Intro to Latin America


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Introduces the region of Latin America to Geography students.

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Intro to Latin America

  1. 1. Introduction to Latin America Our Neighbors to the South
  2. 2. Latin America: The Region <ul><li>Extends from US/ Mexico border to tip of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into Middle America, Central America, the Caribbean, & South America </li></ul>
  3. 3. Diverse Landscapes Amazon Rainforest Amazon River Basin Iguaçu Falls Andes Mountains
  4. 4. Diverse Landscapes Pampas of Argentina Panama Canal Atacama Desert Lake Titicaca
  5. 5. Pre-Colonialism
  6. 6. Colonialism <ul><li>Motives - resources (gold, sugar, cotton) for European economies & converts to Christianity (Roman Catholicism) </li></ul><ul><li>Colonizers - viewed indigenous as savages and little more than slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries - believed the indigenous were in need of Christian salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous - viewed conquerors as brutes </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence - colonists relied on indigenous for labor and as guides; indigenous relied on colonists for protection from other tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal relationship between colonizers and indigenous </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conquest & Colonialism <ul><li>Aztec and Incan empires quickly defeated by a few hundred Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Why?? </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish had guns & horses </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous peoples had no immunity to European diseases like smallpox </li></ul>In this picture, Cortez is being treated like a god
  8. 8. Latin American Colonies <ul><li>Spanish & Portuguese brought their language & religion to the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous peoples blended with the conquistadores </li></ul><ul><li>Mestizos - indigenous mixed with Spanish/Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Mulattos - Africans mixed with Spanish/Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsulares - born in Spain & Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Creoles - Spanish/Portuguese born in Latin America </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social Pyramid
  10. 10. Post-Colonialism: Religion <ul><li>Indigenous beliefs were polytheistic or animist </li></ul><ul><li>Some indigenous groups practiced human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuit missionaries converted most indigenous to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous temples & worship grounds destroyed by colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Some indigenous groups blended their religions with Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li><-- This cathedral in Mexico City was built using gold and stones from Aztec temples </li></ul>
  11. 11. Independence <ul><li>American & French Revolutions inspire colonists to revolt against Spain & Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Bolivar led revolutionary wars against Spain in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru & Panama </li></ul><ul><li>Upper classes remained in power </li></ul><ul><li>Mestizos, mulattoes & indigenous remained exploited by upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some indigenous groups are in conflict with upper classes (Mexico, Brazil) </li></ul>200-1300 1500 1800 Conquest Independence Pre-Colonial
  12. 12. Independence
  13. 13. Tomorrow… Modern Latin America!
  14. 14. Are there any major cities in Latin America, like NYC or LA? Do you recognize this city? Hint: It’s the world’s 9th largest city by population (8.7 million people) and the 2nd largest metropolitan area in the world (18.6 million people).
  15. 15. Latin American Economies
  16. 16. Latin American Economies <ul><li>Many people considered poor compared to US standards (low per capita GDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Make money from what the earth provides -- exports to other regions </li></ul><ul><li>Many agricultural products Americans enjoy are shipped from Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Farming: coffee and cocoa (chocolate) </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Buy and sell goods at outdoor markets </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico, Venezuela & Brazil are large oil producers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Indigenous Culture <ul><li>Mostly rural </li></ul><ul><li>Small communities far from cities, i.e. mountains, rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers & animal herders </li></ul>
  18. 18. Indigenous Culture <ul><li>Create traditional pottery & artwork </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize materials </li></ul><ul><li>from the land to </li></ul><ul><li>build homes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Urban Life <ul><li>Major cities -- much like those in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Technologically advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist attractions </li></ul><ul><li>Office buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Museums & film festivals </li></ul>Buenos Aires, Argentina San Jose, Costa Rica Rio de Janiero, Brazil
  20. 20. Cultural Values: Family Structure <ul><li>Extended family is highly valued in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Children help support the family and expected to care for elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family lives nearby or in same house </li></ul><ul><li>Father is head of household </li></ul><ul><li>Mother and daughters take care of household chores & family matters </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cultural Values: Music & Dance What role does music and dance have in Latin American culture?
  22. 22. Values & Voice- Music & Dance <ul><li>Very musical culture </li></ul><ul><li>Plays important role in celebrations, holidays & entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Tango </li></ul><ul><li>Salsa </li></ul><ul><li>Rumba </li></ul><ul><li>Mambo </li></ul><ul><li>Merengue </li></ul><ul><li>Samba </li></ul><ul><li>Norteño </li></ul><ul><li>Reggaetón </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sports <ul><li>Futbol (soccer) is the most popular sport </li></ul><ul><li>Auto racing </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball & basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Bullfighting & rodeo </li></ul><ul><li>Pro wrestling - ¡lucha libre! </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cultural Values: Religion <ul><li>Religion is important in the lives of many Latin Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholicism is the main religion practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Religious celebrations play major role in lives of Latin Americans ( Carnaval, Dias de los Muertos, Dia de los Reyes, Quinceañera) </li></ul>
  25. 26. HOT TOPICS
  26. 27. H/EI-Ecotourism <ul><li>The idea of visiting a unique ecosystem without harming the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Is this actually good for that region’s economy and environment? </li></ul>
  27. 28. H/EI- Maquiladoras <ul><li>Foreign owned factories in Mexico (USA, Korea, Japan, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Workers put together parts for popular electronics (cell phones, stereo equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>Companies get cheap labor </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican workers get jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Is this actually good for Mexico’s economy and environment? </li></ul>