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Tapslides Lesson09

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  • 1. Internal Threats Chapter Nine Chapter 9 Slide 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • What are ‘internal threats’?
    • What were some of the internal threats that the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia faced?
    • How were these threats dangers to the people?
    • How did the ancient people deal with the threats?
    Chapter 9 Slide 2
  • 3. What do you think has happened or is happening in the above photographs? How do you think the people feel? Chapter 9 Slide 3
  • 4. What Are Internal Threats? They are possible dangers that come from within a kingdom or empire. Examples are floods, famine, rebellions, civil wars Chapter 9 Slide 4
  • 5. Natural Disasters in India
    • Floods
    • Archaeological evidence shows that Indus cities were rebuilt several times
    • Flooding of Indus River caused the Indus Valley Civilisation to decline
    • Flooding along Ganges River also caused serious damage, e.g. parts of Hastinapur damaged by overflowing of Ganges River c. 800 BCE
    Chapter 9 Slide 5
  • 6. 2. Famines
    • Famines, or a period of severe food shortage, were caused by droughts , a prolonged period with little or no rain
    • Floods wash away plants and crops  famines
    • Kings and temples expected to feed the starving
    Chapter 9 Slide 6
  • 7. Warfare Between Indian Kingdoms
    • It divided Indian society into those who spoke out against war, and those who accepted existence of warfare.
    • Many ancient Indians remained loyal to different kingdoms they came from, idea of a unified India did not exist
    • Ancient India frequently troubled by wars between rival kingdoms
    • This had a two-fold effect:
    Chapter 9 Slide 7
  • 8. Rebellions in India
    • Rebellions against king led by those close to him
    • Kings sent spies to watch over princes in distant provinces
    • Princes had to leave families in capital cities
    • Still, kings were not very effective in curbing rebellions
    Chapter 9 Slide 8
  • 9. Natural Disasters in China
    • 1. Floods
    • Most common and serious cases of flooding were along Yellow and Yangtze rivers
    • From 1000 CE, emperors built and maintained dykes using large numbers of people
    Chapter 9 Slide 9 Chinese peasants building a dyke
  • 10.
    • 2. Famines
    • Occurred when population increased e.g. China’s population doubled during Ming dynasty
    • Measures: emperors stocked granaries with rice, controlled prices, shipped rice to affected areas
    Chapter 9 Slide 10
  • 11. Civil Wars
    • During Eastern Zhou dynasty (771–221 BCE), shi fought among themselves for control of land
    • By 453 BCE, only seven states were left, fought in the Period of the Warring States (453–221 BCE)
    Chapter 9 Slide 11 The seven competing kingdoms during the Period of the Warring States
  • 12.
    • Civil war cause instability, hundreds of deaths
    • Led to the invention of iron weapons
    • Ended when Qin Shihuang, unified China in 221 BCE, abolished feudalism
    Chapter 9 Slide 12 An artist’s impression of soldiers fighting during the Period of the Warring States
  • 13. Rebellion
    • Occurred when peasants (farmers) were unhappy with the emperor, or felt that the emperor was losing his Mandate of Heaven
    • Example was Wang Mang (an usurper), killed by the Red Eyebrows (peasants)
    • Peasant rebellion
    Chapter 9 Slide 13
  • 14.
    • Military rebellion
    • Occurred when an army, led by its leader, seeks to overthrow the ruler
    • An Lushan, a military commander, revolted against the Tang emperor, Xuanzong, in 755 CE
    • Declared himself emperor, but was deposed in 763 CE
    • Took Tang rulers many years to put provinces under its control again
    Chapter 9 Slide 14
  • 15.
    • 1. Volcanic eruptions
    • Were devastating because
    • many villages were built
    • near active volcanoes
    • Mount Merapi erupted in 1006 CE, killed many and covered the Borobodur complex with ash
    Natural Disasters in Southeast Asia Chapter 9 Slide 15 People sweeping volcanic ash after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991
  • 16.
    • Occurred when transfer of authority from one ruler to another is not agreed upon  succession crisis
    • the several sons of a king claimed the right to succeed his throne
    • a man whose mother had nursed a prince challenged the prince’s succession
    Succession Disputes Chapter 9 Slide 16
  • 17.
    • Fall of Melaka to Portuguese in 1511 CE attributed partly to traders who helped Portuguese because they were unhappy with Sultan Mahmud:
    • He tried to force traders to hand over their ships to attack a pirate base
    • He made non-Muslims pay higher taxes
    • He refused to trade with the Portuguese, angering the Chinese and Tamil traders, who saw that it was profitable to trade with Portuguese
    Warfare and Rebellion Chapter 9 Slide 17
  • 18.
    • Traders would only trade with kingdoms that could guarantee their safety from pirates
    • Rulers employed orang lauts to keep watch over important trade routes
    Piracy Chapter 9 Slide 18
  • 19. What are the internal threats faced by Singapore today? How can we respond to such threats? Think!! Chapter 9 Slide 19
  • 20. Learning Outcomes
    • Internal threats are…
    • Some of the internal threats that the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia faced were…
    • These threats were dangers to the people because…
    • The ancient people dealt with these threats by…
    Chapter 9 Slide 20