tenureof 10-15 years. This would enable non-profit organizations to plan strategically, and build necessarysystems and processesto evaluateinterventions and demonstrate impact.However, Dasra's interviews with fundersrevealed that while they recognize the need for long-term funding, it is challenging for them tojustify continued grants to organizationswithout clear demonstration of progress. It is therefore crucial for non-profit organizations to documentand provide evidencefor interimresults if theyare to attract longer-term financing. Painting The Picture:Key insights into sector trends
    • A V V 7
    • Local networks are more effective than national networks Non-profit organizations that attended Dasra's capacity building workshop unanimouslyagreed that networks are crucial in developing common communication materials,best practices, and maximising theeffectiveness of effortsto lobby nationalgovernments. This session, led byLakshmi Sundaram, global coordinator ofthe GNB partnership, identified various challenges posed by current networks and specified steps to be undertaken by funders to make these networks more effective: Challenges with currentnetworks: National networks tend tobe too large for constructivediscussions, particularly involving such a local issueas child marriage A lack of strong leadership resultsin weak agendas, unnecessary power dynamics between member organizations,and general inefficiency Networks develop frameworks whichseem to overpowerindividual organizationalinterventions Networks tendto become hierarchal with toomany designations, whichin bureaucracy and inefficiency Proposals to ensure networks are effective: Develop state/district level networks to address local challenges, which can belinked to national networks Ensure strong leadership,flat structures and focused agendas Agree on common outcomesand basic principles, despite differencesin styles of intervention Ensure networks are flexible enough toinclude organizations that do not currently operate child marriage specific programs(e.g. those working in the education, healthand livelihood sectors) Involve other stakeholders, includingfunders, in sector-level discussions regarding challenges and opportunities A reduction in child marriageis often an incidental outcome Dasra's sector mappingexercise evaluated programsof over 300 non-profit organizations programs that address the needs of adolescent girlsin India. Addressing child marriagewas the primary focus and goal for at least 30 of these programs. Otherseither regarded itas an incidental outcomeor did not recognize itas a goal or outcome at all.However, a significant share of these other organizations work to enrolland retain girlsin schools, offer life skills education, provide vocational training,and raiseawareness about sexual andreproductive health ..a.mor.tadolescent girls. For instance, Educate Girls,a non-profit organization based in Rajasth-a-rt,-/;'vbrks to enrolland retain girls in school. Overthe past decade,the organizationhas ----- ----- bee-n--;u'uessful in enrolling thousands of outof school girls.Given that education is the, , - ------strtingqst; predictor of delayed marriage, Educate Girlshas possibly avertednumerous child marriages indirectly. However, the organization does account forit in its impact assessment. programmatic evidencefrom global and Indian sources suggeststhat other inter,vein1o6s such as vocational training and life skillseducation help empower girls and their fami'14s,koireject child marriageand to choose alternate life options for theirgirls.' Therefore orgarrizAtIons that initiate programs to improve educationalopportunities, health or livelihoods mAyja,ls'o'help delay marriagesand pregnancies amongadolescent girls. Painting Thif Picture:Key insights into sectortrend ,
    • I ;fvf XL.'/ ..- .1 11111111111- 44%k: 2 a mew' .7-04 X g 117 T --imprpon s imm.00/.01. Wad.. 10.4. ;a rat aw 1119D10,,(Cit C16.441(199 cori NETWORK5 SOME 04-6 1R KlUr mar +X.. 6 :CC 113 rMEWL truZr: 0 OA- o4 sat est_ .21/0 NtIr j umminimimme ",?:-.;11 co'.7'1"`r4"sor 4: fP4°' I L=lanr", QTY poprpp. StaVelidara intril'4P11 MI TIMIS ARM WM ;,11004Lz .1=1AS Mona ,.1.1 rt twasdot...AR sone{ ,OP 1 .4rwmg,, ddress ngchild marrOge vorksho with 16 non-profit dit: Rishabh Sachdev ..1.,111/4/T "Mr rI..? "Ware /MAO .6 Most non-profit programs that directly address child marriage are being implemented where theyare most needed-Andhra Pradesh, Bihar,Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. While two thirds ofnon-profit programs are usingeducation as an intervention to address the issue of child marriage more emphasisis needed to promotesecondary educationfor girls in orderto delay marriageand motherhood. A focus on the issue of child marriagein India andinternationally has emerged onlyin the past decade.Consequently, mostnon-profit programs, are yet to scale andclearly demonstrate impact. Funding cycles areshort. To achieve significant outcomes and insights, funders must individually and collectively extend funding periods. Evaluation of non-profit interventionsis the need of thehour. Non-profit organizations must budgetfor monitoringand evaluation procedures when submitting fundin proposals. Donorsneed to fund evaluationexercises and make significant efforts tobuild the capacity of non-profitorganizations to co-developevaluation plans andindicators. Painting ThePicture:Key insights intosector trends
    • . jIL:tad! .... _ - L Photo credit: Bachpan Bachao AndoIan StoriesOf Change
    • 's 41101111" ' 4111111111"mmy. -1 lis "VIIr I .44111111 .Pie 0 , 44. . - al.. 0 oa co . .v. ..- , v. . di.- iiis, iii.. 411 4- 4 -s !Ft .a. IWO Striving to develop a safer society for girls Teena (name changed) and hersister were11 and 13 years oldrespectively, whenthey were sold into 'marriage'by their maternal grandmother. One of the 'grooms'paid a lump sum of INR 8,000 (USD 133) for the girls. Theseyoung girls were soon to find outthat theyhad been trafficked for sex, under thepretext of marriage and that theirso-called husbandswere their pimps. After several months of sexual and physical abuse,the sisters escapedto their village, alongwith a five month old baby, who was Teena's son. Thetraffickers soon cameto their village and took the girls back. But their mother, who had been duped into believing that her daughters weregetting married, putup a strong front. Along with a few villagers, she sought help of MuktiCaravan (Liberation Caravan), an anti-child traffickingcampaign run by Bachpan Bachao Aandolan (BBA). BBA filed a complaint withthe local police and followed up with theauthorities until thegirls were recovered and their traffickers as well as grandmother were arrested. Stories Of Change le
    • % 1,I, /: . . I, r, ///I /li1 `/P'../S..i1111.1 S. ...S..il-b.- .t/e '.. ..tie -// r /4 ,,/ ,/ t, ,,-,,. ,,,/ ,,, I,,,.%.4 ,.4...v. ,/......`1'.11. Mit:.... 1,/.... ., /... /. -.,.. /N., .. 1 ' /// ''."'' .... 777.,....P.........,...///// fillik.,I- ////.. . .... /
    • Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field Non-profit organizations in India areaddressing the issue of child marriagethrough various interventions. 10 keynon-profit interventions are highlighted in this section,based onthe sector mapping exercise andfield research undertaken by Dasra. These initiatives include those which engage adolescent girls themselves, those that influence her (such as her family and community), and those that target law enforcement and government officials.who may potentially establish an enabling environment forher to lead an empowered life. Dasra assessedthese interventions to highlight those whichare most criticalfrom an investment perspective. The assessment criteria used were: a) intervention's impacton an existing orpotential child bride;b) its current and inherent potential toscale. Linking interventions tocornerstones Preceding sectionsof this report have described variouskey factors concerning child marriagein India andthe cornerstonesthat are crucial for addressing these factors.The following diagram provides a link between the cornerstones (whatis needed to tackle childmarriag6-) andnon-profit interventions on the ground (how these cornerstonesare being manifested). It may be observed that two ofthe four cornerstones - 'identifying and sensitizing gatekeepers' and 'creating alternatelife options' map to various interventions on the ground.This reflects the well-established factthat those that influence a girl's life must be sensitized to her potential beyond her householdresponsibilities. This is largely achievedby mobilizing communities, presenting role models,promoting educational and employment opportunities,and building the capacity of government officials to engage effectively with thegirls andtheir families. Interestingly, while it may seemlike the cornerstone`addressing the needs of adolescent brides' is adequately addressed by non-profit organizations, in reality it is not. While non-profit organizations undertakinginterventions mapped to this cornerstone allowchild brideswithin their programs, most girls they work withare unmarried. There is a need to actively identify and engage more child bridesin relevant non-profit interventions, as is done to provide legal support to child brides. Finally, the cornerstone'promoting birth and marriage registration' is least represented on the ground. Non-profit organizations have only recentlybegun to endorse registrations.This will not just help to preventchild marriages,but also increase girls' access to relevant welfareschemes. There is a need to actively identify and engage more child bridesin relevant non-profit interventions or Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field I
    • Dasraanalysisbasedonexpertinterviews,secondaryresearchandsitevisitstonon-profitorganizations StageIssueRootCauses Pre-marriageLowsocialvalueattachedtothegirl-child Urgencytomarrythedaughterassoonaspossible Beliefthatthegirlis"parayadhan"orwealthofherfuture maritalfamily Traditionalgenderroles:agirl'sroleistotakecareofher childrenandhousehold Investingingirls'educationisthereforenotconsidered worthy Concernsaboutgirls'safetyandvirginity Dowryratesarelowerforyoungergirls Peerpressurefromthecommunity Poorparentalknowledgepertainingtonegativehealth consequencesofearlymarriageandchildbearing AtmarriageInabilitytostopchildmarriagesDifficulttodetermineageofcoupleintheabsence reliableofageproof Reluctanceofcommunitytoreportmarriage Religiousandcommunityleaderscondonechildmarriage Lawenforcementofficersarereluctanttotakeaction astheyarepartofthecommunity Mostmarriagestakeplaceinprivate Girllacksagencytostopmarriage Post-marriageEarlyandmultiplepregnancies Domesticviolence Educationdiscontinued Needtoprovefertility LackofSRHinformation Girllacksagencytomakechoicesla. CornerstonesforaddressingInterventionsby childmarriagenon-profitorganizations Creatingalternate lifeoptions forgirls Identifying and sensitizing gatekeepers Promotingbirth andmarriage registrations Addressingthe needsof adolescent brides Mobilizingcommunities Cultivatingpeerleaders Facilitatingaccesstoeducation Vocationaltraining,lifeskillsandSRH Traininggovernmentfunctionaries Conductingevidencebasedresearch Mobilizingcommunities Creatingawareness Traininggovernmentfunctionaries Buildingcapacityofothernon-profits Cultivatingpeerleaders Conductingevidencebasedresearch communities g awareness Buildingcapacityofothernon-profits Facilitatingaccesstoeducation Vocationaltraining,lifeskillsandSRH Providinglegalsupporttochildbrides
    • Effectiveness of interventions on the ground All 10 shortlisted non-profit interventions, currentlybeing implemented totackle the issue of child marriage, alignwith one or moreof Dasra's cornerstones as shown above.These interventions have beenmapped onto the matrixbelow to determinetheir relative position based on Dasra'schosen criteria: a) impact on an existing orpotential child bride;and b) current and inherent potential toscale. Sub-criteria used to define boththeir impact and scale are detailed in Appendix I. Mapping on the matrixhas been validated by anexpert advisory committee convened by Dasra,and alsoby representatives of 16 non-profit organizations who attended Dasra's capacity building workshop. Following thisexercise, six of the 10 shortlisted interventions are classified as 'high-impact and high-scale', i.e. those deemed tohave a high or medium impact and scale onthe matrix. A thc= Conducting evidence based research O Training government functionaries Building capacityof other non-profits Vocational training, life skills andSRN Facilitating access to education Cultivating peer leaders LOW IMPACT 1111 High Impact + High ScaleInterventions Providing legal support to child brides HIGH IMPACT Impact on married/unmarried adolescent girl Dasra analysis based onsite visits and interactions with non-profitsand experts. Criteriahighlighted in Appendix I Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field 10
    • High-impact, high-scale interventions Facilitating access to the education system There is clearly a direct correlation betweenlack of education and child marriage.Research shows that being out of school puts girlsat the risk of early marriage.Despite the prevalenceof universal schooling in India as well as strong evidenceto show that girls in school marry later, historically this strategyhas been under-utilized as a means to address childmarriage. However, recently more non-profit organizations in India havestarted to adoptthisapproach by providing girls with safe spaceswhere theycan gain relevant skills andinformation. Non-profitorganizations are improving theaccess of girls to the educationsystem in the following ways: Demand generation: Some regions of India report high drop-out rates for girls at both primary (grades I-IV) and upper primary(grades V-VII) levels evenwhere schools are available. This is mainly dueto the devaluationof girls and the beliefthat education will notaid them in their future roles as a wife or mother.Under such circumstances, it becomes necessaryfor non-profit organizations to ensure all parties involvedare aware of the significanceof education for girls, both in terms of improved life options and to become better informedwives and mothers laterin life. Non-profit organizations typicallyachieve thisobjective by creating pressure groupsusing various stakeholders- teachers, panchayat leaders and children. These groups gather information on out-of-school children, conduct one-on-one meetingswith relevant families, engage with school committees to improveschool infrastructure, and monitor the progress of re-enrolled students toensure they do not dropout again. Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field
    • The non-profit organization Bachpan BachaoAndolan mobilizes community groups and elected representative bodiesof children aged 6-14 years (bal panchayats). These groups are trained to liaise with the panchayat(the local governing body) to ensure villagesare child friendly and enforce universal enrollment ofchildren in schools. Thisapproach has been implemented in more than 350 villagesaffecting over 200,000people.' Linking to and supporting formal educationsystems: To ensure an effective transition toschool, children not alreadybeing educated often requireadditional coaching beforethey are integrated into relevantgrades within the formal educationsystem. Therefore non-profit organizations provide bridgecourses that followthe school syllabus. This enables girlsto reach a minimum proficiency level before being re-enrolled. At times,non-profit organizations continueto provide private tuition to some of these girlseven after enrollment toensure retention and promote favorable learning outcomes. The West Bengal-basednon-profit organization Nishtha uses its day carecenters to conduct classes for both in- and out-of-school children, whichinvolve mainstream academic subjects and extra-curricular activities such as computertraining, music and drama. So far, this initiative has educated nearly 3,000children.' Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field
    • Provision of scholarships: Some non-profit organizations offer financial support toparents who are willing but unableto provide a higher education totheir daughters due to extreme poverty. Such agencies help girlsto identify and apply for courses of interest. Once they are accepted the organization helps pay the tuition fee. Jagori Grameenhelps girlsin grades 11 and 12 to identify university courses they may wish to pursue. Most prefer to undertake correspondencecourses, which enablethem to obtaindiplomas without leaving their village ortown. Jagori Grameen will provide up to INR 3,000 each month for the course and other educational expenses. After completing thecourse, most girls sharetheir new knowledge with younger childrenin Jagori Grameen, motivating them also to study further. Schooling helpedNarmada delayher marriage At just 12 years old,Narmada's family arranged her engagement toa 45 year old manwho was already married. Narmadahad very little education- she mainly worked as an agricultural worker. When activistsand teachers asked her how she felt, she told themthat she didn't want tomarry yet and that she wanted to go to school. Narmada'sfamily said that ifshe did not marry, they would break off all contactwith her. Despite this pressure, Narmadaleft homefor a bridge course camp,run by the MV Foundation, which enables childrenwho have never receivedan education tocatch up and join their peers in school. Narmada'sfamily reacted furiously.Family members came to theschool to vent their anger. Her older brotherpressed herto marry. Narmada, however,remained steadfastin her decision. With support from theMV Foundation, Narmada excelledin school. She passed her 10thclass with the highest marks in her village. Now 18 years old,Narmada is studying for a diploma to become a medical laboratory technician. She lives in a private hostel but has resumed contactwith her family who continue toraise the issue of marriage. Narmada tellsthem thatshe wants to marry but willdo so later and in herown time. Source: http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/girls-voices/child-marriage-prevention-stories-from-india/ Providing vocationaltraining, life skills &sexual andreproductive health(SRH) information Many non-profit organizations surveyedby Dasraprovide adolescentgirls with informationon relevant topicsand helpthem tobuild skills they need to make independent life choices for themselves and their families. Significantly,several of these non-profit organizations also leverage government resources under the SABLA scheme to implementthis intervention. The SABLA scheme implemented by the Ministryof Women and ChildDevelopment is a comprehensive program, which aims to improve the healthand vocational skills of adolescent girls. Non-profit organizations utilize government resources such as aanganwadi centers, which make this intervention both scalable and sustainable.Currently, these groups undertakethe following approaches: Promoting employability through vocational training According to interviews with non-profitorganizations on the ground, increasing thevalue of the girl childherself and the value that she can potentially bring to herfamily, is a particularly effective way of avoiding child marriage.Communities are more opento girls learning thoseskills that would more obviouslyhelp them aftermarriage. It is therefore common tosee non-profit organizations offering courses in handicrafts, tailoring, weaving, etc. In addition, some non-profit organisations provideinformation on basicfinancial literacy, that can enable girlsto become economically independent.Some non-profit organizations focus on providing vocationaltraining to married adolescentgirls as well, to enable them to contribute totheir family income; thereby raising their status in their marital homes. People's Action for National Integration (PANI) trains youngpeople between theage of 15-24 years in various skills, including mobilerepairs and tailoring. This helpsensure their employability and also helpsreduce the financial burdenon their families. This increase in earnings has allowed daughters theagency to delay their marriages and continue education. In the geographicalarea in which PANI operates, this programhas enabled 75% of girls to receive higher education.' 0 Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field
    • Providing life skillsand information regarding sexual and reproductive health Promoting life skills andconducting reproductivehealth sessions for girls is also a proven strategy to effectivelydelay their marriage.'Therefore, in addition to vocational training,non-profit organizations also engagegroups of adolescent girls to provide them withlife skills andcritical health information. Activitiessuch as puppet shows, participatory games, andinteractive workshops are usedto build communication, negotiation, decision-makingand leadership skills - all critical in promoting more effective engagementwith their families and community members. Non-profit organizations also use innovative tools todeliver important sexual andreproductive health educationto both unmarried and married adolescents. This includes the bodyand its functions, hygiene techniques, use of contraceptives, child bearingand spacing, nutrition, and sexually transmitted diseases. Providing such information and essential life skillsenables girlsto understand the health consequencesof child marriage,and helps them to develop their ability to negotiate or demandsafer choicesfor themselves. ASHISH Gram RachnaTrust (AGRT) works with married adolescent girlsand their spouses to improve health indicators,including those involvinghaving a first child too early, the low use of contraceptives, and the high rateof maternal morbidity. It also provides life-skills educationto unmarried adolescentgirls to promote their independence and self-sufficiency. The organization workstogether withunmarried adolescent boys to sensitize them toissues faced by girls and helpsdevelop gender-equitable attitudes.' Football and optometry - solutionsfor delaying childmarriage? Akhand JyotiEye Hospital in Mastichak Bihar is the largest eye hospital in Bihar. Itis also part of a unique solution tochild marriage.The Akhand JyotiFootball Academy recruits girlsbetween the age of 10-16 years. Apart from learningfootball, theyalso continue withtheir studies, while living in the girls'hostel on the hospitalcampus. In return, the parents must promisethe hospital that they will not marrytheir daughters before theyare 23 years old. The center trains thegirls to become either professional footballers, or more likelyoptometrists. They are supported togain a Bachelor's degreein optometry and ophthalmic techniques. After completing thecourse the girl is entitled topractice as an optometrist with an estimated salary of INR 250,000 peryear (20 times theaverage per capitaincome of rural families in Bihar). 15 year-old Sushma Kumari was to marry last year.But her father cancelled her marriageafter she became part of theFootball Academy.A few monthslater he became an eye patient himself. When he came into the hospital he found his own daughter conducting thecheck-ups. It was she who tested his vision. The proud father wept. "Gettinginvolved with the hospitalis the best thing to have happened in my life",exclaims Sushma. Source: http://www.sportanddey.org/en/newsnyiews/news/?4370/1/Football-an-engagement-away-from-child-marriage Case Stu dy Mobilizingcommunities to recognize the ill-effectsofchild marriage Mobilizing the community involves creating dialoguearound the validity ofchild marriage;a deep-entrenched custom. It also involves raisingawareness of the immensenegative consequences such a practice may have onthe lives of couplesand their children. The main premise of this intervention is to communicate thefact that girls rarelyhave the powertomake decisions regardingtheir own marriage. Insteadthe decision on when thegirl marries,and to whom, lies mainly with 'gatekeepers' - her family and community elders. Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field CI)
    • Even if the familydecides not toconform to thistradition and custom, the broadercommunity may reject and stigmatize thegirl andher family for failingto meetsocial norms. Community educationcan change socialstandards and create a more supportive environment for girls andfamilies who are willing and ready to reject thecustom of early marriage.This strategy is generally implemented alongside other interventions including thosethat provide adolescent girls with life skills.Community education helps to mitigatepossibly unintended consequences of girls' participation in such programs, and also reinforces its various messages andactivities. During its due diligence exercise (process explained in Appendix II), Dasra found that community mobilization was the most frequently implemented intervention.In particular, non-profit organizations are mobilizing communities in two main ways: Children and youth groups: Theyhelp groups of adolescent girls and boysto learn about their rights, the repercussionsof early marriage, alternative life options and mechanisms to report child marriage.These groups in turn engage with others including the panchayatsand police to promote change. Thenon-profit organization Sahayoghas already established100 girls' groups in 100 villages of Uttar Pradesh, eachwith 25 girls. Sahayog helpsthese groups understandtheir rights and empowers them to filepetitions, conduct districtlevel dialogues, and build leaders among themselves." Gatekeepergroups: They identify gatekeepers and influencers such as teachers, schoolcommit- tees, women's groups, and panchayats and help them to formgroups such as child protection forums, which comprisea wide range of gatekeepers. Group membersare educated about their particular roles andtrained toleverage each other's strengths to end the practiceof child marriage within the community.The non-profit organization Nishtha convenes groupsof moth- ers and helpsthem persuade other family membersthat their daughters should remainin school. All mothers in this group depositINR 50 per month for theirdaughters' education.This enables them toreceive larger loansfor her further education orspecial tuition requirements. Similarly, UrmulTrust identifies various groupswithin communities- children, men, women, panchayats- and sensitizes them through interactivemedia such as plays, sketches and songs.They also lever- age the influenceof open-minded community leaders to convince societyat largeto delay marriages. The trust runs this programin partnership with the'Girls not Brides' campaign andhas successfully established 475such groups.' Shanti is a 14-year-old girl from Bihar, oneof the highprevalence statesfor child marriage. Her parents had planned for her to get marriedat the age of 13. However, Shanti was recruited by a child rightsgroup andlearnt about girls' participation, girls' education, early marriageand pregnancy. The youth group helped convince her parents that marriage was not thebest thing forShanti at such a young age. This enabled Shanti to escapemarriage and to continue her schooling. Source:http://www.icrw.org/publications/asia-child-marriage-initiative-summary-research-findings-bangladesh-india-and-nepal Cultivating rolemodels as peer leaders The insight that another person in a situation similar toyours, has been ableto successfully overcome the same obstacles youare facing, is often thebest motivator forbehavior change. Such individuals, oftentermed "positive deviants," or "role models",have the potential influence their peers andcommunities, towards positive behaviorchange. Non-profit organizations identify young people who have succeeded in resisting early marriage. They work with them tobuild their capacity to become peer leaderswho can in turn help girlsin similar circumstancesfight back against the practice. Peer leaders use their own experiencesto 0 Ground Realities: Non-profit interventionsin the field
    • mentor at-risk childrenin local schools and neighborhoods, and motivate them tofollow their example. Theyalso provide them withrelevant information, advice and support todeal with the pressure such children experience to marryearly. Peerleaders are alsoresponsible for engaging the larger community tocreate an enabling and supportive environment foryoung people.Non- profit organizations support peer leadersto develop campaigns, and work with the panchayat and police to reportand prevent child marriages. Theyalso engagewith parents to ensure they understand theserious harmthe practicecauses andto persuade them to allowtheir children to marry later. Peer leaders, onceestablished and empowered, can play a significant role in the sustainable promotion oflasting behavioral changesamong youth and communities. Thoughtshop Foundation'sYouth Resource Cells (YRC) Youth ResourceCells (YRC) program empowers young peopleto become agentsof social change.It builds their capacity to address social challenges such as gender inequality, earlymarriages, and domestic violenceat an individual, groupand community level. Newyouth fellowsand their YRCs participate in an 18-month foundationprogram, whichis structured throughworkshops, residentialcamps, and social action community projects. Since 2007, over 100 youth fellowsand 24YRCs comprising around 1,000 youth membershave been involved in this program.In turn, these groups influence over 10,000community members.m Forgingresistance: Kavita leads by example Child marriage is common in Kavita's hometown -Allahabad,India. Here, girls areforced to marry early and bear children soon afterwards. Learning about contraception,sexually transmitted infections includingHIV, and reproductive rights ata youth center, gave Kavitathe confidence to stand up to her family. "I told my unclehe could be jailed if he forced me to get married. I knew itwas illegal",says Kavita. Kavita nowvolunteers as a peer leader, mentoring girls herage and educating village parentsand leaders about child marriage.She says, "Iwill make sure nomember of my peer group is forced into child marriage- it's not happeningon my watch." Source: http://endaidsindia.org/fighting-against-child-marriage/ Ground Realities: Non-ofit interventionsin the field
    • Training government officials and frontline workers Various stakeholders employedby government agencies are mandated either toenforce thelaw or to run programs whichengage adolescent girls and provide themwith thetools, skills and other information necessary to resist child marriage. These stakeholders mainly include: thelocal police (who are responsible for identifying and preventing child marriages)and aanganwadi workers (AWWs), who work through theSABLA scheme to provideinformation regarding sexual and reproductive health, nutrition, and legal rights to girls in particular villages). According to non-profit organizations, these stakeholdersare rarely aware oftheir responsibilities under thelaw, or thelegal rights of young girls, or theresources availableunder the various schemes in operation; in other words, they knowtoo little todischarge their duties. To redress this situation, non-profit organizations are training such people to increase their effectiveness. Training is held regularly, and supported by follow up sessions to address ongoing concernsraised by stakeholders on the ground. The non-profit organization HAQ together withits partners, organizes training programs for police personnelincluding sub-inspectors and constables at village level. Themodules cover various aspects of theJuvenile Justice Act, andwider child rightsissues. Theresults of these training sessions have been encouraging - many officials have reported child marriagesand provided relevantinformation toHAQ and itspartner organizations.' Often, training is fairly intensive, particularly forAWWs. As part of the program, non-profit organizations demonstrate processes and methods toAWWs by working directly with adolescent girls themselves. After workersobserve, often overseveral months, how thesystem could be better used for the benefitof these girls, they are ableto schedule sessions independently and more effectively thanbefore. 0 Ground Realities: Non-profit interventionsin the field
    • " / / , / ./ / , 1 I I II I II ; II t I ,!.."" Police and non-profit organizationsintervene to prevent severalchildmarriages on Akha Teej April 25, 2013 The vigilant police and active non-profit organizations proved successfulin stopping several child marriages on the auspicious day of Akha Teej, invarious parts of Rajasthan. Childmarriages were prevented in Jodhpur, Ajmer,Jalore, Pisangan andPushkar. Non-profit organizations feel that theirlong-standing efforts in making people understandthe ill-effects ofchild marriagesare finally yieldingresults. "Generally, manysuch marriages take place in Luni block of Jodhpur, but with police beingvery activethis year thesehave reduced drastically. We alsoconducted community-basedworkshops in almost 25 villages and organized many rallies against childmarriage," said Yogeshof Vikalp Sansthan, a non-profit organization based in Jodhpur. Police officials affirm that the proactiverole of non-profit organizations has aided in reducing the number of child marriages. "Effortsfrom theNGOs, too, have beenremarkable. The volunteers and youth groupsposted at blocklevels passed onthe information tothe authorities, whichmade the wholedrive very effective,"said a senior police official of Jodhpur. Source: Building the capacity ofnon-profit organizations focused on other issues Many health, educationand child rightsnon-profit organizations address childmarriage indirectly through their programs. For example, thoseworking on school retention foryoung girls and those providing life skillsto adolescents, also help addressthe practiceof child marriage.Given their strong relationshipswith the communitiesin which they work, theyare alsoable to change social norms and attitudes towardsearly marriage.However, these organizations usuallylack the necessary knowledge and expertise toincorporate components intoexisting programs. Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field 0
    • v.. . . .... :,- ..... '-'" ::. - l'' //// *.. / / / i / / / // / / I / / / / I / / / / / / / // // / / / // Credit: Crea Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field ,
    • Instead, non-profit organizations that possess proven expertise in dealing with child marriageare building the capacity of theselocal organizations to integrate child marriage messagingand techniques intotheir existing programs. Apart fromits scalability, this train-the-trainer model represents a win-win strategy to improve the effectiveness of organizations. The capacity building organizationcan exponentially increase its reach bytraining numerous partners,while simultaneously gaining critical field insights.These insights can then be used to advocate policiesto state and national governments.The trainee organization, by acquiring additional knowledgeand expertise, becomes more effectiveat preventing and ameliorating theeffects of child marriage. Currently non-profit organizations that build the capacity of otherlocal non-profit organizations do so byworking intensively with partners over3-5 years. Theengagement typicallybegins with the selectionof partners that share similar ideologies. Both organizationsthen co-design the program and decide on timelines, progress indicators and expected outcomes.After theplanning stage, trainer organizations spend significant timewith their trainee partnersin the field to demonstrate effective techniquesand methodologies. As the trainee organizationbegins to undertake interventions independently, thetrainer organization's role transitions to providing technical assistance when required,monitoring toevaluate impact,and disseminating lessons through traineeorganizations. The non-profit organization Sahayog builds thecapacity of partners to implement theSABLA scheme in Uttar Pradesh andUttarakhand. These partner organizations in turn trainAWWs to mobilize girlsand provide necessary skills andinformation. In 2012-13, Sahayog successfully inducted over3000 girlsin kishori samuhas(girl groups) as mandated by the SABLA scheme, and alsohelped train aanganwadi workerstocontinue such work in future Key takeaways Dasra identified 10 keynon-profit child marriageinterventions takingplace in India through its sector mappingand field research. It assessed eachintervention according toits impact on the ground, its scalability, and itsconsistency with its own cornerstones. Six interventions have been highlighted as 'high-impact and scalable' and arestrongly recommendedfor investment. Two interventions were deemed tohave a particularly high impact and scalability - the provision of vocational training,life skills andhealth information, and enabling access to education. These interventions provide girlswith real alternatives to early marriageand equip them withnecessary skills to make informed decisions regarding their own futures. Other high-impact, highlyscalable interventions include cultivating role models as peer leaders, mobilizing communities,training governmentofficials, and building the capacityof non-profit organizations working on other social issues to deliver child marriage interventions. Significantly, someinterventions on the groundseek to promote birthand marriage registrations by working withlocal communities and government. However, further work is required in this area, particularly because the intervention itselfis relatively simple,and can have anextremely positive effectin terms of preventing child marriage,improving law enforcement, and enabling girls to access public services. Non-profit interventionsmainly focuson unmarried girls. There is a need to actively identify and recruit child bridesinto these programsas well, to mitigate the harmfuleffects of child marriage. Ground Realities:Non-profit interventionsin the field 0
    • Photo Credit:Urmul Trust :":b 44: - Vi 1 0 Funding Options: Profilinghigh impact and scalable non-profits
    • Funding Options: Profiling high impact and scalable non-profits Dasra mapped over300 non-profit organizations across India which address issues of adolescent girls. Dasra evaluated their approach, model and interventions and identified approximately 30 organizations that seek to address child marriage. From these, 10 have been profiled in this report.Each of these organizationsundertakes high impact interventions, which, with strategic philanthropic funding,can be scaled to reach more unmarried and married adolescent girlsin India. Some of the followingorganizations implement programs in addition to thosethat address child marriage. However,for the purposeof this report, Dasra has chosen to focus only on those programsthat are either aimed at unmarried girls to delay marriage ormarried adolescents to mitigate thenegative consequencesof marriage. The chart belowcompares the most effectivenon-profit organizations mapped tothe mosthigh impact and high scale interventions, as discussed in the precedingchapter. AG RT BBA HAQ MVF Facilitating access Vocational to education training, life skills andS Mobilizing ommunities Cultivating peer Training aders governmen functionarie Building capacity f other on-profits Nishtha PANI alSahayog lir Thoughtshop Urmul Trust Vikalp Sansthan Funding Options: Profilinghigh impact and scalablenon-profits
    • 1 I ASHISH Gram Rachna Trust I Pachod, Aurangabad www.ihmp.org Director: Dr. Ashok Dyalchand Founded: 1979 Coverage: Maharashtra Total Budget:INR 3.8 Crores($638,000) CM Related Budget:INR 51 Lakhs ($85,000) OVERVIEW ASHISH Gram Rachna Trust(AGRT), through its executive body `Institute ofHealth Management, Pachod' (IHMP),implements programs to empowermarginalized groups,particularly women, adolescent girls and children. IHMP organizes andmobilizes communities tobecome self-reliant and economically independent. The organization implementsits programs in the economically and socially backward Marathwada regionof Maharashtra and in slum communities ofPune. The organization has considerable experiencein implementing life skills (1999-2006) and health-based (2003-12) programsfor adolescent girls. In 2013, IHMP launchedits Integrated Program, a health and life-skills based approach to combat theadverse effects of child marriage. The healthcomponent, which targets married adolescentgirls and their spouses, aimsto improvehealth indices concerning lowages of firstconception, inadequateuse of contraceptives, and high ratesof maternal morbidity, whichare direct consequences of early marriage.The life skillscomponent engages unmarried adolescentgirls, to help them identifyand develop their peer leadershipskills andindependence. Additionally, ithas started engaging unmarried adolescentboys in order toencourage genderequitable attitudes throughpeer leaders groomed in its earlier bal panchayat program. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Vocational training lifeskills and SRH Training government funtionaries HMP Mobilizing communities The organization trainsand builds the capacityof public health workers (ASHAs and ANMs) to assess health needs through household surveillance,conduct behaviourchange counseling, develop health-provision plans to increase access to healthcare, and hold life-skillseducation sessions. Overtime, IHMP mentors these workersand monitors how effectively theprograms are being implemented. THEORY OF CHANGE If children and adolescents are organized and mobilized, educatedon keyhealth issues, sensitized towards changing their views on patriarchal norms, and taught tobecome more self-reliant, thenit is possible to effectsustainable and positive changes in engaged communities tothe benefit ofboth presentand future generations. SCALABILITY The program's operating model of trainingand mentoring public health workers to effectivelyengage and empower adolescents is inherently scalable, as shown by the organization'srecord in scaling its health-based initiative from just twoPrimary Health Centres(PHCs) on its own, to a presence across five districtsthrough partnerships withfive NG0s. Overthe next fiveyears, IHMP plansto scale its Integrated Program to a total of 60,000 adolescentboys and girls,equally divided betweenrural and urban communities. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH The Integrated Program has reached out to600 adolescent girls in 2013. In 2003-12, the program's purely health-based initiatives directly impacted 12,000 married adolescent girlsat pilot sites in both rural and urban areas. In 2010, the government became responsiblefor the program (which thencovered 196 villages in one block).Subsequently, it hasreached out to10,000 adolescent girls. ENDORSEMENT IHMP has received the 'Investingin Women Award for Innovation' from ICRW for previous life-skills initiativeswith adolescent girls. The organization's work has been profiled in mainstream media, including The Timesof India. Its funders includeMacArthur Foundation, Oxfam and Christian AidUK. LEADERSHIP AGRT's team is led byDr. Ashok Dyalchand,who has 36years of experience in planning, monitoring and evaluating public health programs. Otherleaders are experts in many areas including public healthand medicine, monitoring and evaluation systems, social sciences and research, anddrafting policy documentsfor government departments. 0 ASHISH Gram RachnaTrust PARTNERSHIPS Currently, the organizationworks with local government institutions at the block-level to implementits adolescent girls program, often through the DistHealth Officeof the Government of Maharashtra.It is also collaborating with the State Government ofBihar to explore the possibility of institutionalizing its adolescent girls programsin the state.
    • 2 I Bachpan BachaoAndolan (Association for VoluntaryAction) Delhi www.bba.org.in General Secretary:R.S. Chaurasia Founded: 1980 Coverage:Pan India Total Budget: INR 3.7 Crores($596,000) CM Budget: INR 76 Lakhs ($122,000) Bachpan Bachao Andolan SAVE THE CHILDHOOD MOVEMENT OVERVIEW Bachpan BachaoAndolan (BBA) is a movement dedicated to preventing exploitation of childrenin India. Association for Voluntary Action (AVA) is the executive arm of BBA and campaigns throughout India for measures to protect children'srights, especially by preventing child labor and trafficking, and provides linkages to education. It opposes child marriagethrough: Child-Friendly Village/Bad Mitra Gram (BMG):This preventive model was established in 2001. It campaigns for the involvement of all community members, particularly children, in respecting and upholding children'srights. BBA staff establish working relationships with local village community groups, including children's governance bodies (bal panchayats)and youth and women's groups tochange regressivegender discriminatory practices and promote therights of children. To combat child labor and marriage of minors, the organizationseeks to ensure all children attendschool and arefully aware oftheir rights. Rescue, Rehabilitation and Prosecution:BBA helps rescueand rehabilitate survivors of child trafficking, includingvictims of bride trafficking. It also provides legal aidto victimsin order to prosecute traffickers. Policy: BBA actively lobbies thegovernment on child rightsissues and usespublic interest litigation toprotect children, including opposing child marriages.In 2010, BBA petitioned theSupreme Court to issue comprehensive directionson child marriage. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Facilitating access to education Mobilizing communities OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Providing legalsupport to child brides Cultivating peer leaders GOAdvocating with the government The organization sets upa bal panchayat, whichis an elected representative groupof 10-15 children aged between 6-18 years that works with the local village governingbody, the gram panchayat, to promote therights of children. It meets once every two weeks, and the meetingsare facilitated by the field staff for the first twoyears, after which the identifiedchild leaders take over the process. Till date,none of the 49,828 children mobilized by BBA have beenmarried before theyturn 18 years. THEORY OF CHANGE If children vulnerableto exploitationare identified, rescued, and rehabilitated; if offendersof child rightsare prosecuted; and if children are afforded a supportive environmentby being enrolled and retained in schools, and haveknowledge of and the means to enforce their legal rights; then a child-friendly societywill be established in which all children are free from exploitation,and benefit from improvedlife prospects. SCALABILITY The BMG model is replicable because BBA builds the capacityof youthleaders to continue working for thecommunity once it phasesout its interventions after threeyears. It seeksto cover a further 200 villages overthe next three years and thereby create two 'model' child marriage free districts.BBA also aimsto create highly visibledeterrents tobride trafficking by establishing judicial precedentsthrough prosecution child bride traffickersand undertakes policy initiativesto strengthen existing laws, suchas Prevention of Child Marriage Act, 2006. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH Since 2001, BMG has been implemented in 356 villages.In 2012- 13, BBAhad 112active BMGs reaching over 200,000 people.It has rescued more than 82,000 childrenfrom traffickingsince 1980.In 2012-13, two victims of bride trafficking wererescued and their traffickers arrested,and sevenchild marriageswere prevented. BBA's legalwork has ledto landmark judgementson child labor and trafficking, establishing important judicialprecedents. ENDORSEMENT Kailash Satyarthi, the founder ofBBA, has been considered for a Nobel Peace Prizeand honored through many awards includingthe Aachener International Peace Prize.In 2013, Razia Sultan, a girl from a BMG village,became the first recipient of theNations Special Envoyfor Global Education's Youthfor Education. BBA's work has been featured in many Indi newspapers and alsoin international media such as BBCand Time. LEADERSHIP Educated as an engineer, Kailash Satyarthi foundedBBA to fight child laborin India andhas remained a passionate campaigner for children's rights eversince. Mr. R.S. Chaurasia, the general secretary, has over 50 years of experience in social work, labor rights and child labor. Roles andresponsibilities are clearly divided amongst the95 staff members,to ensure accountability and that theirroles best leveragetheir individual skills. PARTNERSHIPS Through its nationwide network of morethan 754 organisationsand 80,000 peoplethat promotechild rights,BBA leverages its reachto help rescueand rehabilitate victims ofchild abuseand exploitation, and campaigns for a national policy tofrom exploitation. It hasa strong legacy of funders. These include international organizations such as Kids Rights, which has supported BBA for eight years and Breadfor theWorld for thepast 17 years. Bachpan BachaoAndolan (Association for Voluntary Action)0
    • 3 I HAQ: Centre for Child RightsI Delhi www.haqcrc.org Co-Directors: Enakshi GangulyThukral, BhartiAll Founded: 1998 Coverage: Pan-India Total Budget: INR 1.5 Crores ($250,000) CM Budget: INR 49 Lakhs ($79,000) OVERVIEW HAQ focuses on the recognition, promotionand protection of child rights. It believes theexploitation ofchildrenreflects wider social ills. HAQworks on child-centric governance and child protection. To promote child-centricgovernance, HAQ monitors state performance and develops toolsfor advocacy, including `budget for children'analyses, 'status of children'reports, parliament watch, child rightsindex, and public education materials. The organization provides counselingand legal aidto children in distress and addresses specific childprotection issues, including juvenile justice,child trafficking, and child marriage by campaigning, training stakeholders, pursuing publicinterest litigations and originating action-orientedresearch. Prevention of Child Marriage by strengthening governanceand holding thestate and communities accountablehave been key strategies of HAQ sinceMarch 2012, in partnership with the MV Foundation in Andhra Pradesh and Jabalain West Bengal. HAQ and its partners work with governmentofficials, police, panchayat, self-help groups(SHGs), adolescent girls, youth groups, religiousand community leaders. Theyenlist support by raising awarenessof the adverse effectsof child marriageand also its legal implications. The organization's work is starting to benefit the community, with child marriageseither prevented or postponed, and communities promising tooppose child marriage. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Direct Building capacity of other non-profits Indirect Mobilizing communities OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Advocating with the government 11AQ Centre ler 71. Child Rights Training government funtionaries Direct Indirect Conducting evidence based research Creating awareness To launch its child marriage program, HAQ selected organizations with which it had previous strong relationships.It jointly designed effective programs,and conducted consultations with key government officials and members of society. For one year, HAQ worked closelywith its partners, overseeingthe program and training social workers. Currently,HAQ monitors the initiative,and reports to donorsthrough field visits andpartners' reports. THEORY OF CHANGE If governance mechanismsare strengthened and child protection measures established thencommunities and children willbe empowered to realize the rights of minors, and to combat objectionablesocial practices including child marriagein a sustainable way. SCALABILITY HAQ's model has proven successfulwith differentorganizations in diverse social landscapes, indicating a strong foundation and scalability. HAQ plansto conduct evidence-based research toanalyze its impact, and then scale through increasing (a) penetration in existing states, and (b)number of partners. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH HAQ's program is building the capacity oftwo organizations in two states, covering 24 gram panchayats (GPs). It has mobilized the community by establishing groupsof young girlsand boys, child protection committees, and SHGs. Since itslaunch in March 2012, the projecthas prevented 62 child marriagesin its own area and 31 in neighbouring non-projectareas. ENDORSEMENT HAQ's analysisof the government's budgetspending on child rights has been endorsed by the Government ofIndia, and its publications have setthe pretext ofdiscussions in the houses of the parliament.The childmarriage programis funded by Ford and MacArthur foundations. Otherpast andpresent funders include Terre des Homes (Germany),CORDAID, Savethe Children Sweden, and CRY. LEADERSHIP HAQ was co-founded by EnakshiThukral and Bharti Ali, both trained sociologists. Enakshi is a member of the drafting committee for National Policy onChildren, Central AdvisoryBoard on ChildLabor. Bharti is a member of theDelhi Legal Services Authority, Delhi High Court Legal Services Committee. Krinna Shah,the Program Director for the child marriage program,has a child protection background and has been a child welfare committee member. 0 HAQ: Centre forChild Rights PARTNERSHIPS HAQ hascontributed to the formulation oflaws, policies and programs, e.g. National Policy for Children; NationalPlan of Action; Protection of Childrenfrom Sexual Offences Act; Juvenile Justice Actand Rules;11th & 12th Five Year Plans. It hastaken part in national campaigns against child laborand child trafficking. For its child marriage program,it partners with the MV Foundation in Andhra Pradesh and Jabalain West Bengal.
    • 4 I MV Foundation I Secunderabad www.mvfindia.in Secretary Trustee: M.R. Vikram Founded: 1981 Coverage: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh Total Budget: INR 6.1 Crores($1,009,000) CM Budget: INR 5.5 Crores ($ 917,000) fQ OVERVIEW M. VenkatarangaiyaFoundation (MVF) promotes the recognition and protection ofchild rightsusing a 'non-negotiable' proposition, namely `No child mustwork; all children mustgo to school' It believes that any child out ofschool is subject tosome form ofwork and is therefore a child laborer; since early marriage prevents girlsfrom going to school, it is also a symbol of child labor. MVFprevents child marriageby using a rights-based approach to create demandfor educationamongst parentsof poor children, teachers, employers of children, youthgroups, women's groups, electedlocal representatives, and state government officials. It hasgrown from reaching 30 children in 1991, to over 1 million childrentoday. MVF uses anarea-based approach,which involves workingwith all children in a given location and persuading communities totake ownership of upholding children'srights, including enrollingand retaining childrenaged 5-14 in school; this year onwardsMVF intends toalso focus on secondary educationfor girls. It does this by creating and training a formal village level Child Rights Protection Forum (CRPF) consisting of panchayat members, women's self-help groupsand other activists to workon child-centric issues. MVFgathers information on all out-of-school children, builds awareness,forms youthgroups, mobilizes motivation centers, organizes residential bridge course campsand teacher forums,engages with school education committees to secure infrastructural improvements,and helpsCRPFs consistently trackand follow up onchildren's progress. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Facilitating access to education Cultivating peer leaders Traininggovernment funtionaries Mobilizing communities Building capacity of other non-profits MVF uses its model of community mobilization for enrollingand retaining childrenin school to also prevent child marriages.It tracks girls, builds awarenessabout child marriage, mobilizes gir groups and mothers' groupsto supportand cultivate peer leaders, and assistsCRPFs in actively stoppingchild marriages.It also ensures that Child Marriage Prohibition Committeesand Officers are functioning as mandated by the state. THEORY OF CHANGE If all stakeholders in a community - parents, children, teachers, electedmembers and government officials - are made awareof the issues involved, trained and mobilized to create demandfor education,protectchild rights,and enroll and retain childrenin school, then all children will receive quality education. If children are educated and their rights are protected, it will resultin their holistic developmentand the progress of society. SCALABILITY MVF's scalability is rooted in its principle against creating parallelsystems and instead working throughexisting stateinstitutions such as schools, socialwelfare hostels, gram panchayatsand other bodies. It hasimplemented its model across Andhra Pradesh andreplicated itin several other states with differentgeographic, culturaland economic conditions,by building the capacityofgovernment as well as other non-profit organizations. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH Since itsinception, MVF has enrolled over1 million children from more than 6,000villages in school. It hasstopped over 4,500child marriages, mainstreamed 50,000 children throughits residential bridge courses, worked with 1,500 gram panchayats,and mobilized 1,500 teachersthrough teachers' forums,and 8,000 youth volunteers and members ofCRPF. MVF has worked in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Assam. ENDORSEMENT MVF's programshave beensupported by Government ofIndia, Government of AndhraPradesh (GoAP),UNDP, UNICEF,the World Bank anddonors including ActionAid, Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, andAxis Bank Foundation. GoAP hasadopted and implemented its concepts, especially concerning residential bridgecourses. MVF hasreceived the Swaraveda Awardfrom theNTR Memorial Trust, the Yashoda Foundation and the Pragati Seva Trust. LEADERSHIP MVF's 220-strong teamis led bya strong groupof trustees and current secretary M.R. Vikram, an established Chartered Accountant. Its founder, Prof. Shanta Sinhahas chaired the National Commission for Protection ofChild Rightsfor twoconsecutive terms. She was awarded thePadma Shriin 1999, the 2003 Ramon MagsaysayAward, GoldenPen Award from Bauer Publishing House, Germany in 2004, and the AlbertShanker International Award. PARTNERSHIPS MVF is a partner of'Stop Child Labour- School is the Best Placeto Work' campaign, involvingnon-profit organizations from six European and other developing countries, which provides technic support in Central American and Africa. It builds the capacities of various non-profit organizations and state governments implement its approach. It haspartnered with 'HAQ: Centre for Child Rights' to document and help deliver its childmarriage program. MVFoundation 0
    • 5 I Nishtha I West Bengal www.nishthausa.org Secretary: Mina Das Founded: 1974 Coverage: West Bengal Total Budget: INR 3.15 Crores ($508,000) CM Budget:INR 1.56 Crores ($252,000) OVERVIEW Nishtha is an NGOlocated in West Bengal, India.For the past 35 years, it hasworked to improve healthcareand hygiene, and to empower women ofall ages. It seeksto mobilize women through education, leadership, life skills andvocational training programs to make them economically independent. Nishtha operatesfour primary interventions: Day CareCentre (DCC) is set upto provide education to out-of- school girls,dropouts and child laborerswith the aim of enrolling them in the formal educationsystem. Classes following mainstream school syllabusesare heldfrom 10 AM to 4.30 PM daily. In addition, computersand other extracurricularactivities such as painting, music, dance and drama are also heldto develop skills. Specialtraining is given in reproductive health, hygieneand child protection. Private Tuitionsare provided to the most vulnerableand at-risk adolescent girlsto ensure they stay atschool. Vocational Training Centeris designed for young girls(age: 13-18 years) andyoung womenwho cannotbe enrolled in formal schools. They aretaught skills suchas stitching, brush makingand other handicrafts to encouragetheir financial independence. Youth andWomen's Groupis a Nishtha initiated self-dependent collective of children(age: 6-11 years),adolescent boys andgirls (age: 11-18 years) andwomen who workon issues suchas child marriage, violence against women, sexual andreproductive health and women's rights. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Facilitating access Vocational training to education life skills andSRH OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Mobilizing communities Creatingawareness Cultivating peer leaders Members of youth and women's groupsare trained and motivated to conduct meetingsin their own villages. Theyare equipped to take socialaction by raising awareness,acting as peer educators and building pressure among parentsto ensure that daughters are educated. Each village group (hamlet)consists of 10-12 members and is headed by a leader. Hamlet leaders form block groupsand block leadersform a federation, whichsupervises the activities of various groups.Leaders areelected every yearby vote. THEORY OF CHANGE If girls and young womenare educated, trainedand sensitized about social malpractices and areinvolved in the process of social change, then theycan assume responsibility for their own lives. Ifwomen are united and assertive about their rights, then they willbe empowered to help themselves and bring about a positive change in their community by defeating discriminativesocial malpractices. SCALABILITY In the comingyears, Nishtha plans to open six DCCs inMagrahat-II blockin West Bengal, and runten additional privatetuition centres for 3000 girlsin four blocks. It alsoaims to open libraries in DCCsto increasechildren's interestin education, establish computer learning centres,and conduct monthly healthcheck-ups for adolescentgirls, alsoat DCCs. Further, it intends to extendsupport to around 2000vulnerable girls by paying their tuitionfees andproviding educational materialsand clothing. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH Nishtha operatesin four blocks of the districtnamed South 24 Paragnas, in West Bengal. To date, 1,564children have been coached, 678have been enrolled in main schoolsand approximately 5,000 have received private tuitions.Nishtha has also provided vocational training to725 girls andwomen, and impacted an additional 5,000 throughits women's groups. ENDORSEMENT Nishtha's work has been featured on Doordarshan Kolkata's Sreemoyee programand regional newspaperssuch as Anandabazar, Aajkaal, and The Telegraph. Nishtha was awardedthe nationallevel Apeejay Awardin 2011 for thebest volunteer-based organization. Their work has been funded by international agencies suchas Oxfam (UK), Global Fundfor Women,Global Fund for Children and Karuna Trust.Domesticfunders include theR.D. Tata Trust. LEADERSHIP Nishtha's team of 135 members is headed by secretary MinaDas, who has 35years of experience in the social sector. Sheis an Ashoka Fellow and holdsa Masters degree in Arts and a Bachelors degreein Education. She is a member of theDistrict Level Health Committee (Government ofIndia) and onthe governingbody of six women's groups of West Bengal. Nishtha's board includesseven members considered expertsin the social, education and anthropology sectors. CpNishtha PARTNERSHIPS Nishtha's projects have been financially assisted by various international agencies including the Development Coope Section and Canadian High Commission. Theyhave received government support from theNational Commission for Women, District Child Protection and District Social Welfare.They have also undertaken projectsin partnership with non-profitssuch as Save the Children & knowledge partners including Jadavpur University.
    • 6 I People's Action for National Integration Faiza bad www.paniindia.org Secretary: Bharat Bhushan Founded: 1986 Coverage:Uttar Pradesh Total Budget:INR 6.96 Crores ($1,122,000) CM Budget: 63 Lakhs($102,000) OVERVIEW People's Action for National Integration (PANI) was founded to empower marginalized women and children toassert their rights. With this objective,it adopts a two-pronged approach to address the issue of child marriage in eastern UttarPradesh. It empowers children toaccess their rights and building the capacityof community health workers. Integrated Child Development: PANI has created village,block, and district level committees of children(aged 6-18), to address issues of child rights includingchild marriage.Methods used include role play, puppet shows, cartoons, and films. PANI empowers childrenby making them aware oftheir rights, and by helping them tospeak directly with government authorities to access essential servicesand advocate for these rights.It sets upa Child Protection Committeethat involves stakeholderssuch as teachers and government functionariesto uphold child rights. Community Health: As child brides arevulnerable to poor health due to sexual activity or early pregnancies,PANI, as part ofits community health program, specificallyseeks to raise awareness of health problemscaused bychild marriage. It haspartnered with six organizations to create awareness about healthissues and train local health workers to conductsafe deliveries resulting from earlypregnancy. PANI supervises implementation ofthe program by partner organizations and provides technicaland monitoring expertise. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Facilitating access Cultivating peer to education OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Mobilizing Vocational training communities life skillsandSRH Creating awareness PANI establishes children's groupscalled BalJagriti Manch toliaise with local government and police functionaries, and promote equal opportunity environments within local communities. These young leaders influence their peersand hostanti-child marriagecampaigns. To help girlswho are being pressurizedto marry early for dowry related reasons, PANI provides access to vocational training to h them earn and reducethe financialburdenon their families. THEORY OF CHANGE If integrated developmentwith a rights-based perspectiveis promoted by creating active children, youthand women's groups that identify, analyze andprioritize child rightsissues and initiate targeted activitiesat the grassroots levels, then a sustained and holistically developed society, with gender equalityand recognition of the rights of children, willbe created. SCALABILITY PANI's programs are scalable through partnershipswithlocal non-profit organizations. It operates strongsystems to monitorand evaluate its programs; the leadersof each program provide daily updateswhile quarterlyreviews assess progress and discussfuture recommendations. PANI plans sustainable programsthrough a three-stage implementation: phase-in, implementation, and phase-out once intended indicators have beenachieved. Goingforward, the organizationplans to expand its operations to the Bundelkhandregion of Uttar Pradesh andBihar. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH Through its Integrated Child Development program,PANI has involved over 170,000women and 150,000 children over thepast 17 years in community-based organizations(CB0s) in 11districts of UttarPradesh. During the past year alone,the Community Health programhas impacted over 60,000 womenand more than 70,000 childrenby empowering and educating local committees about healthissues in six blocks in four districts. ENDORSEMENT PANI has received accoladesfrom theChristian ChildrenFund's Board of Directors forits work withchildren, and has also been recognized by CARE and the UttarPradesh government forits efforts to improve maternalhealth. Its work has featured in leading publications such as The Hindu andTimes of India. PANI's work on child marriageis currently fundedby Child Fund Plan India, Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, andUNICEF. LEADERSHIP Bharat Bhushanhas served as PANI's chief secretaryfor thepast 27 years. Hebelieves strongly in volunteerism and the civil society movement based on Gandhian principles. BeforePANI, he worked with his parents on integrated development in Bihar. Mr.Bhushan is supported by a strong executivecore management groupthat incorporates many years of experience and grassroots commitment to improving thelives of women and children throughout India. PARTNERSHIPS PANI is involved in many state, national, and international associations includingthe UttarPradesh Voluntary Action Network, Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development, Voluntary Action Network ofIndia, andInternational Task Force for Rural Poor. PANI also founded the Supporting Association forand Holistic Initiativesin 1992, which includes 346 organizations in Uttar Pradesh. Peoples Action for National Integration0
    • 7 I Sahayog Lucknow www.sahayogindia.org Coordinator: Jashodhara Dasgupta Founded: 1992 Coverage:Uttar Pradesh Total Budget:INR 1.6 Crores ($258,000) CM Budget: INR 50 Lakhs ($81,000) SAHAYOG OVERVIEW Sahayog is a rights-based organizationthat promotes women's health, genderequity, and youth sexual andreproductive health, with a focus on poor and socially marginalized groupsin rural areas. It provides technicaland financial support forits local partners to implementits community empowermentprograms, and uses findings from communities to influence policyat all levels. It also servesas a resource group providinginformation on health and rights for women and youth. Sahayog's Tarangprogram focuses on empowering adolescent girls by facilitating implementation of the government's pilot SABLA scheme. SABLA is a comprehensive program forgirls aged 11-18, which aims to increase schoolenrolment, improvehealth and nutrition, upgrade lifeand vocational skills, raiseawareness on issues suchas sexual andreproductive health, and provide counseling through aanganwadicenters. Tarang mobilizes government resources under theSABLA scheme to make adolescent girls more awareof gender, healthand rights issues, conducts capacity building workshops forgirl leadersto increase their participationin monitoring and advocacy of their rights, and drives campaignsto create a more supportive environment in their communities, to empower them todelay their marriages, complete their education and develop their own livelihoods. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Vocational training CultivatingpeerTraining government Buildingcapac life skills andSRH leaders funtionaries ofother non-profits OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Conductingevidence based research Tarang facilitators mobilize adolescentgirls to enrol in schools, and also to form groups of 20-25 to meetat aanganwadi centers twice each month. Within groups, girlsmonitor theirSABLA entitlements and discussgender and health issues usingmaterials provided by Sahayog. Girls alsoconduct communitycampaigns, learn to file petitions,and engage with governmentofficials to advocate for their rights. THEORY OF CHANGE If socially marginalizedwomen and girls aremade aware of their rights and entitlements, and areempowered tocampaign for and monitor the enforcement of both, then policymakers will be better informedregarding their status, andgovernment programs will be more effectively implemented. As a result, these groupswill have greater influenceon policies that affect their lives and beable to access services more easily. SCALABILITY Tarang is a scalable program primarily because it leveragesgovernment infrastructureand is implemented by localpartners. Currently, five partners implement it in fivedistricts, each covering 20 villages. Sahayogcan deepen its engagement with existing partnersand expand Tarang to more villages in these districts.It can also expand Tarangto more districtsby leveraging partnerships under its other programs, orby adding new partners.Over the next three years, Sahayog plansto expand its coverage from 100 to 140 villagesin five districts. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH In 2012-13, Tarang facilitators mobilized 3,071 adolescent girls into KishoriSamoohs(girls groups), over 250of which participated in capacity building workshopsand playedleadership roles within their groups. More than5,000 girlstook part in the MereSapne Meri Udaan campaign,which increased the awareness of girls' rights within communities. In addition, 470 girlstook part in a district dialogue with key officials and stakeholders. ENDORSEMENT Sahayog is supported by established funders such as Ford Foundation (which funds theTarang program), OXFAM Trust, Global Fund for Women, and MacArthur Foundation. Its past funders includeAJWS, UN Women, and Department for International Development(DFID). As the organizationhas no individual donors, it does not possess an 80-Gcertificate. LEADERSHIP Sahayog's team of16 is headed by Jashodhara Dasgupta,who has over 27 years of experiencein the women's healthand rights sector, andis a MacArthur Fellow (1995-98).She is a steering committee memberof several civilsociety platforms, including the National Alliancefor MaternalHealth and Human Rights (India), and serves onvarious government committees.Sahayog's 7-member board is overseen by a governing body of22 members. 0 Sahayog PARTNERSHIPS Sahayog has 11community-based partners whoimplement its programs. It also has several national and global partners such as the Women'sHealth and RightsAdvocacy Partnership(WHRAP), and is Secretariat ofthe National Allianceon Maternal Health and Human Rights (NAMHHR).SAHAYOG liaises with many organizations that also undertake SABLA related work fundedby Ford Foundation.
    • 8 I Thoughtshop Foundation I Kolkata www.thoughtshopfoundation.org President: MiraKakkar Founded: 1993 Coverage:West Bengal Total Budget:INR 57 Lakhs ($92,000) CM Budget: INR 25 Lakhs($40,000) THOUGHTSHOP FOUNDATION OVERVIEW Thoughtshop Foundation(TF) is a social communications organizationthat develops innovativetools and behaviour change communication strategies to facilitatesocial change at the grassroots, on issues suchas adolescent reproductive health, gender equity,and child rights. TF's Youth Resource Cells(YRC) program was started in 2007 to empower young people to becomeagents of social change. The model entails selecting youth fellowsand training them to simultaneously build the capacity of community-based youth groups to address social challenges such as gender inequality, early marriages,and domesticviolence at an individual, groupand community level. TF's program curriculum allows for holistic personaldevelopment of individuals; it helps them explore issues of identity, choices and goals, gainawareness of gender equity and adolescent sexual and reproductive health, and develop a sense of belonging and responsibility towardstheir communities. Its interactive participatory methodology promotespeer education, whichhelps increase participation and ownership of youth,develops strong leaders and role models,and builds youth resource cells with distinct identitiesand values. TheseYRCs become self-sustaining support groups for community members, play the role of a watch- dog, and actas change makersto build awarenessand take collective actionwithin theircommunities. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Mobilizing communities Vocationaltraining Cultivapeer life skillsandSRH leaders OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Creating awareness New youth fellowsand their YRCs participate in an18-month foundation program, whichincludes workshops, camps, andcommunity projects that use participatory games, teaching aids, andother interactivetools. OlderYRCs are taken through advanced six-month modules such as peer counselingand gender based issues, to help them continue to drive positivesocial change in their communities. THEORY OF CHANGE If young peopleare encouraged to become partnersin the process of social change rather thansolely beneficiaries,then they wouldbe empowered toachieve their potential and develop ownership and responsibility for themselves,their peers andtheir communities, whichin turn can effect positiveand sustainable social change. SCALABILITY The YRC model is scalable because it focuseson peer education.It employs a `train-the-trainer' model, developing simplified tooand a structured curriculum to educate groupleaders, who simultaneously traintheir group membersto form independent youthgroups. Since 2011, TF has replicated theYRC program for Indienhilfe,a German non-profit organization, in five remote districts.Its ability to adapt the program curriculum, design anddelivery as needed, showsits potential to operate through partnerships underdiverse community conditions. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH Since 2007, over 100youth fellowsand 24YRCs comprising around 1,000youth membershave beeninvolved with TF's youth program. After completing the foundationcourse, these groups continueto engage their communities, reaching over 10,000community members. Over 20youth trainersand facilitators from theseYRCs have trained youthleaders of partner organizations. TF's tools are also used bythousands of grassroots organizationsworldwide. ENDORSEMENT TF's tools are used bywell-known institutionssuch as Oxfam GB, CARE India, and USAID. Oxfam GB has been a significant partner since 2003 andhas integrated TF's approach and learning into several projects; it selected TF to develop the campaign mate for theWe CanEnd Violenceagainst Women camp implemented across South Asia by over 2000 partners.TF's YRC program has been supported by the Sir Ratan TataTrust since 2009. LEADERSHIP TF's founder and president, MiraKakkar, hasover 20 yearsof experience in behavior change communications. Its project directors, HimaliniVarma and Santayan Sengupta, aregraduates of the National Institute ofDesign, Ahmedabad, and are skilled at developing innovative toolsand systemsfor thesocial sector.The organization's core four-person teamis supported by 12youth trainers and facilitators, wholead all program activities. PARTNERSHIPS TF has many partners, dueto its expertise in developing communication materials and training youngsterson issues such as gender equity,and adolescent and reproductive health. It has worked with CINI to develop content,with Youthreach to train youth leaders, and with UNICEF on itsMy Childhood My Right campaign against child marriagein West Bengal. It partners with Indienhilfe to implement theYRC program in itsdistricts. Thoughtshop Foundation10
    • 9 I URMUL Trust I Bikaner www.urmul.org Secretary: ArvindOjha Founded: 1986 Coverage: : Western Rajasthan Total Budget: INR 2 Crores ($324,000) CM Budget: INR 24 Lakhs ($39,000) Urmul OVERVIEW URMUL Trust(UT), along with its family of satelliteorganizations, develops community-driven programs, sustainsand strengthens these programs,and hands them over to a given community. The URMUL family's key focus areas include healthand livelihoods, with an emphasis on the rights of womenand children. It has targeted theissue of child marriagethrough thelens of education, sensitization and community mobilization. Girls Not Brides:Thar Extension Program(TEP), incepted in June 2013, andimplemented by the parentorganization (UT), adopts a community trainingand sensitization approach. Stakeholdersare sorted into groupsand areeducated aboutchild marriage and its health-based, legal, and socialramifications. The program is in effect in 60 villages across two districts, and waspreceded by similar initiativesin other districts where theURMUL family operates. The TEP program borrows onekey component of the Dignity of the Girl Child program (activelyimplemented by URMUL between 2005and 2009), namelythe use of creative pedagogy including puppet shows and skits,in order tomake communities relateto and empathize with victims of child marriages. UT's previous initiative in education, theBalika Shivir program (1997-2012; subsequently adoptedby the State Government), equipped girls with life-skills and the agency to speak up for themselves, highlighting the power of educationin increasing the age of marriage, thus inspiringkey tenets of theTEP program. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Vocational training life skillsandSRH Mobilizing communities Cultivatingpeer leaders UT's level of community entrenchmentpositively impacts the efficacy of its interventions. In its engagements with the community, UT focuses on role modelsfrom bothwithin and outside thecommunity toencourage positive change.In addition to sensitizing communities about themedical and le consequences of child marriage,the trainingsorganized by UT emphasize the importance of education. THEORY OF CHANGE If localleadership and key community groups are mobilized, trained, educatedand sensitized about theills of social malpractices such as child marriage, and communicate messages about thesame to their communities, then the constituentsof these communitiesshall witness a marked improvement in the quality oftheir lives. SCALABILITY The organization's initiatives under theGirls Not Brides program involveweekly engagement, trainingand sensitization of diverse community groups. To maximize the efficacyof these initiatives, the organizationand itstrainers need to be significantlyentrenched in the areas of operation, in order toencourage an organic process of change. URMULis looking to build the capacity of other organizationsin different geographies to implement similarprograms by sharing its methodologies and IECs to help them eradicate child marraige. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH 475 different interestgroups have been formed across two districts in the TEP program. This includes girls' groups, mixed groups of girls and boys,women's groupsand panchayati raj institution groups, among others.Previously, the Balika Shivir program reached out toover 11,000 girlsand succeeded in empowering them, and in increasing their ages of marriage by up to fiveyears in several instances. ENDORSEMENT The central government has appointed the secretaryof URMUL Trust to monitor the efficacy and working ofgovernmentschemes aimed atalleviating povertyacross India.Amongst the organization's fundersare Action Aid, Save the Children,Oxfam, USAID, PlanInternational and UNICEF. URMUL Trust was oneof the first organizations tobe called upon by 'The Elders'to constitute theGirls Not Brides Partnership. LEADERSHIP The family oforganizations practicesa decentralized, democratic form ofdecision-making. The trust is presently headed by Arvind Ojha, who has been with the organizationsince 1987.UT's board is unique in that it has several ex-officio members, including the district collectorofBikaner. Thepresence of senior bureaucratsin its board lendsthe organizationlegitimacywhen it negotiates with the governmentin its policy advocacy initiatives. 0 URMUL Trust PARTNERSHIPS UT is a part of numerous partnerships including theGirls Not Brides partnership, consistingof over 300 organizations battling child marriage worldwide. It has strong working partnershipswith the Government ofIndia andis currently entrusted implementing the Integrated Child Development Services in the Kolayat Blockof Bikaner district. It also has anIT-based vocational training partnership withthe Rajasthan Knowledge Commission.
    • 10 I Vika 1p Sansthan Udaipur www.vikalporg.in FounderSecretary: Usha Choudhary Founded:2002 Coverage: Rajasthan Total Budget:INR 50 Lakhs ($80,000) CM Budget: INR 28 Lakhs ($45,000) OVERVIEW Vikalp Sansthan wasfounded in 2002, to create a society freeof violence and discrimination against women and girls. The organization approachesthe issue of child marriageby focusing on gender-based violence,based onthe finding of the National Family Health Surveythat girls married at an early age aremore vulnerable to domesticviolence. AapaniDikari Ro Haq (Our Daughter's Right) This program began in 2005 and currently operates in the districts of Jodhpur, Udaipur, Jaloreand Barmer in western and southern Rajasthan. Awareness is raised interactively through streetplays andrallies. The organization also conducts targeted workshopsfor adolescent girls, boys, the youthand parents, to discuss group specificissues. Sensitization takes the form of one-on-one interactionsand workshops with stakeholders and keyopinion formers, including members of panchayatiraj, caste leaders,teachers, aanganwadi workers, saathisand localgovernment officials. Research andadvocacy includesconducting comprehensive mapping exercises of child marriagetrends in Rajasthan, and lobbying state and localgovernments toboost efforts to combat child marriage. HIGH IMPACT INTERVENTIONS Training government funtionaries Mobilizing communities OTHER KEY INTERVENTIONS Cultivating peer leaders Conducting evidence Advocating with based research the government Vikalp Sansthanidentifies youth to attendits workshops and engages them toact as volunteers. As volunteers are drawn from the community in which the program operat understand local issues andconcerns. The volunteers organize mass awareness programsand sensitize local stakeholders, with whom theyestablish soundrelationships through one-on interaction and dialogue. THEORY OF CHANGE If all members and stakeholders in a community, includingparents, children,frontline workers and government functionariesare mobilized, trained and sensitized to thescourge of gender based violence and childmarriage, thenwomen will be able to achieve their full potentialas safe, empowered and equal members of society. SCALABILITY Using volunteers fromlocal communities tomobilize, and build relationships and trust ensures inherent scalability in Vikalp's model. Going forward, acknowledging theimportanceof education in the fight against childmarriage,Vikalp Sansthan plansto integrate educational activities into its program by mainstreaming camps for high schooldropouts and life skillsdevelopment workshops. The organizationalso intends to increase its advocacy, byworking closely with local government officials to ensurethe effective enforcement oflaws againstchild marriage. QUALITY INDICATORS OUTREACH Our Daughter's Right operatesin 226 villagesin four districts of Rajasthan. Sinceits inception, Vikalp Sansthan's awarenessinitiatives have affected the lives of over 200,000 people. Additionally, 4,700 stakeholders have received sensitization and capacitybuilding training. Vikalp Sansthanhas alsopersuaded 32 panchayats to pass resolutionsestablishing child marriage freeregions. ENDORSEMENT Vikalp Sansthan'swork across Rajasthanhas been reported by many respected media organizations, incNDTV, Korean National Televisionand Femina magazine. Since it began,the organization has been supported by strong institutional funderssuch as Oxfam India,UNICEF and Action Aid. Vikalp Sansthan'sinvolvement at the highest level of policy makingis supported by theGovernment of Rajasthan's Departmentof Women and ChildDevelopment. LEADERSHIP Vikalp Sansthanis led by UshaChoudhary, a prominent women's activist. Usha has over 10 yearsof experience workingon issues related to violence againstwomen, and has won several awards including the L'Oreal ParisFemina Women Award. The organization consists of a 17-strong managementand operations team,and a volunteer task force of 400youth whoplay a vital grassroots rolein the organization'sawareness and sensitization activities. PARTNERSHIPS VikalpSansthan participates in numerous networksand partnerships including Girls Not Brides, We CanEnd All Violence Against Women Campaign, One Billion Rising, FEM(Forum for Engaging Men) and the Asian Girls Campaign. In addition, it provides the Rajasthan partners of Terre des Homes with gender-based training. VikalpSansthan has also collaborated with the Rajasthan policeto provide sensitization workshopsfor police officers. Vikalp Sansthan
    • 0.cp.,. "gt.. s, edr ..410 p 0 , 4 -I*".. *43, ;."..F., al.6 " % Recommendations and Conclusion An adolescent girl stands atthe thresholdof adulthood. In that period, much is decided. If her life follows thepath of patriarchalnorms and poverty, she marries too young. As anabused wife, an adolescent mother,and an uneducated citizen, she losesthe chance to fulfill her human potential. And eachinstance of child marriage,multiplied by millions of girls, contributes toa much larger downward spiral for thenation. While a girl's life is fundamentally shaped by those closest to her, decisions within her domestic circle are influenced by the actions of various stakeholders. Actorssuch as the government, international agencies, lawenforcement agencies, judiciary, non-profit organizations and media have the potential to stimulate familiesand communities to alter thetrajectory ofearly marriage and pregnancy for girls. While India is progressing towards thegoal to end child marriage,the current scale andimpact of the issue necessitates efforts tobe intensified at all levels across stakeholder groups. Recommendations for buildingthe eco-system Promote cross-sectorialinitiatives such asSABLA While SABLA is an initiative to empower adolescentgirls by the Ministryof Women and Child Development (MWCD), it is implemented throughan existing structure under the Ministryof Health and FamilyWelfare. Even though thescheme is fairly new, it has met with significant success. Effective use of existing government machinery and collaboration between government departments explain the successful implementation ofthe SABLA program. Consideringthat various ministries- Health and FamilyWelfare, HumanResource Development, and Women and Child Development - have a stake in this issue, there is a need to have more of such cross- departmental initiativesamong them tocreate optimum impact in a cost-efficient manner. Build localnetworks Child marriage is essentially a local issue.According to non-profit organizations, current national networks tendto be too hierarchical and largefor constructive discussions. Therefore, there is a need to develop state or district level networks with flat structures toaddress local challenges. These networks need to be flexible enough to include organizationsthat do not currently operate child marriage specific programssuch as those working in the education, healthand livelihood sectors. Thesemust also involve other stakeholders, includingfunders and localgovernment, so as to understand different perspectives and conduct sector-level discussions regarding challenges and opportunities. Recommendations for funders Prioritize impact assessment to prove and improve While certain approachesto delay marriageand pregnancy seem to be working, thereis a need for the sectorto move beyondanecdotal evidenceto moreconcrete indicatorsof impact, in order to understandwhat works and where future investments should be directed. It is important for donors to fund non-profit organizations to conductregular evaluationand impact assessment exercises so as to gain insights and accordingly plan their futurefunding. They also needto use their expertise to build capacityof non-profit organizations by co-developing plans for monitoring and evaluation that are simple, cost-effective and relevant for theorganization beyond specific funding cycles. 0 /000. _ .," "PIC ""%.. r% r. we' 0 Recommendations and Conclusion
    • 11 40% .1 ' r,..IP` Roo+ ,. %,.""le,..712.2%,,..6,1 .1B. 2 ..-% % tr.P.. "NC- ei % P.drr d'.4.f rove eye. , ,.#.'9+.0. "' Extend funding cycles - individually and collectively Funders and donors need to collaborate toensure longer term commitments ofat least 10-15 years to non-profit organizations. This will enablenon-profit organizations to plan strategically, and build necessary systemsand processesto evaluate interventions and demonstrate impact. Funders shouldalso explore theoption of collaborating witheach other so as to coordinate their financing of common receipients,and in doing so extend funding cycles and helpnon-profit organizations to developand expand. Recommendations for non-profit organizations Place greater emphasis on education-basedinterventions Schooling, particularly at secondary level, remains thesingle most important predictorofage at marriage. Despite concrete evidencefrom India as well as other countries, only21% of non- profit organizations use it as an approach to prevent thepractice of child marriage. While organizations approaching theissue from a child rights orreproductive perspective are undoubtedly achieving impact,there is a need to promote the educationapproach and the importance ofkeeping girlsin school, particularly secondary school, dueits proven potential to reduce the incidenceof child marriages. Demonstrate interim outcomes forfurtherfunding While thereis a need for funders toextend funding cycles, it is challenging for them to justify continued grants to organizationswithout clear demonstration of progress. It is therefore crucial for non-profitorganizations to documentand provide concrete evidence, bothquantitative and qualitative, for interimresults ifthey are to attract,or continue to attract longer-term financing. This will also promote accountability, transparancyand longer term relationships between funders and non-profit organizations. Identify and include child brides Child brides have been andcontinue tobe anunderserved populationin the fight to end child marriage. While theimportance of preventing thepractice cannot be underestimated, in countries such as India where itis culturally engrained, efforts seeking to end it often require considerable time togain political traction and socialacceptance. It is therefore crucial toidentify this isolated populationand include it in development programs at the policyas well as delivery level so as to mitigate thenegative effectsof child marriage. Conclusion Marry Me Later drawson Dasra'sown research as well as a wide range of internationaland national studieson child marriageto say that it is possible for an adolescent girl to have an alternate trajectory to early marriageand pregnancy. Thereport provides evidenceof how millions ofgirls are able to lead healthier, moreproductive and fulfilling lives for themselves and their families if theymarry later. Itfurther highlights 10 promising non-profit organizations that are doing commendablework and should be funded so that they can empower more communities in India to end this harmfulpractice. However, reports do not change the world, championsdo. Dasra urges strategic fundersand philanthropists toleverage this report to become champions,to lend their voice and influence, and to support non-profitorganizations that are striving to protecttherights of existing child bridesand the 57 million girls at riskof child marriagein the comingdecade in India. Becauseinvesting in delayed marriageand pregnancy for girls is not onlythe smartthing butalso the rightthingto do. ..0. , .. ...` " . ....1.11:, 4.+7-%. +e,!......:,ttwoitta,,,,,.., 0 .. e )0.- .%% , %%Ave.% ..a...% . 1 of. ....%%10. 1.1 ...._:,,Pol.7""tro . tip`".:Vter.7 .''''.. - ... ..... .1.0 -.11% . - irI 0 a -"'ft ...p i di's'-4 4S%-. " "-- ....._ Recommendations and Conclusion 1 0
    • 0 Appendix Appendix I Criteria used to define 'impact' and 'scale' Defining impact Proximity toend beneficiary: Measures that involve direct contactwith a potential oractual child bride (example,legal support) may more directly benefit individualsthan indirect activities, such as advocacy or buildingthe capacity of governmentofficials. Duration of engagement: Interventionsthat involve engagement with beneficiaries overa longer period may potentially have a greater impacton their lives andsituations thana one-off short-term involvement. Evidence of effectiveness: Whileinterventions may be effective on paper,the ground realitymay be very different. For example, evidencebased research may ideally be useful to identifygaps and successful interventions. However, at present, researchis being undertaken by isolated organizations on only a small scale. Moreover, generally thisresearch is not being used to direct strategy and future funding, diminishingits effectiveness. Ability to empower theend beneficiary: Interventions which empower the victimcan havea longer lasting effect on endbeneficiaries. Defining scale The evident availability of requiredresources: This includes humanand financial resources. For example, provisionof legal aid to child brides necessitates skilled advocateand an often protracted trial.Such anintervention, although impactful,is not conducive toscale. On the other hand, relatively fewresources are required to train communitymembers or government workers to delivera service, making itan inherently more scalable intervention. Gestation period:The "gestation period" is the time required torealize impact once a program has started. For example, comparedto a powerful and well-publicized publicawareness campaign, ittakes longer for evidence-based research to provide benefitsto the victim,due to the need to gatherdata, analyzeinformation, lobby government, secure acceptance of change, and implement legislation. Consequently, itis less scalable. Partnerships leveraged:This referstothe use of partnerships and other organizations to targetmore people. For example, interventions thattrain orbuild the capacity of otherorganizations have potential to benefitmore peoplein a shorter period than thosethat directly implement theprogram in communities. They are alsoless expensive to deliverand will therefore be more scalable. I I I ' , I I I I I 1
    • Appendix II Non-profit mapping methodology Dasra's non-profit mapping includedsite visits to viewprograms on the groundand interact with beneficiaries; detailed interviewswith managers of non-profit organizations; phone interviews; and desk research. Operationally, thefollowing due diligence procedureswere followed: Initial Mapping: Firstly, Dasramapped the sectorby collating a comprehensive list of non-profit organizations addressingissues related to adolescent girls based oninternet research, interviews with participants in Dasra SocialImpact (Dasra's Executive Education Program)and referrals from sector experts. Initial mapping yieldeda list of over 300 non-profit organizations across India. On-Call Interviews: Secondly, Dasra identified non-profit organizations that allocate significant resources to programs addressing child marriage.A total of 88 were selectedfor on-call interviews, based ontelephone conversations with program/organizational heads. Theinterviews discussed: Activities, directand indirect, related to preventionof child marriage Proportion of total non-profit budget allocated toopposing child marriage Outreach of child marriage programssince their inception and over the previousyear(2012-13) Extent ofdiversification by program area Team size of organization and child marriage program Additional informationgathered includes, when thenon-profit organizations and child marriage programs were established,their theories of change, geographical coverage,operational models, and interventions implemented. Based on the information provided, Dasra selected 17 non-profit organizations to visit. Site Visits:Thirdly, Dasra met withmanagers and field staffof the short-listednon-profit organizations , viewing their operational models first hand, andsecuring a clear understandingof how effectivelytheir theories ofchange translated intoaction on the ground.It spent 2-3 dayswith each non-profit organization, acquiring detailedinformation concerning the organizationin general and its program to address childmarriage in particular. Information sought also included: evolution of the program, its model, management structure,program financials,outreach and outcomes achieved. This stage was usedto identifythe non-profitorganizations to be highlighted in this report and recommended for funding. The criteria used to compile the final shortlist wereas follows: Program structure and documentation Management team Growth over the previousthree years (2011-13) Future scaling plans Proven outcomes/impact Current partnerships (government,academia, international and localnon-profit organizations) External endorsements (historicaland current funders, and prestigious awards) After evaluating these criteria,Dasra identified and profiled 10 established non-profit organizations (see Chapter VI) that implementhigh impact and highly scalable programs addressing child marriagein India. Workshop: As part of its research, Dasra invited all organizations visited,to participatein a capacity buildingworkshop.' This was attended by 17participants from16 non-profit organizations. Using a curriculum and a facilitation methodologyfrom Dasra's globally recognized Dasra SocialImpact Executive Educationprogram, theworkshop helped to strengthenthese organizations' strategic thinking, supportingimprovements in their assessment methodology, operational planning,and communications withdonors and stakeholders. The workshop also provided an opportunity forDasra to present its research findings and framework to the leading non-profit experts in the child marriagesector. Their input has been included in this report. Appendix
    • Appendix III Acknowledgements Dasra would like to extend its sincere thanks to all the individuals,academics, experts, government officials and non-profit organizations that have made invaluable contributions toits research andthis report. Aparajita Gogoi Archana Shrivastava Bhagyashree Deng le Dena Kimball Dipa Nag Chowdhury Dora Guist K. G. Santhya Jaya Sharma Lakshmi Sundaram Meena Narula Priya Nanda Priya Das Rashmi Singh Rema Nanda Richard Bale Safeena Hussain Shireen Jejeebhoy Shobhana Boyle Sonali Khan Dr. Sunil Mehra Sushmita Mukherjee Vanita Mukherjee CEDPA Inposse Plan India American Jewish World Service MacArthur Foundation UNICEF Population Council Nirantar Girls Not Brides Plan India ICRW ICRW CARE Karuna Fund Consul General for Canada Educate Girls Population Council UNFPA Breakthrough MAMTA Restless Development Ford Foundation Non-profit organizations visited Ashish GramRachna Trust (AGRT) www.ihmp.org Association for Social and Health Advancement (ASHA) www.ashaindia.in Bachpan BachaoAndolan (BBA) www.bba.org.in Banglanatak www.banglanatak.com Chotanagpur SanskritikSangh (CSS) www.css.org.in HAQ www.haqcrc.org Jagori Grameen www.jagorigrameen.org Jan Jagran Sansthan (JSS) www.atsecbihar.org Life Education andDevelopment Support (LEADS) www.leadsindiajh.org Mamidipudi Venkatarangaiya Foundation (MVF) www.mvfindia.in Nishtha www.nishthausa.org People's Action for National Integration(PANI) www.paniindia.org Sahayog www.sahayogindia.org 0 Appendix
    • Shiv ShikshaSamiti Rona li www.sssr.org.in Thoughtshop Foundation www.thoughtshopfoundation.org Urmul Trust www.urmul.org Vika 1p Sansthan www.vikalporg.in Other non-profit organizations with a focus on childmarriage Asmita www.asmitacollective.in Badlao Foundation www.badlao.org.in Bal Mahila Kalyan www.balmahilakalyan.org Breakthrough Trust www.breakthrough.tv CARPED www.carped.org Centre for Health and Social Justice www.chsj.org Chapra Social and EconomicWelfare Association Child in Need Institute (CINI) www.cini-india.org Empower People www.empowerpeople.org.in Gram Vikas Trust Bharuch www.gvtgujarat.org.in Institute for Integrated Society Development Izad Jabala Jan Kalyan Maha Samiti MAMTA Manthan Kotri Nav Bharat JagritiKendra (NBJK) Samarpan Sewa Samiti Shohratgarh Environmental Society (SES) www.izadpatna.org www.jabala.org www.jkms.org.in www.mamta-himc.org www.manthankotri.in www.nbjk.org www.sssvaranasi.org www.sesindia.org Appendix
    • Appendix IV Acronyms ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist ATSEC Action AgainstTraffickingand Sexual Exploitation of Children AWW Aanganwadi Worker BPL Below PovertyLine BSY Balika Samriddhi Yojna CCT Conditional Cash Transfer CMRA Child Marriage RestraintAct (1929) GOI Government of India ICDS Integrated Child Development Services IDA International DevelopmentAgency IRPF Inter-Religious Priest Forum MDG Millennium DevelopmentGoals MWCD Ministry ofWomen and ChildDevelopment MOHFW Ministry of Health and FamilyWelfare NFHS National Family Health Survey NRHM National Rural Health Mission PCMA Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 RKSK Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram RMNCH+A Reproductive, Maternal, Newbornand ChildHealth+Adolescents SHG Self-help Group SRH Sexual and Reproductive Health UN United Nations UNFPA United Nations PopulationFund UNICEF United Nations Children'sFund USAID Unites States Agency for InternationalDevelopment WHO World Health Organization YRC Youth ResourceCell Glossary Accredited Social Health Activists(ASHAs) are community health workersinstituted by India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare as part ofits National Rural Health Mission. Aanganwadi Worker (AWW) is a health worker chosen from the communityand given four of monthstrainingin health, nutrition and child-care. She is in-charge of an aanganwadi or daycare centre for children, whichcovers a population of1,000. Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) are financial incentivesthat are transferred toa beneficiary, providedhe/ she meets certain conditions. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is a primary social welfare scheme startedby the Indian government totackle malnutrition and health problemsin children (under6), pregnant and lactating mothers, and adolescent girls. Panchayat is a self-government at the village orsmall town level in India. SABLA is a centrally sponsored schemefor the empowermentand health of adolescentgirls in India. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) areeight international developmentgoals to be achieved by 2015, by close to 200 countries that committed tothese goals. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)is an initiative undertakenby the Government ofIndia to address the health needs of underserved ruralareas in the country. 0 Appendix
    • References la UNICEF (2012). Child Marriage in India: An analysis of available data (2012). http://www.unicef.in/documents/childmarriage.pdf lb UNICEF (2012). Stateof the World'sChildren Report.UNICEF. 2 UNICEF (2012). Child Marriage in India: An analysis of available data (2012). 8 I IPS(2008). District Level Household & Facility Survey:2007-08. Ministryof Health and FamilyWelfare. 4 Bhat, A., Sen, A.,& Pradhan,U. (Eds.) (2005). Child marriages and the law in India. New Delhi: Human Rights Law Network. 5 UNFPA (2013). Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy.State of World Population 2013. https://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/swp2013/EN-SW0P2013-final.pdf Varma, S (2004). A Situational Analysis of Women and Girlsin Rajasthan. National Commissionfor Women. http://ncw.nic.in/pdfReports/Gender_Profile_Rajasthan.pdf 7 The Guttmacher Institute(1998). Intoa New World: Young Women's Sexual andReproductive Lives. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/new_world_engl.html 8 Mishra, V. et al (2004). Sex differentials in childhood feeding, healthcare, andnutritional status in India. Population and Development Review, vol. 30:2:269-95. 9 International Institute forPopulation Sciences (2008). District Level Household and FacilitySurvey: 200708. Ministry of Health and FamilyWelfare. http://www.jsk.gov.in/dlhs3 /India.pdf 10 Graczyk, K. (2007). Adolescent MaternalMortality: An Overlooked Crisis. http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-a-z/436-adolescent-maternal-mortality-an-overlooked-crisis 11 UNICEF (2011). The Situation of Childrenin India: A Profile. http://www.unicetorg/india/The_Situation_of_Children_in_India_- A_profile_20110630_.pdf 12 Yadav, K.P. (2006). Child Marriage in India. New Delhi:Adhyayan. 13 UNICEF Joint Press Release. Childmarriages - 39,000 everyday. March 7, 2013. http://www.unicetorg/media/media_68114.html 14 Sue LloydRoberts. IndiaMarriages FloutLaw, in BBCNews. 8 June 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/5058840.stm 15 UNFPA (2013). Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy.State of World Population 2013.https://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/swp2013/EN-SW0P2013-final.pdf UNFPA (2013). Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy.State of World Population 2013.https://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/swp2013/EN-SW0P2013-final.pdf 17 World Health Organization (2012).Adolescent Pregnancy. Factsheet No. 364. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs364/en/ 18 Raj, A.et al (2010). The effect of maternalchild marriageon morbidity and mortality of children under 5 in India: crosssectional studyof a nationally representativesample. British Medical Journal. 340 19 Raj, A.et al (2010). The effect of maternalchild marriageon morbidity and mortality of children under 5 in India: crosssectional studyof a nationally representativesample. British Medical Journal. 340 20 UNFPA (2012). Marrying too young, End Child Marriage. http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2012/MarryingTooYoung.pdf Appendix
    • 21 UNFPA (2012). Marrying too young, End Child Marriage. 22 Raj, A.& Boehmer,U. (2013). GirlChild Marriage and Its Association with National Rates of HIV, Maternal Health, and Infant Mortality Across 97Countries. Violence Against Women,vol 19: 536-551. 23 ICRW, UNFPA, AusAID, AFPPD (2012). Child Marriage in Southern Asia: PolicyOptions for Action. http://asiapacific.unfpa.org/webdav/site/asiapacific/shared/Publications/2012/Child%20Marriage%20i n%20Southern%20Asia.pdf 24 Khan, N. and M. Lynch(1997). RecognizingChild Maltreatment in Bangladesh. Child Abuse and Neglect 21(8) pp. 815-818. 25 ICRW, UNFPA, AusAID, AFPPD (2012). Child Marriage in Southern Asia: PolicyOptions for Action. http://asiapacific.unfpa.org/webdav/site/asiapacific/shared/Publications/2012/Child%20Marriage%20i n%20Southern%20Asia.pdf 26 Center for Reproductive Rights (2013). Child Marriage in South Asia: International and constitutional legal standards and jurisprudence for promoting accountabilityand change. http://reproductiverights.org/sites/cmcivicactions.net/files/documents/Child Ma rriage_Briefing Pa per_ Web.pdf 27 Center for Reproductive Rights (2013). Child Marriage in South Asia: International and constitutional legal standards and jurisprudence for promoting accountabilityand change. 28 Burns, J.F. (1998). Child Marriages, ThoughIllegal, Persistin India. The NewYork Times, May11. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/05/11/world/though-illegal-child- marriage-is-popular-in-part-of-india.html 29 The Economic Times (2013).Preventing adolescent pregnancycan add to India's economy.October 30. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-10- 30/news/43528697_1_adolescent-girls-pregnancy-young-girls 30 Chaaban, J. et al (2011). Measuringthe Economic Gain of Investing in Girls: The Girl EffectDividend. World Bank policy research working paper 5753. http://elibrary.worldbank.org /doi/pdf/10.1596/1813- 9450-5753 31 Gross, E. (2013). Too Youngto Wed: IndianGirls Say Noto Child Marriage. October14. http://www.unfpa.org/public/cache/offonce/home/news/pid/15439;jsessionid=001D1F6986E4BB7475 B432D4C1680305.jahia0l 32 Gross, E. (2013). Too Youngto Wed: IndianGirls Say Noto Child Marriage. October14. 33 UNICEF (2013). India: Statistics. December27. http://www.uniceforg/infobycountry/indiastatistics.html 34 UNFPA (2013). ICPD: Overview. http://www.unfpa.org/public/icpd 35 Forbes, Geraldin H. (1998). Women in Modern India. Cambridge UniversityPress. 36 HAQ (2009). Handbookon the Prohibitionof Child Marriage Act, 2006. MWCD &UNICEF http: //www.unicef. org/ india/Child_Marriage_handbook.pdf 37a Personal communication with expertconsulted by Dasra as part of its research process, 2013 371a UNICEF (2011). Child Marriage: UNICEF Information Sheet. http://www.unicetorg/india/Child_Marriage_Fact_Sheet_Nov2011_final.pdf 37c Nanda, P. et al (2011). DelayingMarriage for Girls in India Formative Research to Design Interventions for Changing Norms.UNICEF- ICRW. Singh, S.P. (2012). Indian child marriageannulled in landmark case. AFP. April 25. 38 http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g9q4V8_QMr-y7kV_A5JzNYMqZBfg?docId=C NG.24dffeaac16299d 1a b4ccb001905ed03.8c1 0 Appendix
    • 39 Expert comments, at the National Consultationon EarlyMarriage. December2-3, 2013. New Delhi. 40 Personal communication with expertconsulted by Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013 41 ICRW (2010). Evaluatingthe powerof conditional cash transfers (CCTs) to delay marriagein India. http://www.icrw.org/where-we-work/evaluating-power- conditional-cash-transfers-ccts-delay-marriage-india 42 Personal communication with expertconsulted by Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013 43 SABLA haspartnered with theNational Skill Development Program to provide vocationalskills training, and with RCH2's National Nutrition Anaemia ControlProgram to distributeIFA supplements toadoles- cent girls. 44 Personal communication with expertconsulted by Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013 45 Simply Decoded (2013).SABLA scheme. May12. http://www.simplydecoded.com/2013/05/12/sabla- scheme/ 46 The David and Lucile PackardFoundation: http://www.packard.org/grants/grants- database/population-council/ 47 The American Jewish World Service: http://ajws.org/who_we_are/news/archives/press_releases/ajws_receives_major_grant_to_address_c hild_marriage_in_india.html 48 An unrestricted grantis an unconditional grantthat is not assigned for specific projects, whichmay be used bythe organization as it deemsnecessary. 49 The Ford Foundation website:http://www.fordfoundation.org/issues/sexuality-and- reproductive-health-and-rights/youth-sexuality-reproductive-health-and-rights/news?id=678 50 Communication at the Dasra Social Impact Workshop.Dasra conducted a capacity building workshop on 22-25 November 2013, whichwas attended by 16 non-profit organizations working toaddress the issue of child marriagein India. 51 UNICEF (2011). Child Marriage: UNICEF Information Sheet. http://www.unicetorg/india/Child_Marriage_Fact_Sheet_Nov2011_final.pdf 52 Breakthrough India : http://breakthrough.tv/explore/issue/early-marriage/ 53 Population Council:http://www.popcouncil.org/topics/youth_childmarriage.asp 54 Nanda, P. et al (2011). DelayingMarriage for Girls in India Formative Research to Design Interventions for Changing Norms.UNICEF- ICRW. http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/Delaying-Marriage-for- Girls-in-India-UNICEF-ICRW.pdf 55 Plan International (2013). A girl's right to say no to marriage: Working toend child marriageand keep girls in school. http://plan-international.org/girls/childmarriagereport/index.php?lang=en 56 Communication at the Dasra Social Impact Workshop.Dasra conducted a capacity building workshop on 22-25 November 2013, whichwas attended by 16 non-profit organizations working toaddress the issue of child marriagein India. 57 International Institute forPopulation Sciences (2008).District Level Household and FacilitySurvey: 200708. Ministry of Health and FamilyWelfare. http://www.jsk.gov.in/dlhs3 /India.pdf ss Nanda, P. et al (2011). DelayingMarriage for Girls in India Formative Research to Design Interventions for Changing Norms.UNICEF- ICRW. http://www.icrw.org/files/publications/Delaying-Marriage-for- Girls-in-India-UNICEF-ICRW.pdf Appendix
    • 59 Girls not Brides: http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/how-can-we-end-child-marriage/ 60a Communication at Dasra Advisory Committee Meeting, October18, 2013, New Delhi. 60b UNICEF (2001). Child marriages muststop. March7. http://www.unicetorg/newsline/01pr21.htm 61 Das Gupta, S. et al (2008). Knot Ready, Lessons from India ondelaying marriagefor girls. ICRW. 62 The Girl Effect,Fact Sheet: India in Owning Her Future: EmpoweringAdolescent Girls in India, Dasra, 2011 63 Kabeer, N. (2008). Paid work, women'sempowerment and genderjustice: critical pathwaysofsocial change. Pathwaysof Women'sEmpowerment Working Paper No. 3. Sussex, IDS. 64 Urmul (2013).Beyond Novella- Memoirs ofChange. Print Vision (P) Ltd. Ahmedabad. 65 Nanda, P. et al (2011). DelayingMarriage for Girls in India Formative Research to Design Interventions for Changing Norms.UNICEF- ICRW. 66 Wallace, J et al (2013) Bringingin the love- engaging menas fathersto end child marriage. April17. http://tooyoungtowed.org/blog/bringing-in-the-love-engaging-men-as-fathers-to-end-child-marriage/ 67 World Vision (2013).Untying the Knot, Exploring early marriagein fragile states, World Vision UK, March 2013,p. 23. 68 The Kathmandu Post, September 15, 2013. "Religious leadersurged to help curb child marriages" http://www.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu- post/2013/09/15/nation/religious-leaders-urged-to-help-curb-child-marriages/253644.html 69 The Hindu (2013). Panchayatin Salem frees itself of child marriage, labour. June6. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/panchayat- in-salem-frees-itself-of-child-marriage-labour/article4786378.ece 70 Countdown to2015 (2013).Accountability Profile: India.May. http://www.countdown2015mnch.org/documents/2013Report/India_Accountability_profile_2013.pdf 71 World Vision (2013).Untying the Knot, Exploring early marriagein fragile states, World Vision UK, March.http://www.worldvision.org/resources.nsf/main/press-reports/$file/Untying-the-Knot_report.pdf 72 United NationsFund for Population Activities (1990). Review and Analysisof Premarital/Newlywed Education Activities in Mexico, Indonesia,and the Philippines. 23 Dornsife, N. and Mahmoed, A (1995). An Evaluation of Pathfinder'sEarly Marriage Education Programs in Indonesia. Pathfinder International:Jakarta. 74 MacQuarrie, Kerry (2011). MarriageTiming, MarriageRegime andTiming theFirst Birth in India. www.iussp.org/sites/default/files/event_call_for_papers/MacQuarrie%20Marriage%201USSP%20Abstract.pdf 75 UNFPA for UN Systems in India. Adolescents in India: A profile. http://web.unfpa.org/focus/india/facetoface/docs/adolescentsprofile.pdf 76 The Guttmacher Institute(1998). Intoa New World: Young Women's Sexual andReproductive Lives. www.guttmacher.org/pubs/new_world_engl.htmlr 77 Jejeebhoy, S.J. (1996). Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Behavior:A Review of theEvidence from India, ICRW Working Paper No.3,Washington DC. 78 The Guttmacher Institute(1998). Intoa New World: Young Women's Sexual andReproductive Lives. www.guttmacher.org/pubs/new_world_engl.htmlr 0 Appendix
    • 79 Daniel, E. et al (2008). TheEffect of Community-Based ReproductiveHealth Communication Interven- tions on Contraceptive Use Among Young Married Couples in Bihar, India. International Family Planning Perspectives, 2008, 34(4):189-197 80 Malhotra, A. et al (2011). Solutionsto End Child Marriage, What theEvidence Shows. ICRW. 81 Personal communication withnon-profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013. 82 Personal communication withnon- process, 2013. 83 Personal communication withnon- process, 2013. sa Malhotra, A. et al (2011). Solutionsto End Child Marriage, What theEvidence Shows. ICRW. 85 Personal communication withnon-profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013. 86 Personal communication withnon-profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013. 87 Personal communication withnon-profit organizations consultedby Dasra as part of its research process, 2013. 88 Personal communication withnon-profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013. 89 Personal communication withnon-profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013. 90 Personal communication withnon-profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research process, 2013. profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research profit organization consultedby Dasraas part ofits research 91 Communication at the Dasra Social Impact Workshop.Dasra conducted a capacity building workshop on 22-25 November 2013, whichwas attended by 16 non-profit organizations working toaddress the issue of child marriagein India. . s - _______ I1. t.II -- - - - - - --1 I I 1 - -- - Appendix
    • www.dasra.org info@dasra.org (11) /in/dasra 0/dasra 0@dasraindia