1. Water The Chemical for Life
These properties of water make it so useful to life. We need water to be a liquid at room temperature
because many of the bodies systems are water based. We need water to be a polar solvent, so that
the important nutrients we need can be dissolved in it.
Water is a unique chemical. We may not think much about it, but it is absolutely fundamental to our
life and life on our planet. For a molecule of its size and simplicity, its properties are almost
miraculous. Only by understanding its molecular structure can we explain its unique behaviour.
The final interesting property that we shall deal with in this article is that ice floats. This should not
happen because normally, when a liquid becomes a solid the solid is denser than the liquid and
sinks. This is not the case in ice, because of the hydrogen bonds. In liquid the hydrogen bonds are
being made and broken constantly. In ice, however, the water molecules form a regular structure
based on the hydrogen ions, and they are held slightly further apart than has been the case in the
liquid. This makes ice less dense and floats. One interesting result of this property can be seen in
ponds and lakes. Ice forms on the surface and the densest water at the bottom of the pond is at 4
degrees centigrade, so fish and other water dwellers are not frozen to death.
A systematic name for water would be dihydrogen monoxide because each molecule is made up of
two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom (H2O). An oxygen atom has six electrons in its outer
shell, four of them are in two pairs and two are single. The spare electrons can pair up with the
single electron in hydrogen, forming two covalent bonds. There now four pairs of electrons around
the oxygen atom, two of which are bonds with hydrogen atoms. We honor that will legacy each day
even as design, device and assemble riflescopes at our state-of-the-art facility in Beaverton, Oregon.
Whenever you buy Leupold, ...which are just an electron and a proton. The four pairs arrange
themselves so that they are as far away from each other as possible, which is in a tetrahedral shape.
So a water molecule is small but quite polar. This is what gives it such strange properties. Water
molecules form very weak bonds with each other. These bonds are called hydrogen bonds and are a
result of the attraction between the positive hydrogen atoms and the negative oxygen atoms of a
neighbouring molecule. This means that water is liquid at room temperature, whereas other similar
sized molecules are gas at the same temperature. The hydrogen bonds hold the water together
Another important property of water is its ability to dissolve many other chemicals. When an ionic
solid such as salt or copper sulphate is put in water, there are both positive and negative ions on the
surface of the solid. In salt, for example, there are positive sodium ions and negative chloride ions.
Water molecules that are close to the solid surface are attracted to the ions. The negative oxygen
2. atoms surround the positive sodium ions and pull them away from the solid into solution; the positive
hydrogen atoms do the same with the chloride ions.
The water molecule therefore has an oxygen atom with the hydrogen atoms either side but not in a
line, they are at a 107.5 degree angle. The other side of the oxygen atom has two lone electron pairs,
which make that side of the molecule negatively charged. The hydrogen atoms are positively
charged because of a property called electronegativity. This simply means the amount that an atom
pulls at electrons. Oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, so the electrons are pulled
away from the hydrogen atoms, making them slightly positive.