Tapslides Lesson09
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Tapslides Lesson09






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    Tapslides Lesson09 Tapslides Lesson09 Presentation Transcript

    • Internal Threats Chapter Nine Chapter 9 Slide 1
    • Learning Objectives
      • What are ‘internal threats’?
      • What were some of the internal threats that the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia faced?
      • How were these threats dangers to the people?
      • How did the ancient people deal with the threats?
      Chapter 9 Slide 2
    • What do you think has happened or is happening in the above photographs? How do you think the people feel? Chapter 9 Slide 3
    • What Are Internal Threats? They are possible dangers that come from within a kingdom or empire. Examples are floods, famine, rebellions, civil wars Chapter 9 Slide 4
    • Natural Disasters in India
      • Floods
      • Archaeological evidence shows that Indus cities were rebuilt several times
      • Flooding of Indus River caused the Indus Valley Civilisation to decline
      • Flooding along Ganges River also caused serious damage, e.g. parts of Hastinapur damaged by overflowing of Ganges River c. 800 BCE
      Chapter 9 Slide 5
    • 2. Famines
      • Famines, or a period of severe food shortage, were caused by droughts , a prolonged period with little or no rain
      • Floods wash away plants and crops  famines
      • Kings and temples expected to feed the starving
      Chapter 9 Slide 6
    • Warfare Between Indian Kingdoms
      • It divided Indian society into those who spoke out against war, and those who accepted existence of warfare.
      • Many ancient Indians remained loyal to different kingdoms they came from, idea of a unified India did not exist
      • Ancient India frequently troubled by wars between rival kingdoms
      • This had a two-fold effect:
      Chapter 9 Slide 7
    • Rebellions in India
      • Rebellions against king led by those close to him
      • Kings sent spies to watch over princes in distant provinces
      • Princes had to leave families in capital cities
      • Still, kings were not very effective in curbing rebellions
      Chapter 9 Slide 8
    • Natural Disasters in China
      • 1. Floods
      • Most common and serious cases of flooding were along Yellow and Yangtze rivers
      • From 1000 CE, emperors built and maintained dykes using large numbers of people
      Chapter 9 Slide 9 Chinese peasants building a dyke
      • 2. Famines
      • Occurred when population increased e.g. China’s population doubled during Ming dynasty
      • Measures: emperors stocked granaries with rice, controlled prices, shipped rice to affected areas
      Chapter 9 Slide 10
    • Civil Wars
      • During Eastern Zhou dynasty (771–221 BCE), shi fought among themselves for control of land
      • By 453 BCE, only seven states were left, fought in the Period of the Warring States (453–221 BCE)
      Chapter 9 Slide 11 The seven competing kingdoms during the Period of the Warring States
      • Civil war cause instability, hundreds of deaths
      • Led to the invention of iron weapons
      • Ended when Qin Shihuang, unified China in 221 BCE, abolished feudalism
      Chapter 9 Slide 12 An artist’s impression of soldiers fighting during the Period of the Warring States
    • Rebellion
      • Occurred when peasants (farmers) were unhappy with the emperor, or felt that the emperor was losing his Mandate of Heaven
      • Example was Wang Mang (an usurper), killed by the Red Eyebrows (peasants)
      • Peasant rebellion
      Chapter 9 Slide 13
      • Military rebellion
      • Occurred when an army, led by its leader, seeks to overthrow the ruler
      • An Lushan, a military commander, revolted against the Tang emperor, Xuanzong, in 755 CE
      • Declared himself emperor, but was deposed in 763 CE
      • Took Tang rulers many years to put provinces under its control again
      Chapter 9 Slide 14
      • 1. Volcanic eruptions
      • Were devastating because
      • many villages were built
      • near active volcanoes
      • Mount Merapi erupted in 1006 CE, killed many and covered the Borobodur complex with ash
      Natural Disasters in Southeast Asia Chapter 9 Slide 15 People sweeping volcanic ash after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991
      • Occurred when transfer of authority from one ruler to another is not agreed upon  succession crisis
      • the several sons of a king claimed the right to succeed his throne
      • a man whose mother had nursed a prince challenged the prince’s succession
      Succession Disputes Chapter 9 Slide 16
      • Fall of Melaka to Portuguese in 1511 CE attributed partly to traders who helped Portuguese because they were unhappy with Sultan Mahmud:
      • He tried to force traders to hand over their ships to attack a pirate base
      • He made non-Muslims pay higher taxes
      • He refused to trade with the Portuguese, angering the Chinese and Tamil traders, who saw that it was profitable to trade with Portuguese
      Warfare and Rebellion Chapter 9 Slide 17
      • Traders would only trade with kingdoms that could guarantee their safety from pirates
      • Rulers employed orang lauts to keep watch over important trade routes
      Piracy Chapter 9 Slide 18
    • What are the internal threats faced by Singapore today? How can we respond to such threats? Think!! Chapter 9 Slide 19
    • Learning Outcomes
      • Internal threats are…
      • Some of the internal threats that the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia faced were…
      • These threats were dangers to the people because…
      • The ancient people dealt with these threats by…
      Chapter 9 Slide 20