What were the systems of government in ancient India, China and Southeast Asia?
What were the strengths and/or weaknesses of each system?
Chapter 4 Slide 2
Chapter 4 Slide 3 The photograph above was taken in front of the Singapore Istana on 12 August 2004. Why do you think this was a special day in Singapore’s history?
What Is ‘Government’?
Has two meanings:
Group of people responsible for ruling a country
System of ruling
Many different systems of ruling
Monarchy is the system of government headed by a king or a queen (monarch).
What, in your opinion, are the qualities of good government?
Chapter 4 Slide 4
Government in India Chapter 4 Slide 5 Concentric circles model of government Border Zones: The king’s power overlapped with those of other kings. People had a choice of which king they wanted to be loyal to. Border Zones Outer Provinces : King’s power was weaker here. The governors had to share power with local kings, who still acknowledged that the king in the capital city was more powerful. Outer Provinces Inner Provinces: These areas were closest to the capital. In each province, a governor who reported directly to the king was in charge. Inner Provinces Capital City: King’s palace was located here. He was surrounded by nobles and ministers, or mantri . Capital city
In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded
the Indus region.The chaos and disorder
that resulted allowed Chandragupta
Maurya to overthrow the Magadha
dynasty, the most powerful kingdom then.
The Mauryan Period (c. 322–185 BCE) Chapter 4 Slide 6
When Alexander left, Chandragupta
Maurya was able to expand his power
from Magadha into the Indus region
and form the Mauryan empire and dynasty (c. 322–185 BCE).
Chapter 4 Slide 7
Chandragupta Maurya’s System of Government
Highly organised with Pataliputra as
the capital city, but empire was
divided into provinces, each ruled by
Each city ruled by committees that
took charge of certain main areas,
e.g. public works or trade
All committees, however, ultimately
reported to Chandragupta Maurya
Chapter 4 Slide 8
You Be the Judge!! Chapter 4 Slide 9 Maintained irrigation systems to ensure steady supply of water to fields Thieves and tax evaders had their ears or noses cut off Listened to people’s requests even while having his daily massage Set up a War Office and kept a large army to expand and control his empire Built roads for easy travel, e.g. the Great Royal Highway to connect Pataliputra to northwest of empire Set up centralised government, everyone had to report to him United most of the northern part of India Grade REPORT CARD NAME: Chandragupta Maurya
Government in China
Practised by Shang (1523–1027 BCE)
and Zhou (1027–771 BCE) rulers
A system in which some people were
given lands and limited ruling powers
by a ruler in return for their loyalty and support
Chapter 4 Slide 10
Chapter 4 Slide 11 allowed shi to rule his lands allowed farmers to farm and protected them built roads, provided food and other services gave tribute farmer shi king
You Be the Judge!!
How effective was feudalism?
2. What were the conditions necessary for it to work well?
Chapter 4 Slide 12
Unitary System of Government
Period of the Warring States saw
fighting between the different shi and
In 221 BCE, Qin Shihuang defeated the shi to unify China for the first
He abolished feudalism and set up a
centralised government — unitary
system of government
Chapter 4 Slide 13
Qin Shihuang’s System of Government Chapter 4 Slide 14 Each managed by an inspector, a military governor and a civilian governor. All reported directly to the emperor. Provinces Capital city Emperor
You Be the Judge!! Chapter 4 Slide 15 Captured and buried alive scholars who opposed his rule Banned books that did not support his rule, mostly Confucian texts Forced people to work on the Great Wall of China, thousands died Enforced strict laws, criminals and their families were executed Introduced standardised script, currency, weight and measure Set up centralised government, abolished feudalism United most of the northern part of China Grade NAME: Qin Shihuang
Mandate of Heaven
Belief that heaven was kind and wanted
people to be governed wisely and justly
Emperor - Son Of Heaven
Chapter 4 Slide 16 The temple of Heaven was built during the Ming dynasty for the Emperor to offer sacrifice to Heaven.
Strong emperor peace and good
Chapter 4 Slide 17
Natural disasters lead to
poor harvests weak emperor
Natural disasters — signs from
heaven that the people had right to
Dynastic Cycle end of dynasty new dynasty Peak Peak Weak ruler Strong ruler Chapter 4 Slide 18 Power / stability / peace Time / successive emperors rise decline rise new dynasty Strong ruler decline end of dynasty Weak ruler
The Chinese Civil Service
‘ Civil service’ refers to the government
departments and the people who work in them
Chapter 4 Slide 19
Before Han Wudi (140–87 BCE)
became emperor, the civil service
was made up of members of rich
and powerful families
Chapter 4 Slide 20
Han Wudi introduced the Civil Service Examination system to attract the best talents (‘brains’)
124 BCE — Imperial University was set up to teach subjects for Civil Service Examinations, such as law and history
Han Wudi and his royal aides
Government in Southeast Asia
There was never
a single emperor
who ruled the
ruled over different sizes of kingdoms
Chapter 4 Slide 21 A map of Southeast Asia
Kings in mainland
Southeast Asia saw
themselves as divine
rulers and the middlemen
between the gods and the
Chapter 4 Slide 22
In Khmer kingdom,the palaces
represented the home
of the gods and they became
temples after the king’s death.
A sculpture of the Khmer king, Jayavarman VII
Borrowing foreign practices that are
useful and rejecting those that are
not useful to suit one’s environment.
Chapter 4 Slide 23
For example, kings in island Southeast
Asia, used Indian emblems of kingship
to represent their authority, e.g. the
sacred royal umbrella. However, the
kings did not see themselves as gods
after converting to Islam.
Founded Melaka in 1403
Encouraged trade and made Melaka a
safe place for trader
Cultivated friendship with China
Converted to Islam, which attracted
Muslim traders from Arabia and India
Chapter 4 Slide 24
The Melaka Sultanate Chapter 4 Slide 25 The model of the system of government in the Melaka Sultanate Vassal states These areas were independent but paid tribute to the sultan. They were ruled by the sultan’s relatives. Provinces These were ruled by governors appointed by the sultan. The provinces provided Melaka Sultanate with manpower, fish, rice and vegetables. Capital Ruled directly by the sultan, who was assisted by four ministers: chief minister, finance minister, chief of police and commander of the navy and army.
Government is …
Ancient India was ruled by …
Ancient China was ruled by…
Ancient Southeast Asia was ruled by…
3. The strengths and/or weaknesses of each system are…