The IKMP Overview


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Overview of the Information and Knowledge Management Process I developed to support the Marine Corps Planning Process.

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The IKMP Overview

  1. 1. Marine Corps Planning Process Overview<br />From an IKMP Perspective (v2.0)<br />Marine Corps Tactics & Operations Group<br />Captain Daryl Horton<br />May 2010<br />
  2. 2. Information superiority is fundamental to the transformation of the operational capabilities of the joint force. The joint force of 2020 will use superior information and knowledge to achieve decision superiority, to support advanced command and control capabilities, and to reach the full potential of dominant maneuver, precision engagement, full dimensional protection, and focused logistics. The breadth and pace of this evolution demands flexibility and a readiness to innovate.<br />-Joint Vision 2020<br />
  3. 3. Purpose<br />Provide doctrinal linkages to planning<br />Discuss the tenets of the Marine Corps Planning Process (MCPP) from a IKMP and Infostructure Perspective<br />Introduce the six steps of the MCPP & the IKMP<br />
  4. 4. Agenda<br />IKM<br />MCPP & IKMP<br />The Infrostructure<br />Infostructure Analysis<br />Infostructure Development<br />InfostructureWargame<br />Infostructure Decision<br />IKMP Development<br />Transition<br />
  5. 5. IKM<br />
  6. 6. Information & Knowledge Management (IKM)<br />Information management (IM) connects people to information systems.<br />Knowledge management (KM) connects people to people.<br />IM is defined as the sum of all activities involved in the identification, collection, filtering, fusing, processing, dissemination and usage of information. MCDP 3-40<br />Knowledge management is the art of creating, organizing, applying, and transferring knowledge to facilitate situational understanding and decision making. Knowledge management supports improving organizational learning, innovation, and performance. Knowledge management processes ensure that knowledge products and services are relevant, accurate, timely, and useable to commanders and decision makers. FM 3-0<br />Effective information management (IM) can deliver critically important information in a timely manner to those whom need it in a form they quickly understand. Effective knowledge management (KM) can put in place the processes and shared information environment that can improve decision-making.<br />
  7. 7. Three Focal Points of IKM <br />Process<br />People<br />Technology <br />The execution of command and control is greatly influenced by the different environments a commander can find himself making decisions in. For the most part, the general tenants of command and control do not change. However, the application and management of information and knowledge change according to each new situation and environmental parameters. Even more so, within the structure of command and control the efforts and focus of Information Management (IM) and Knowledge Management (KM) as separate entities supporting the command and control process, vary along the lines of the three elements that make up command and control. <br />-MCTOG IKM SOP<br />
  8. 8. Process<br />- Do we have the right organizations linked?<br />- Is there need to stand up/stand down an organization? <br />- Do we have the right skill sets in place <br /><ul><li> Can we organize the battle staff more effectively?
  9. 9. Training </li></ul>*Culture: How do we develop in our staff a mindset that:<br /> -Aggressively seeks to understand<br /> - Fosters coordination and info sharing <br />Three Focal Points of IKM <br />People<br />Technology <br />
  10. 10. Three Focal Points of IKM <br />Process<br />People<br />Technology <br />- Board and cell processes SOPs/ TTPs <br /> -membership, Inputs, outputs, products, tasks tools<br />- What are information exchange requirements?<br /><ul><li> How do we share knowledge </li></ul> -personalization, codification <br /><ul><li> Identifying/sharing best practices/ lessons learned
  11. 11. Battle Rhythm</li></li></ul><li>Three Focal Points of IKM <br />Process<br />People<br />Technology <br />- Facilitate information exchange and collaborationwithin and external to the organization<br />- Support the commanders decision cycle <br />- Package and display information the way the commander wants to see it <br />- Disseminate Commander’s intent, CCIR, RFIs and Taskings<br />- Enhance situational awareness <br />- Share lessons Learned <br />- Post, Distribute, access and learn from information<br />
  12. 12. MCPP & IKMP<br />
  13. 13. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Commander drives the process through CBAE and:<br />Initial Guidance<br />Planning Guidance<br />Approves COA(s)<br />Evaluation Criteria<br />Selects the COA<br />Approves Plan / Order<br />Confirmation Briefs<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Execution<br />Mission Analysis<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  16. 16. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  17. 17. The Infostructure<br />
  18. 18. The Infostructure<br />An infostructure is the information infrastructure and networks that encompass the range of activities associated with people, processes, and technology in an information age environment. The focus of an infostructure is information. An infostructure is the layout of information in a manner such that it can be navigated -- it's what's created any time an amount of information is organized in a useful fashion.<br />The information itself, which may be in the form of videos, databases ... <br />Application and software that allow users to access, manipulate, organize, and digest the mass of information... <br />The network standards and transmission codes that facilitates interconnection and interoperation between networks, and ensures the privacy of persons and security ... <br />The people who create the information, develop applications and services, construct the facilities, and trains others to tap its potential... <br />
  19. 19. Infostructure Analysis<br />
  20. 20. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  21. 21. Mission Analysis<br />Reviews and analyzes orders, guidance, and other information through a structured and disciplined process<br />Focuses the efforts of the Commander and the staff<br />Synthesizes an understanding of the problem into a mission statement<br />
  22. 22. Output:<br /><ul><li>Mission Statement
  23. 23. Cmdr’s Intent
  24. 24. Cmdr’s Planning </li></ul> Guidance<br /><ul><li>Warning Order</li></ul>Mission Analysis<br />Process:<br /><ul><li> Identify tasks
  25. 25. Assumptions
  26. 26. Constraints / restraints
  27. 27. Draft Mission Statement
  28. 28. Information requirements</li></ul>Red Cell<br />Input:<br /><ul><li>HHQ
  29. 29. Order
  30. 30. Intel products
  31. 31. Cmdr’s Orientation
  32. 32. CBAE
  33. 33. Battlespace
  34. 34. COG
  35. 35. Intent
  36. 36. CCIR
  37. 37. Cmdr’s Initial</li></ul> Guidance<br />IPB & Staff Estimates<br />
  38. 38. Infostructure Analysis<br />Whether deliberately as part of an operational planning team or rapidly as apart of an R2P2 process, the information management officer begins formulating the infostructure by first dissecting the challenge at hand into manageable parts. Infostructure analysis frames the problem and identifies information exchange requirements. The communications planner—<br />Analyzes the command’s mission, commander’s intent, tasks (specified, implied, and essential), and purpose of the operation.<br />Analyzes the friendly force task organization including higher and adjacent units.<br />Evaluates and develops initial assumptions as well as constraints and restraints.<br />Evaluates the battlespace from the information, knowledge, and cognitive domains, with respect to friendly and enemy forces, terrain, and weather to determine how these factors and conditions may influence information and knowledge flow.<br />Analyzes resource availability.<br />Determines and assesses information exchange requirements, both specified and implied.<br />Develops an information and knowledge management mission statement.<br />Develops, from a information perspective, initial commander’s intent and conducts a infostructure center of gravity analysis.<br />End State: Information Requirements (IR) and Information Exchange Requirements (IER) Identified<br />
  39. 39. Infostructure Development<br />
  40. 40. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  41. 41. COA Development<br />The OPT’s functional translation of the Commander’s conceptual vision and planning guidance<br />COAs are potential solutions to the problems ID’d in Mission Analysis<br />COAs seek answers to key questions:<br />What do we want to do?<br />How do we want to do it?<br />Each prospective COA is examined to ensure that it is:<br />Feasible, Acceptable, Suitable, Distinguishable, Complete<br />COAs should:<br />Accomplish the mission<br />Meet the Commander’s Intent and guidance for decisive action<br />
  42. 42. Output:<br /><ul><li> Designated COAs </li></ul> for War Game<br /><ul><li> War Game Guidance
  43. 43. Evaluation Criteria</li></ul>COA Development<br />Process:<br /><ul><li> Develop Initial COAs
  44. 44. Commander’s input
  45. 45. COA Refinement
  46. 46. Graphic & Narrative
  47. 47. COA Criteria
  48. 48. Feasible
  49. 49. Acceptable
  50. 50. Suitable
  51. 51. Distinguishable
  52. 52. Complete</li></ul>Input:<br /><ul><li>Mission Statement
  53. 53. Cmdr’s Intent
  54. 54. Planning Guidance</li></ul>IPB & Staff Estimates<br />
  55. 55. Infostructure Development<br />There are two complementary aspects of the role of the IMO in COA development. First, the IMO helps shape and influence the development of tactical COAs by providing input, from the IKM and infostructure perspectives, regarding a COA’s feasibility, acceptability, and suitability. Second, the IMO begins developing infostructure concepts—potential infostructure networks supporting one or several COAs—that satisfy IRs and IERs within the context of resource availability. The IMO—<br />Assigns resources to meet IRs and IERs.<br />Develops a infostructure concept in support of each COA.<br />Ensures each infostructure concept is feasible, acceptable, suitable, and complete.<br />Provides an estimate of supportability for each COA.<br />End state: Communications concepts are developed to support each tactical COA.<br />
  56. 56. InfostructureWargame<br />
  57. 57. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  58. 58. COA War Game<br />Allows the staff and subordinate commanders to gain a common understanding of friendly and possible enemy COAs (via a Red Cell)<br />Assists planners in identifying strengths, weaknesses, risks, and shortfalls for each friendly COA<br />Involves a detailed assessment of each COA as it pertains to the enemy and the battlespace<br />Helps identify branches and potential sequels<br />
  59. 59. COA War Game<br />Process:<br /><ul><li>Conduct COA War Game
  60. 60. Refine Estimates
  61. 61. Refine IPB products
  62. 62. Prepare COA War Game Brief</li></ul> Red Cell<br />Output:<br /><ul><li>War Gamed COA’s Graphic & Narrative
  63. 63. Information on Commander’s EvaluationCriteria
  64. 64. Branches and sequels</li></ul>Input:<br /><ul><li>Designated COAs for War Game
  65. 65. War Game Guidance
  66. 66. Evaluation Criteria</li></ul>IPB & Staff Estimates<br />
  67. 67. Infostructure War Game<br />As the tactical COAs are war gamed, the IMO evaluates each infostructure concept. During this evaluation, the IMO continually tests and “what ifs” the potential infostructure network in order to expose weaknesses. The IMO—<br />Compares the infostructure concept with the COA and evaluates whether it can effectively respond to friendly and enemy tactical events in the battlespace as they unfold.<br />Evaluates the infostructure concept with respect to equipment failure or degradation.<br />Identifies the strengths, weaknesses, risks, and shortfalls associated with the infostructure concept.<br />Refines the infostructure concept. <br />Identifies potential branches and sequels.<br />End state: Infostructure concepts are tested through war games and the infostructure concept is further refined.<br />
  68. 68. Infostructure Decision<br />
  69. 69. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  70. 70. COA Comparison & Decision<br />The Commander evaluates friendly COAs against his established Evaluation Criteria (i.e.):<br />Commander’s Intent / Guidance<br />Principles of War<br />Warfighting Functions<br />Speed<br />Asymmetric operations<br />Risk<br />COA Comparison provides the Commander with an understanding of the relative merit of each COA and aids the decision making process<br />Once all COAs have been evaluated and compared, the Commander selects a COA to become the basis of the CONOPs<br />
  71. 71. COA Comparison & Decision<br />Process:<br /><ul><li>Perform COA Evaluation
  72. 72. Perform COA Comparison
  73. 73. Commander’s Decision
  74. 74. Prepare CONOPs</li></ul>Output:<br /><ul><li>CONOPs
  75. 75. Warning Order</li></ul>Input:<br /><ul><li>War Gamed COAs graphic & narrative
  76. 76. Information on Commander’s Evaluation Criteria</li></ul>IPB & Staff Estimates<br />
  77. 77. Infostructure Comparison & Decision<br />Using both the commander’s COA evaluation criteria and the principles of IKM as the lens through which the infostructure concepts are evaluated, the IMO assesses the supportability of each COA and the strengths of the concepts compared to one another. The best possible concept emerges and becomes the basis of the IKMP. The IMO—<br />Provides input to the commander and conveys the supportability of each COA.<br />Articulates the relative advantages and disadvantages of each infostructure concept and provides an assessment of capabilities and limitations.<br />End state: The chosen infostructure concept becomes the basis of the final IKMP.<br />
  78. 78. IKM Plan Development<br />
  79. 79. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  80. 80. Orders Development<br />Orders communicate the Commander’s Intent, guidance and decisions in a clear, useful form that is easily understood by those executing the order<br />Orders should contain only critical or new information, not routine matters normally found in SOPs<br />The CoS or the Executive Officer, as appropriate, directs Orders Development<br />
  81. 81. Orders Development<br />Process:<br /><ul><li> Prepare OPORD / OPLAN
  82. 82. Orders reconciliation
  83. 83. Orders crosswalk
  84. 84. Commander’s approval</li></ul>Input:<br /><ul><li>Mission Statement
  85. 85. Refined Commander’s Intent
  86. 86. Task Organization
  87. 87. CONOPs
  88. 88. Tasks
  89. 89. Staff Estimates</li></ul>Output:<br /><ul><li> OPORD / OPLAN</li></ul>IPB & Staff Estimates<br />
  90. 90. IKMP Development<br />As the tactical COA is converted into the overall CONOPS and the command’s OPORD is crafted, the IMO translates the infostructure concept into the infostructure CONOPS and develops the IMKP. While the formal manifestation of a IMKP is annex U, time available, size of the unit, and mission dictate the extent to which a plan is documented. The IMO—<br />Develops the IMKP.<br />End state: IMKP is delivered to the receiver through the most effective and efficient means.<br />
  91. 91. Transition<br />
  92. 92. Top-Down Planning<br />Commander’s <br />Intent<br />CCIRs<br />CBAE<br />Centers<br />of Gravity<br />Battlespace<br />Higher Commander’s Directives<br />Infostructure<br />Analysis<br />IKMP CYCLE<br />MCPP CYCLE<br />Mission Analysis<br />Infostructure<br />Development<br />Transition<br />COA Development <br />Concurrent<br />Concurrent<br />Transition<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />6 Step <br />Process<br />Infostructure<br />War Game<br />IKM Plan<br />Development<br />Orders Development<br />Scalable<br />Scalable<br />COA War Game<br />Infostructure<br />Decision<br />COA Comparison & Decision<br />
  93. 93. Transition<br />Provides a successful shift from planning (FOPs) to execution (COPs) <br />Enhances situational awareness of those executing the order<br />Maintains the intent of the Concept of Operations<br />Promotes unity of effort and generates tempo <br />MCWP 5-1<br />
  94. 94. Transition<br />Process:<br /><ul><li>Transition brief
  95. 95. Drills
  96. 96. Confirmation brief</li></ul>Output:<br />Subordinate Cmdrs and staff that are prepared to:<br />Input:<br /><ul><li>OPORD / OPLAN
  97. 97. Execute the order and possible branches, plans, & sequels</li></ul>IPB / Staff Estimates<br />
  98. 98. Transition<br />Carrying the plan through to successful execution requires a deliberate, focused transition that enhances the situational awareness of those who will execute the plan. It also generates tempo and ensures unity of effort. The IMO—<br />Provides a confirmation brief to the commander.<br />Conducts transition briefs with the staff as well as with communications personnel.<br />Conducts a review that validates the planned network.<br />End state: Personnel are prepared to execute the plan.<br />
  99. 99. FLAT ORGANIZATION<br />The world is a much flatter place due to current developments in technology and new concepts of operations. The IMO must be able to incorporate these new ideas which promise to improve speed, power, and agility through strong information and knowledge management processes and the creation of networked infostructure.<br />Conclusion<br />