The Rise Of Authoritarian Regimes Russia

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The Rise Of Authoritarian Regimes Russia

  1. 1. THE RISE OF AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES: COMMUNIST RUSSIA
  2. 2. THE TSAR <ul><li>Russia was under the rule of a monarch, Tsar Nicholas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tsar was a weak ruler who controlled the entire country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of his ‘reforms’ to set up a parliament or the ‘Duma’ </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. DISCONTENTED POPULATION <ul><li>The population was unhappy with the Tsar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappy workers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were poor working and living conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were many strikes and protests which were violently dealt with. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappy peasants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were poor because of earlier reforms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture was backward and peasants did not have enough food to pay themselves. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. WORLD WAR ONE <ul><li>Russian failures in World War One: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian armies suffered many defeats and casualties in World War One. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian army lost confidence in the Tsar. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. COMMUNISTS <ul><li>Tsar was opposed by the Communists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communists believed in the ideas of Karl Marx. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marx claimed that history is all about the struggles between the classes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He claimed that the capitalist system was unfair because the factory owners (bourgeois) made profits from the toils of the workers (proletariat). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marx predicted that the proletariat would violently overthrow the bosses and take control of the country on behalf of the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Communists were divided into the Bolsheviks (Lenin) and Mensheviks (Trotsky). </li></ul>
  6. 6. FEBRUARY REVOLUTION <ul><li>Spontaneous uprising against the Tsar by the people and the army refused to shoot demonstrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Tsar abdicated and the Provisional Government under non-communists was set up. </li></ul>
  7. 7. OCTOBER REVOLUTION <ul><li>Provisional government failed to act on the unhappiness of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bolsheviks under Lenin were able to seize on this weakness and launch a revolution in October 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>The Provisional Government was overthrown. </li></ul>
  8. 8. RUSSIA UNDER COMMUNIST RULE, 1917-1924 <ul><li>Bolsheviks managed to establish control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin closed down the parliament. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up the Cheka or Secret Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made concessions to Germany and left World War One. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought and won a civil war against the non-communists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed war communism on Russia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executed the Tsar. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Lenin died in 1924, he had been very successful in imposing a communist in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>The areas formerly belonging to the Tsar came under communist control, they were turned into socialist republics. In 1923 these became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). </li></ul>But, Lenin failed to provide a clear successor on his death. This led to four years of bitter struggle .
  10. 10. TROTSKY VS STALIN
  11. 11. THE WINNER!! Lenin did not favour Stalin – But Stalin was able to consolidate his hold on power and defeat Trotsky.
  12. 12. DRAW YOUR OWN PROPAGANDA POSTERS!
  13. 13. INQUIRY – WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF STALIN’S RULE?
  14. 14. EFFECTS OF STALIN’S RULE <ul><li>Collectivisation had limited success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrible human cost, between 10 to 15 million people died as a result. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1931 and 1932, there was a famine in Russia as not enough food was being produced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1939, Russia was producing the same amount of food as it had in 1928. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, enough food was produced to keep industry going. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectivisation and use of machines allowed millions to work in the industrial cities. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. EFFECTS OF STALIN’S RULE <ul><li>Five-year Plans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Five Year Plans set targets between 1928-1941 to increase production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian industry changed enormously. The USSR became a major industrial country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The human cost was high. Forced labour killed millions, working conditions were poor and hours of work were long. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. EFFECTS OF STALIN’S RULE <ul><li>Purges and Terror: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin conducted a policy of purges between 1934-1938. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millions were arrested, executed or sent to labour camps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin used the NKVD, the secret police, to undertake the ‘Great Terror’. Stalin purged: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% of the army’s top officers, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every admiral in the navy, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 million Communist Party members, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 million ordinary Russians. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. EFFECTS OF STALIN’S RULE <ul><li>Propaganda: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin sought to create a cult of personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda was used to spread information about Stalin and the ‘role’ that he played in their daily lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda used to paint a picture that Stalin’s policies such as the five-year plans and collectivisation were successful. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. STALIN’S RULE <ul><li>Positive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built up industrial power of the USSR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensured cheap supply of food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of social services, e.g. schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human cost – Millions died whilst trying to achieve these aims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purges on the party and military were to have severe consequences during World War Two. </li></ul></ul>

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