What were some of the religions and philosophies of the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia?
How did these beliefs affect how the ancient people lived and organised themselves?
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Is what is happening in the photograph a familiar scene to you? What do you think is happening? Chapter 6 Slide 3
A religion is the belief in and worship of a god or gods. Chapter 6 Slide 4 What Is a Religion?
A philosophy is a way of thinking about life that guides a person’s actions and behaviour. Chapter 6 Slide 5 What Is a Philosophy?
Religion in India Hinduism and Buddhism Birth of Gautama Siddharta 566 BCE Chapter 6 Slide 6 BC E 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 CE Beginnings of Hinduism Decline of Buddhism 6th century CE
Influenced several Hindus, especially those from the lower castes to convert
Powerful kings converted too, helped to spread Buddhism throughout India and rest of Asia
Example is Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty (269–232 BCE)
Chapter 6 Slide 15 A painting of the Buddha’s first sermon at the Deer Park, found in Wat Chedi Liem
one of India’s greatest kings (269–232 BCE) Ashoka Mauryan king won a major battle at Kalinga - a turning point adopted Buddhism governed by ‘right conduct’, not violence carved edicts on rocks and pillars responsible for spreading Buddhism in India and to Ceylon, Burma and China Chapter 6 Slide 16
Philosophies in China Confucianism, Legalism and Taoism Chapter 6 Slide 17 Confucianism as state ideology BCE 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 CE Confucius 551 – 479 BCE Zhuang Zi: Taoist thinker 4th century BCE Legalism as state ideology during Qin dynasty
While Buddhism was popular between 3rd and 8th centuries CE, it did not receive royal support
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Religion in Southeast Asia Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam Chapter 6 Slide 23 Arrival of Buddhism 300 CE Arrival of Hinduism 1st century CE BCE 800 600 400 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 CE Arrival of Islam 11th century CE
Many countries in the region today have large Muslim populations
Indonesia has the world’s largest Muslim population ~ 200 million
Rulers of island Southeast Asia converted to Islam but combined the teachings of Islam with those of their older beliefs — syncretism
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REVIEW Which teachings do the following quotations come from? Chapter 6 Slide 31
“ The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home.” Chapter 6 Slide 32
“ Better than a thousand hollow words, Is one word that brings peace. ” Chapter 6 Slide 33
“ O God Beautiful, O God beautiful !! In the forest Thou art Green In the mountains Thou art High In the river Thou art Restless In the ocean Thou art Grave ” Chapter 6 Slide 34
“ Prayer carries us half way to God, fasting brings us to the door of His palace, and alms-giving procures us admission.” Chapter 6 Slide 35
If I have no physical body, if I have obtained the Way and become naturally so, I shall lightly lift myself and raise into the clouds. Coming and going between empty space, I become one in spirit with the Way. What trouble could I have? Chapter 6 Slide 36
But the wisdom of the people is useless: They have the minds of little infants! If an infant's head is not shaved, its sores will spread, and if its boil is not opened, it will become sicker. Yet while its head is being shaved and its boil opened, one person has to hold it tight so that Chapter 6 Slide 37
the caring mother can perform the operation, and it screams and wails without end. Infants and children don't understand that the small pain they have to suffer now will bring great benefit later. Chapter 6 Slide 38