Effects of Nazi Rule on Germany
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  • 1. WHAT WAS LIFE LKE UNDER THE NAZI REGIME?
  • 2. ECONOMIC POLICIES
    • Economic Policies:
      • Nazis introduced a four-year plan:
        • To move Germany towards ‘autarky’ or economic independence.
          • Stopped imports and provided subsidies for industry.
        • More importantly, it was a way to prepare Germany for war.
        • Factories were set up to produce arms and ammunition.
        • Production rose for explosives, coal and steel
  • 3. ECONOMIC POLICIES
    • Agricultural reforms:
      • Set up the ‘Reich Food Estate’ – To regulate production, distribution, prices of crops and animals.
        • Strict control of farmers – One law stated that hens must lay 65 eggs a year!
      • Meant that the government could control food production.
      • Food prices were maintained at 1928 levels.
      • 1933 Farm Law – Farmers assured of sales and subsidies.
  • 4. ECONOMIC POLICIES
    • Employment:
      • In June 1933, the Nazis passed a Law to Reduce Unemployment.
      • The RAD (National Labour Service) sent men on public works; eg the autobahns.
      • Government spending rose, 1932–38 from about 5 billion to 30 billion marks.
      • Unemployment fell from nearly 6 million to virtually nothing.
      • Suppressed trade unions and set up the German labour front or the DAF.
      • Hitler built up the armed forces (e.g. conscription took 1 million unemployed).
      • The soldiers needed equipment, so this set steel mills, coal mines and factories back into production. The Luftwaffe gave jobs to fitters, engineers and designers.
      • The Nazi state machinery needed thousands of clerks, prison guards etc.
  • 5. SOCIAL POLICIES
    • Women:
      • Nazis saw the role of women as good mothers who were responsible for bringing up their children at home, while husbands worked.
      • The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newly-wed couples a loan of 1000 marks, and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had.
      • Mothers who had more than 8 children were given a gold medal.
      • But not all women were happy with the Nazi regime:
      • Job-discrimination against women was encouraged. Women doctors, teachers and civil servants were forced to give up their careers.
      • Women were never allowed to serve in the armed forces - even during the war.
  • 6. CHILDREN AND YOUTHS
    • Nazis saw the need to cultivate hardworking, obedient and healthy Aryan citizens for the future:
      • Exerted control over children’s lives – e.g. toys, exposure to propaganda.
      • Exerted control over schools and curriculum.
      • Creation of Hitler Youth:
        • Further exposed children to the ‘cult’ of Adolf Hitler.
        • Provided activities for boys.
        • Treated boys and girls as special.
        • Created fear amongst parents that their children would report them to the Gestapo.
        • Many of these youths would eventually end up in the German Army during the Second World War.
  • 7. PROPAGANDA
    • Germans were subjected to constant stream of propaganda under the control of Josef Gobbels.
    • Glorified Hitler and the Nazis and also used to indoctrinate people and justify Nazi policies.
    • Use of all forms of media such as the radio, movies, posters and even stamps to put their message across.
    • Censorship of other sources of news.
  • 8. One People, One Nation, One Fuhrer. 1938 Source: www.bbc.co.uk Anti-Jewish Poster Source: www.bbc.co.uk Anti-Communist Poster Source: www.bbc.co.uk
  • 9. STATE TERROR
    • Nazis had full control over the state apparatus:
      • SS as the main security force – suppression of the SA.
      • Gestapo – The secret police
      • Concentration camps
      • Network of informants – Block Warden System.
    • By 1935, most of the Nazis’ opponents were imprisoned or killed.
  • 10. ANTI-SEMITISM
    • Jewish people were persecuted in an increasingly organised manner:
      • Anti-Jewish laws.
      • Discrimination against Jewish people
    • ‘ Crystal Night’ or Kristallnacht – Organised Nazi attack against Jews.
  • 11. EFFECTS ON THE GERMAN PEOPLE
    • Nazi party members:
      • Benefited the most from the rule.
    • Ordinary German people:
      • Benefits:
        • Full employment;
        • Strength through joy programme: Free holidays, sports facilities, subsidised cars.
        • Law and order.
        • Improved transportation network
        • Nazi propaganda gave hope
        • Trust in Hitler
        • Nazi racial philosophy gave Germans a sense of self-belief.
      • Problems:
        • Loss of freedom
        • Low wages
  • 12. EFFECTS ON THE GERMAN PEOPLE
    • Nazi party members:
      • Benefited the most from the rule.
    • Ordinary German people:
      • Benefits:
        • Full employment;
        • Strength through joy programme: Free holidays, sports facilities, subsidised cars.
        • Law and order.
        • Improved transportation network
        • Nazi propaganda gave hope
        • Trust in Hitler
        • Nazi racial philosophy gave Germans a sense of self-belief.
      • Problems:
        • Loss of freedom
        • Low wages
  • 13. EFFECTS ON THE GERMAN PEOPLE
    • Women:
      • Not all women liked the Nazi emphasis which consigned them to “Church, Children, Cooker’
      • Many professionals who were female, e.g. lawyers and doctors were forced to give up their jobs.
    • Youth:
      • Nazi’s approach did not appeal to all youths, eventually led to the formation of youth gangs who rejected Nazi culture and the Hitler Youth.
      • Some “Aryan” girls were sent to special camps to breed with “Aryan” boys.
  • 14. EFFECTS ON THE GERMAN PEOPLE
    • Opponents:
      • Hitler banned all Trade Unions on 2 May 1933.
      • Communists were arrested or killed.
      • Religious leaders, e.g. Protestant pastors were persecuted and killed.
      • Many of those who showed unhappiness or opposed Hitler were reported to the Gestapo and arrested.
  • 15. EFFECTS ON THE GERMAN PEOPLE.
    • The Untermensch or the ‘Sub Human’
      • Jews persecuted, sent to the concentration camps.
      • Gypsies also treated as badly as the Jews. 85% of German gypsies were killed.
      • Black people were sterilised and killed.
      • Mentally disabled were also killed.
      • Physically disabled were sterilised.
      • Anti-social elements, e.g. criminals, prostitutes, alcoholics, pacifists were all put into concentration camps.
  • 16. EFFECTS OF NAZI RULE
    • Many people did benefit from Nazi rule and preferred the stability offered by Nazi rule compared to the instability of the Weimar Republic.
    • However, Nazi rule involved much persecution and rule through state terror and the loss of personal freedom.
    • Nazi rule also subjected the German people to indoctrination through propaganda and the various Nazi organisations such as the Hitler Youth.
    • Minorities were subject to persecution by the Nazis.
    • Nazi rule set Germany on a collision course with the rest of the world in World War 2.