TFU UNIT – SEC 1 HISTORY
INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana  <ul><li>It is the study of...
INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana  <ul><li>Why study history?...
INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana  <ul><li>Why study history?...
INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana  <ul><li>Why study history?...
TfU Unit: The Family Heirlooms Project “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the ...
SOURCES OF HISTORY “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.:  ~Golda Me...
SOURCES OF HISTORY “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.:  ~Golda Me...
SOURCES OF HISTORY “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Mei...
TIME Reconstructing the past <ul><li>The language of time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BC: Before the birth of Christ </li></ul>...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? ARCHAEOLOGISTS “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit t...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? HISTORIANS “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the p...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? HISTORIANS “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the p...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST?  “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST?  <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonged to a Shi’a Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’a...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST?  <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly belonged to someone well off </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST?  <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worn by the Emperor. (The five clawed dragon was considered...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST?  <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It most likely belonged to someone of status. </li></ul></u...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST?  <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An water puppeteer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul>...
PROJECT TASKING – PART I “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Gol...
PROJECT TASKING PART I “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda...
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because ...
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because ...
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because ...
HISTORY FROM THE TOP DOWN vs HISTORY FROM THE BOTTOM UP Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase...
TOP DOWN HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fi...
BOTTOM UP HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not f...
HISTORY FROM THE TOP DOWN vs HISTORY FROM THE BOTTOM UP Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase...
WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? HISTORIANS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely b...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS $ Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it do...
ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does...
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  1. 1. TFU UNIT – SEC 1 HISTORY
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana <ul><li>It is the study of the past of the world, a country, a community or a person </li></ul><ul><li>Historiography can mean either the process of writing history, or the study of that process. </li></ul>Types of History Reflection Reconstructing the past Introduction to History Oral History
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana <ul><li>Why study history? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The past presents us with an opportunity to draw lessons for consideration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about what human beings do in the past – the bad and the good – provides us with examples through which we might contemplate our future actions </li></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Reconstructing the past Introduction to History Oral History
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana <ul><li>Why study history? </li></ul><ul><li>History provides us with an identity, just as memory does for an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the history of Singapore provides an identity for its people. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is important that we do not become imprisoned by the past. To be guilty of it, we will be losing our humanity. </li></ul>Performance of Understanding: Complete p1 of the Activity Book Types of History Reflection Reconstructing the past Introduction to History Oral History
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION “Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.” - George Santayana <ul><li>Why study history? </li></ul><ul><li>History makes us more aware of ourselves and the context that we live in. </li></ul><ul><li>History allows us the opportunity to change as it studies how a present situation came about and raises the possibility of doing something differently. </li></ul><ul><li>History gives us the tools of dissent. </li></ul>Types of History Reflection Reconstructing the past Introduction to History Oral History
  6. 6. TfU Unit: The Family Heirlooms Project “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.:  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>TfU Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worth 40% of overall marks for History. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 1: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overseas Keepsake catalogue (15%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 2: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral History interview and reflection (10%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Reflection (10%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio Completion (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  7. 7. SOURCES OF HISTORY “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.:  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>What do you understand by the word ‘evidence’? </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence refers to material that can be used to prove or to disprove something. </li></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  8. 8. SOURCES OF HISTORY “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.:  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Trip to the Heritage Centre: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lookout for items that can be used as evidence in writing the history of Victoria School. </li></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  9. 9. SOURCES OF HISTORY “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Concept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Source: Information provided by people involved in the historical event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Source: The records of people who did not witness the events that they describe. These records are the study and investigation of primary sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply the concept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the evidence that you have listed down. Can you classify the evidence as primary/secondary? </li></ul></ul>Performance of Understanding: Complete p.12 of Activity Book. Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  10. 10. TIME Reconstructing the past <ul><li>The language of time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BC: Before the birth of Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AD: Anno Domini [In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More commonly referred to as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before Common Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Era </li></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Performance of Understanding: Workbook p4-5 Introduction to History Oral History
  11. 11. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? ARCHAEOLOGISTS “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Archaeologists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study objects or remains left behind by people of the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to handout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop archaeology exercise: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find an item on your desk. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photography and Sketch it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the item </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the uses of the object </li></ul></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  12. 12. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? HISTORIANS “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>What do historians do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historians study various sources to help them reconstruct or put together an accurate picture of the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is about evidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What historians do is very similar to what an investigator does in the Police. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A historian asks and tries to answer the following questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  13. 13. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? HISTORIANS “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to the handout that you have been given. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the graphic organiser. </li></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  14. 14. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Review of answers & reflection </li></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  15. 15. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonged to a Shi’a Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’a Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calligraphy in the form of a lion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold Ink on paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us that there were skilful calligraphers in the society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us how they decorated their homes and various items as depictions of human beings and animals are avoided. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us about the skills of calligraphers and how Shi’a Muslims used calligraphy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us about how the beliefs of the people were practised. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was made through calligraphy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was used as a decorative item. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us about the beliefs of the people and the skills of the calligraphers in society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 th Century. </li></ul></ul>Reconstructing the past Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  16. 16. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly belonged to someone well off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich person a China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large dish with 2 ladies surrounded by floral motifs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porcelain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us that there were skilful craftsmen in the society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us that such items could have been used as status symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This object was made for export to Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the skills of the Chinese potters of the era. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was made through a process of heating certain minerals used to pain the objects through extreme heat in kiln. Different temperatures are used to bring out different colours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It could have been used a washbasin or for dining. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us about the skills of the craftsmen in Chinese society and the demand for such products in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid 17 th Century. </li></ul></ul>Reconstructing the past Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  17. 17. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worn by the Emperor. (The five clawed dragon was considered to be a symbol of imperial authority). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large robe with cloud patterns and multi-coloured bands representing water and rock like shapes, representing the mountains. These symbols come to represent the belief that the Chinese Emperor is the son of heaven and has the mandate to rule over the universe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us that the emperor was regarded by society to be divine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This object was made for the prestige of the emperor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the power and prestige of the emperor and the skills of the craftsmen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was most likely sewn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was worn by the emperor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us more about Chinese society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 18 th Century. </li></ul></ul>Reconstructing the past Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  18. 18. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It most likely belonged to someone of status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This drum would most likely be used by a ruler/religious authority to conduct religious rites. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A drum with complex motifs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us that the society that it came from was advanced enough to be able to produce bronze artefacts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The object was built for prestige or for religious purposes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the skills and beliefs of the society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was made through a process of casting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was used as a religious symbol/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us more about East Javanese society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 BCE – 300 CE </li></ul></ul>Reconstructing the past Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  19. 19. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An water puppeteer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of water puppets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell us that water puppets are a source of entertainment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The object was built for entertainment purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the skills required by the craftsmen, the forms of entertainment of the society and the beliefs of society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was made from wood and decorated with paints and fabrics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was used as a puppet for entertainment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us more about Vietnamese Society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 </li></ul></ul>Reconstructing the past Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  20. 20. PROJECT TASKING – PART I “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Project Tasking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a significant keepsake or souvenir from an overseas trip belonging to a group member’s family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort and process the keepsake according to the archaeological processes that you have gone through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and research the significance of the keepsake. </li></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  21. 21. PROJECT TASKING PART I “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Project tasking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Component 1: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogue the keepsake by: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring the item </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographing the item </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sketching the item </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the item </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component 2: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>150-200 word write up on the significance of the object to the family. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You would need to address the following: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the item. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the significance of the item to you and the place that you visited; and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does the item show about the country that you visited. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Types of History Reflection Introduction to History Oral History
  22. 22. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Let’s watch two videos! </li></ul><ul><li>Using your worksheets identify the similarities and the differences between the videos. </li></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  23. 23. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Let’s read two sources! </li></ul><ul><li>Using your worksheets identify the similarities and the differences between the videos. </li></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  24. 24. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Read the two excerpts in your worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Using your worksheets identify the similarities and the differences between the two excerpts. </li></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  25. 25. HISTORY FROM THE TOP DOWN vs HISTORY FROM THE BOTTOM UP Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>There are clearly two types of history: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History from the top-down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History from the bottom-up. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both forms of history are important as they both serve distinct purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the one hand, we need to know what was happening at that time at a global and country level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the other, this is not a complete picture of what was happening to the people of the time as a result of various events. Hence there is a need for a view of history from the bottom-up. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most studies of history now have elements of both. </li></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  26. 26. TOP DOWN HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Examples of sources of history from the top down: </li></ul>Certain types of history books Government records from the archives Policy Papers Newspaper Article on a certain event Documentaries Maps Census records Oral History Introduction to History
  27. 27. BOTTOM UP HISTORY Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Examples of sources of history from the bottom up: </li></ul>Oral History Interviews Photographs Artefacts Certain types of history books Blogs Various newspaper articles Personal Letters Diaries Oral History Introduction to History
  28. 28. HISTORY FROM THE TOP DOWN vs HISTORY FROM THE BOTTOM UP Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Let’s watch another video! </li></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  29. 29. WHO RECONSTRUCTS THE PAST? HISTORIANS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>You will learn how to conduct an oral history interview for your TFU project.  </li></ul><ul><li>You will understand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the steps to conduct a proper oral history interview; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the types of questions to ask and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the problems and limitations of an oral history interview. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  30. 30. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>You will learn how to conduct an oral history interview for your TFU project.  </li></ul><ul><li>You will understand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the steps to conduct a proper oral history interview; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the types of questions to ask and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the problems and limitations of an oral history interview. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  31. 31. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Why is there a need for oral history? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting oral history, we have a sense of catching and holding something valuable from the receding tide of the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It adds a touch of realism to history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your stories and the stories of the people around you are unique, valuable treasures for your family and your community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone has a story to tell and so deserved to be heard. If we do not collect and preserve those memories, those stories, then one day they will disappear forever. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  32. 32. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>However, oral history does have certain limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited perspective as it is one person’s view of an event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on a single person’s memory which may be inaccurate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on the bias and cultural norms and values of the interviewer and interviewee. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  33. 33. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>What are the processes of an oral history interview? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate a central question or issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the project. Consider such things as end products, right person to interview, use of technical help etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct background research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate research and interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize and present results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store materials. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  34. 34. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Question formulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare questions that are of concern to the main theme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start off with warm up questions such as personal data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask open-ended questions. E.g. Could you tell me about your childhood? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your questions short and clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask follow-up questions </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  35. 35. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>The mannerisms of an oral history interview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call and arrange for appointment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be polite, introduce yourself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be humble, adopt a learner attitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be assuring by responding with positive body language like nodding and smiling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a quiet place with minimal noise and distractions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the interviewee feel comfortable throughout. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thank the interviewee. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  36. 36. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Difficulties and limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewee may feel that they have nothing of value to share. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewee not comfortable to share. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewee not responding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewers’ lack of preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer too nervous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer’s expectation to hear things they want to hear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language problem. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  37. 37. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Overcoming Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared – Do your research! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of your own prejudices and do a self-check before and after the interview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrain judgment and be open-minded about what people say. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be willing to listen and learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  38. 38. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>TfU Module 2 Project Tasking (10 marks): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct an oral history interview with a family member from which owns the keepsake. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the interview you need to find out: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The reason for the choice of location for the holiday. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The events of the holiday. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The highlights of the holiday. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting events from the holiday. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was learnt during the holiday. </li></ul></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  39. 39. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Reflection component (10 marks): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral History Interview: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was the interview effective? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What were my preconceptions, stereotypes and biases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did I manage to overcome my biases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did I learn from the interview? </li></ul></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  40. 40. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>Reflection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess how much you have learnt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop a better understanding of what you have learnt from your experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To find out your areas for improvement and how you intend to address them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To find out more about yourself. </li></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  41. 41. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS $ Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><li>TfU Combined Module 1 and 2 Reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>To reflect on what you have learnt from the project: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How has this unit allowed me to understand the different sources of history? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How has this unit allowed me to understand the significance of history from the bottom up? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it important to have a different perspective of history? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has this project allowed me to develop a better understanding of a culture of another country? </li></ul></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
  42. 42. ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS Types of History Reflection “ One cannot and must not try to erase the past merely because it does not fit the present.  ~Golda Meir Reconstructing the past <ul><ul><li>Portfolio Completion (10 marks): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All portions of the project must be submitted in one portfolio. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All worksheets must be completed to an acceptable standard. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late submissions without valid reason will be penalised. </li></ul></ul></ul>Oral History Introduction to History
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